RF-man

Amateur Radio Callsigns

The ITU (a UN agency) coordinates the allocation of specific letters (prefixes) to uniquely identify radio callsigns to particular countries. This applies to all radio use, the Amateur Service, Fixed and Mobile, Aeronautical, Maritime etc.

The Amateur Radio callsign format, as specified in Article 19 (19.68) is one or two characters, a single digit, followed by a group of not more than four letters (was three letters maximum until WRC 2003).

"one character (provided that it is the letter B, F, G, I, K, M, N, R or W) and a single digit (other than 0 or 1), followed by a group of not more than four characters, the last of which shall be a letter, or
two characters and a single digit (other than 0 or 1), followed by a group of not more than four characters, the last of which shall be a letter"

See http://life.itu.int/radioclub/rr/arts19.htm for official details.

ITU APPENDIX S42 is a table of 'Allocation of International Call Sign Series' (http://life.itu.int/radioclub/rr/aps42.htm) and you can see that British callsigns begin with G,M or 2. Some of the V and Z series are still allocated to Great Britain, these are used for overseas British Commonwealth countries (Canada, Australia, New Zealand etc.) and may have been retained by nations that have left the commonwealth - such as India (VT to VW) and Hong Hong (VR).


British Calls

British Amateur Callsigns are in the format :

      G, M, or 2 (G before March 1996, M afterwards. 2 for Intermediate class)
      ( + Secondary Locator ) - regional (or none for G & M stations in England)
      + Digit (may denote a Morse test pass * , and an approximate 'era' of issue **)
      + three letters (or less)

for example G2AA, M1AAA, 2E1AAA, GW7AAA - the secondary locator denoting the country within the United Kingdom (or other British region), with none required by English stations (except Novices because callsigns cannot start with two digits).
* M0 may know Morse, or may have been licenced after Morse testing finished. Old 'class A' calls may now be reissued to 'codeless' new licencees.
** Now that old calls are being increasingly reissued, the 'era of issue' is no longer always the case.

British Licence Classes

Full / Advanced - all bands, max power. Callsigns start with G and M (except M3)
Intermediate - less power. Callsigns start with 2
Foundation - less bands, 10W max. Callsigns start with M3 (or MM3, MW3 etc)

Background : there were no classes as such until 1964 when the UHF Class B was introduced, and all other licence holders then became Class A. Both Classes required an RAE (exam) pass, the only difference in qualifications was the 12wpm Morse test. Class B 'codeless' licensees were restricted initially to 70cms and up, but by 1987 Class Bs were allowed all bands above 30MHz, being kept off HF by the international regulation S25. By 2000 the G2, G3, G4, G0, M0 callsigns were in use for Class A, and G8, G6, G1, G7, M1 were in use for Class B. The A/B Class was introduced in 1999 when it was realised that 5wpm Morse was good enough to allow a licensee onto HF, although the M5 callsign signified that the licensee wasn't quite up to the CEPT standard of 12wpm and thus wasn't a proper CEPT Class 1. When CEPT dropped the neccessary speed to 5wpm in 2001, this Class became Class A by default. When S25 was ammended in 2003 to not require Morse for HF, Classes A and B merged together into the new Full class, later renamed the Advanced class.

In 1991 the Novice Classes A and B were introduced. Novices had to attend a course and then take the NRAE (Novice RAE). A Morse test separated Novice Classes A (2E0 calls) and B (2E1). The Novice Class was renamed the Intermediate Class in October 2001, and is the middle tier between the Foundation and Full classes.

The beginner's Foundation Class was also announced in October 2001, hitting the airwaves on 1st January 2002, with no A or B sub-classes. A Morse 'appreciation' test just about complied with the S25 of the time, to allow access to HF (without 10 metres). Holders of these M3 callsigns will now be complete newcomers, though for a year or two it was possible for Full/Int. Class B (codeless) operators to take the Morse 'test' and thus get onto HF with the addtional M3 licence.

From 2004 new licensees will have to take the Foundation course (with Morse 'appreciation'!), then the Intermediate course, and then finally the Full course - probably 'wasting' 2 callsigns along the way.

First character

G  Full licence, before   Apr 1996 - (G8/6/1/7 +3 = no Morse), (G3/4/0 +3 = Morse at 12wpm)
M  Full licence, after    Apr 1996 - (M1 no Morse), (M0 12wpm, 5 wpm or none!),  (M5 Morse at 5wpm)
   Foundation,   started  Jan 2002 - (M3, course)
2  Intermediate, started      1991 - (2E1, course), (2E0, course + Morse test at 12 or 5 wpm)

     (Original Marconi callsigns started with M, before the international prefix allocations)


      Examples of other types of British callsigns
        Ships           Gaaa, Maaa, Maaan, 2aaa, 2aaan etc (some V and Z)  e.g. MZXS2
        Coast Stations  Gaa
        Time Station    MSF (Rugby)
        RSGB beacon     GAM1
        CB              2anaa   e.g. 2T1ME
        Aircraft        G-aaaa  e.g. G-ABCD  (Private aircraft registrations used as callsigns)
        Police/Fire     M2aa    (according to various books and sites!)
        Sea Cadets      MFann,  ATC MRann    (web search for PROJECT MILLECOM - use Google's cache!)
Secondary Locator
(none) England
A
  B    Special Events, Beacons, British Repeaters, Data nodes/BBS, Broadcasts (all regions)
  C    Wales clubs (Cymru)  (was Channel Islands, pre-1976)
  D    Isle of Man (Douglas)
  E    England (for 2E series)   (GE used in 1977 to celebrate Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee)
F
G
  H    Jersey clubs (St. Helier)
  I    Northern Ireland
  J    Jersey
K
L
  M    Scotland (Mac! The maritime code flag M is a white X on blue, St. Andrew's Cross)
  N    Northern Ireland clubs
O
  P    Guernsey clubs (St. Peter Port)
  Q    used in June 2002 to celebrate Queen's Golden Jubilee (GQ,MQ,2Q)
R
  S    Scotland clubs
  T    Isle of Man clubs (Tynwald / TT races!)
  U    Guernsey
V
  W    Wales
  X    England clubs (always an exception!)
Y
  Z    Shetland Islands (Zetland) Contest callsigns (e.g. GZ7V) - from Oct 2000

       GB3aa   Voice/TV Repeater   
       GB3aaa  Beacon
       GB7aa   AX25 node (Packet)
       GB7aaa  AX25 BBS  (Packet)

       Special Events may (rarely) use more than one digit - i.e. GB100GM, or even M2000A

       The correct regional locator must be used when away from the Main Station Address. G0AAA must
       sign GW0AAA/M when mobile in Wales, or will be changed to GM0AAA if he moves to Scotland.

       Secondary Club locators T,N,H,S,P,C,X are optional. Prior to 1st Dec 2006 they were ONLY to be used for
       greetings messages by the non-licensed.
       "If the Station is a club station AND OPERATING IN ACCORDANCE WITH SUB 1(8)" (BR68) (my CAPS)
       1(8) : ".. greetings messages may be sent by non-licensed persons"
       There is widespread misuse of these letters by club stations trying to have a stand-out call.
       If you don't believe me, check out BR68 yourself!
       As usual, what seems straightforward has been complicated by cases of the RA insisting
       that club stations use these identifiers, regardless of any greetings.
       It's a grey area as to whether the station is "OPERATING IN ACCORDANCE WITH SUB 1(8)" only
       each time a message is sent, or whether it applies throughout the whole duration of a club
       event where such greetings MAY end up being sent!

       A visiting CEPT amateur shall use M/homecall, with regional locators e.g. MW/F1AAA in Wales

       Foreign amateurs gaining a British licence through a reciprocal agreement are issued with :
       M0/homecall  Class A (HF)
       M1/homecall  Class B (Non HF)
Digit
   'Class A' denotes a Morse pass, access to HF before 2003
   'Class B' denotes no Morse, only 50MHz and upwards before 2003

    Two letter G calls are all pre-WWII Class A (G2,G3,G4,G5,G6,G8)

              Full +3                                   Intermediate 
0   Class A   G0 (1985-1996), M0 (1996 onwards)         2E0+3 (1991 onwards)
 1  Class  B  G1 (1983-1987), M1 (1996-2003)            2E1+3 (1991-2003)
2   Class A   G2 (pre-WWII)   (M2 used by other services)
3   Class A   G3 (1946-1970), G3+2 (pre-WWII)                  Foundation M3 (2002 onwards)
4   Class A   G4 (1970-1984), G2+2 (pre-WWII)                  Foundation M4 (when M3 all used)
5   Class A/B M5 (1999-2001 5wpm), G5+2 (pre-WWII)
 6  Class  B  G6 (1981-1982), G6+2 (pre-WWII Class A)
 7  Class  B  G7 (1988-1996)
 8  Class  B  G8 (1964-1981), G8+2 (pre-WWII Class A)
  9               (G9 Commercial Experimental - non Amateur)

   NOTE : G5+3 was used for foreign nationals who passed the RAE or who had a suitable qualification
          in their home country that had a reciprocal agreement with the UK. (1966 to 1980/1?)
          G5AAA-G5DZZ  Class A (Morse)
          G5NAA-G5ZZZ  Class B (no Morse)

          "G7 used to be for RF heating, plastics welding equipment etc., things that were not
          intended to radiate but most likely did!"
3 Letters
These cannot start with Q (confused with Q-codes)

2 letter callsigns are class A, pre-WWII. Post-war calls contain 3 letters.

1 letter calls have been issued for major contest stations, since June 1996 - G6a, M6a, M7a, M0a, M2a, M8a etc
Suffixes (now optional from 1st Dec 2006)
/A  Alternative Address
       Reintroduced 1st Dec 2006. An old suffice that had been scrapped back in the 1970s (1978?) with /P
       being used instead, until the 2006 comeback.
/M  Mobile
       "In any vehicle" (moving or not!) ".. as a pedestrian or on any Vessel in Inland Waters"
       Inland Waters being unaffected by tides - lake/loch, canal, inland section of a river.
       The advantage before 1st Dec 2006 was that no log keeping was required.
/MM Maritime Mobile         (first issued in 1966)
       "on any Vessel At Sea"
       Vesel being a "floating stucture which is capable of being manned" including hovecraft.
       At Sea being international waters, territorial sea, or Tidal Waters (sea/river affected by tides).
       Permission required by the Vessel's Master.
/P  Portable
       the station has been ported to another FIXED location (including a mobile station
       using a fixed antenna - the station cannot be simply driven away).
         Prior to 1st Dec 2006 : the location to within 5km/1km accuracy had to be given every 30 mins, and
         /P is not required if written notification has been given to the Operations Manager of the
         local office (to the relevant location) of the RA (although there have been cases of the RA
         still insisting on /P even when informed). 
         I almost NEVER hear a location being given by a /P station!
         The location can be given as a full postcode, lat/long, IARU locator or O/S NGR.
         Requires log keeping.

   bygone suffixes
   /2K during January 2000 to celebrate the Millennium
   /MA Maritime at Anchor (from 1966? until?) GB5QM/MA issued in 1967
   /P  Portable - using a handheld radio (until 1978?)  now /M
   /T  Television  (G6aaa/T calls, 1964-?)

   bygone prefixes
   M2000Y/(non-amateur call)   Used by military cadet/training stations in 2000 and 2001 - Project Millecom


History


1890s          First experimentation, unlicensed

1904           August 15th - The Wireless Telegraphy Act 1904 starts Experimental Licensing

               Permits specify power and wavelength, three letter callsigns contain a X for Experimental

1912           London International Radiotelegraphic Convention - international call prefixes agreed and
               allocated, although this doesn't internationally apply to Amateur Radio until 1928

1913           London Wireless Club (RSGB) formed. New licensing introduced, callsigns introduced

1914           Amateur radio suspended during the war, and for some time after
 WWI
1918

1920           April - New post-war licensing resumes. 12wpm required, and a good reason
               to have a licence. "Artificial Aerial" 2aaa licences (tested for Morse after WWII).
               It seems that callsign letters may have been chosen in many cases.

1923           Wireless Society of London changes name to RSGB

1920-39 G2aaa  pre-war "Artificial Aerial" 2aaa calls - mostly 2Aaa to 2Daa, 2Faa, 2Haa
1920-39 G2aa
1921-39 G5aa
1921-39 G6aa

1928           harmonically related bands granted, covering 1.72-2, 7-7.3, 14-14.4, 28-30, 56-60 MHz

1932           Madrid Conference, the Union decided to combine the International Telegraph Convention of 1865
               and the International Radiotelegraph Convention of 1906 to form the International
               Telecommunication Convention. Name changed to I.T. Union, effective 1 January 1934.

1936-37 G8aa
1937-38 G3aa
1938-39 G4aa

               "There are no +2 calls beginning G0 or G1.. there were a very few G7 or G9 +2 calls
                issued to certain amateurs towards the end of WWII."


1939            Thursday 31st August - "licences for ... experimental purposes are hereby withdrawn"
 WWII
1946            June - licensing resumes with fewer restrictions. 12wpm Morse still required. CW and AM in use.
                RAE (written exam) introduced, run by City and Guilds of London Institute (C&G).

                Calls issued in sequence. It became possible to wait for your choice to be issued
                (it has never been possible to change callsign within the same class)

1946    G3Aaa   
1947    G3Caa   1947 - World Conference, Atlantic City, allocates bands, inc 2m, 70cm, 23cm, microwaves.
                       Morse proficiency only required when operation is on frequencies below 1000 MHz (1 GHz.) 
1948    G3Eaa   1948 - 145-146MHz, 420-450MHz, 2.35GHz bands released. SSB being developed
1949-50 G3Gaa   1949 - SSB allowed. 144-148, 23cm, 5.65GHz, 10GHz bands available. 150W allowed over 28MHz (not 70cm)
1950-1  G3Haa   1950 - ATV allowed on 70cms as /T operation. Additional licence fee allows alternate address
1951-2  G3Iaa   1951 - ATV allowed on 1225-1290MHz. FM permitted on 144.5-145.5MHz
1952-4  G3Jaa   1952 - restrictions lifted on operation away from the home address. Max 70cm power up to 150W
1954-6  G3Kaa   1954 - The Post Office introduces new Mobile and Amateur Television licences
1956-7  G3Laa   1956 - 4m introduced (Nov.), 70.2-70.4MHz. 'self-training' and disaster relief use now included
1957-8  G3Maa
1958-60 G3Naa   1959 - WRC lowers Morse requirement to operation on frequencies below 144 MHz
1960-1  G3Oaa
1961-2  G3Paa
1962-3  G3Raa   (a Qaa series is never issued)
1963-4  G3Saa

1964           Class B introduced, 70cms and up.  4m becomes 70.1-70.7MHz

               "I found a note in a 1960s SWM, mentioning the G6 television calls but also having a
               slightly snide addendum that "these seem mostly to be used for voice operation on 70cms
               without having to take the CW test" - perhaps that explains how Class B came about!

1964-5  G3Taa  G8Aaa (and G6Aaa/T ATV)
1965-6  G3Uaa   "         1965 - 70 cms band reduced, 420-427MHz withdrawn
1966-7  G3Vaa   "         1966 - Reciprocal licences (G5+3 letters) first issued. First /MM
1967    G3Waa  G8Baa
1967-8  G3Xaa   "
1968-9  G3Yaa  G8Caa      Class B extended to include 144MHz band
1969-70 G3Zaa  G8Daa
1970-71  "     G8Eaa  
1971-2  G4Aaa  G8Faa
1972-3  G4Baa   "         GB3PI the first UK repeater (14 Sept 1972)
1973     "     G8Haa
1974-5  G4Daa  G8Jaa
1975     "     G8Kaa
1975-6  G4Eaa   "
1976-7   "     G8Maa
1977    G4Gaa  G8Oaa      January 1st - licences reissued incorporating mobile, pedestrian, TV
1978     "     G8Paa
1979    G4Iaa  G8Taa      World Admin. Radio Conference allocates 10.1-10.15, 18.068-18.168, 24.89-24.99 MHz
                          Morse requirement lowered to operation on frequencies below 30 MHz
                          May 1979 - RAE becomes multiple choice
1981    G4Maa  G8Zaa      (CB: UK CB legalised 1st November - 27 & 934MHz FM)
               G6Aaa
1982    G4Raa  G6Raa      Some permits issued for 6m
               G6Zaa
1983    G4Saa  G1Aaa
1984    G4Waa  G1Daa
        G4Zaa
1985    G0Aaa  G1Laa      June - Minister of State for Industry and Technology states 50-50.5MHz will be alloc.
1986    G0Eaa  G1Saa      Feb 1st  - Class A gets 50-50.5MHz. 18 June - Morse passes now valid for life.
                          Morse tests change to "on-air QSO-type" format( May?), now run by RSGB
1987    G0Haa  G1Xaa      June 1st - Class B gets 50 and 70MHz. 6m extended to 52MHz, 4m 70.0-70.5MHz
               G1Zaa
1988    G0Jaa  G7Aaa      (CB: CEPT channels now legal in UK)  
1989    G0Laa  G7Eaa
1990    G0Maa  G7Faa

1991                      Novice classes A and B introduced (what date?) - NRAE (exam) required
                          Limited bands and power (3W?). ?wpm for class A

1991    G0Naa  G7Haa  2E0Aaa  2E1Aaa
1992    G0Saa  G7Maa   "      2E1Baa           SSL issues licences since 1 apr 92
1993    G0Taa  G7Oaa   "      2E1Caa
1994    G0Vaa  G7Saa   "      2E1Daa           6m power/aerial restrictions lifted
1995           G7Uaa   "      2E1Eaa
1996    G0XCa  G7WMa   " ANa   " EVa  (by end of March)

               "SSL has informed the Society that as of last Wednesday morning, the latest callsigns allocated
               were in the G0 X-Ray Alfa and G7 Whisky Lima series" - 24th March GB2RS 
               Either G0 or G7 (or maybe both!) didn't reach the ZZZ end of the series.. must consult a call book!

1996           Sat 30th March - M series takes over from G series

1996    M0Aaa  M1Aaa   "      2E1Faa
1997-8  M0Baa  M1Caa   "      2E1Gaa     (CB: 2 band UK+CEPT radios now permitted)
1998-99 M0Caa  M1Daa   "       "         May 98 - the RAE changes to one paper of 80 multiple choice questions

1999           June 21st - Novice power up to 10W, 2m now included, SSB on 80m, HF to include QRP CW call frequencies.
1999           Aug 2nd  - New class A/B (M5aaa) - HF access with 5wpm test instead of 12wpm (announced 15 July)

               (PMR446: the 8 channel European service introduced in the UK on 19th April)

1999     "     M1Eaa   "      2E1Haa  M5Aaa
2000    M0Daa  M1Faa   "      2E1Iaa  M5Baa


2000           April 1st - callsigns can now be selected from any available within the current class number
               so they will now appear in a seemingly random order, you can no longer tell how long someone 
               has had their licence.

               Website http://www.radiolicencecentre.co.uk/rlc (Callsign Page) shows the latest callsigns
               issued, presumably those where the applicant didn't choose one?

               I think this was poorly thought out and a little unfair. Those applying at the start of a
               series will have their pick of the 'good' calls (triple letters etc). Those applying when
               a series is nearly used up will be stuck with the unwanted calls (the kind that score well
               in Scrabble!). Also, the Foundation course was available in some areas in November, before the
               calls could even be used - whereas in other areas there was a wait until well into the new year
               for the RSGB or the local clubs to get their act together.

               If they'd kept the ordering, they would have only used up to about M5Eaa and could have started
               from M5Faa onwards for Class Bs passing the Foundation Morse, with 2E5 for complete beginners.
               Any existing M5 who wouldn't want to be associated with it could have changed to M0 anyway.


2001           October 1st - Class A speed reduced to 5wpm - M5 "A/B" becomes class A and can change to M0

               Unlicensed trainees (on a registered training course) may be supervised by full licence
               holders to operate a station and contact other UK licensed amateurs. There will be no time
               limit on the duration of any message.

               Foundation Licence class announced, and so..

               The Novice class is re-named the Intermediate class - maximum 50W
               Intermediate (A) licensees now allowed all bands.
               Intermediate (B) now allowed all bands from 50MHz up.


2001    M0     M1     2E0     2E1


2002    M0     M1     2E0     2E1     M3

               January 1st - New Foundation class starts (M3aaa), maximum 10W. 6m, 4m, 2m, 70cm, HF except 10m
               Access to HF with only a Morse appreciation 'test' that is near impossible to fail.
               A course must be taken, or a Class B licence held for at least 1 year. BR68/F
               May 1st 2002 : Class B 1 year requirement dropped to 3 months (Full and Intermediate classes)

               A hasty rush-job, IMHO. Never, in the field of Amateur Licensing, as so much been given,
               for so little (sorry Winston). They should have given parts of fewer bands, I think.
               Where is the incentive to progress? From Foundation to Intermediate takes you from 10W to
               just 50W, gets you a crappy 2 callsign and doesn't allow you HF without a real 5wpm Morse
               test! (until 2003)
               Bands (or parts of them) should be the rewards for upgrading, not power levels - and
               would be much easier to police too.

               What a waste of callsigns, too. You might want to go straight to Full, but you can't - you
               have to start at Foundation level. So you get an M3 call, take the next course, get a
               2E1 call you can't use on HF (yet) and so keep the M3 call too, then possibly pass a Morse
               test and trade those in for a 2E0 and then when you finally pass the Full course you get yet
               another callsign, an M0 at last. What a fiasco.
               Many people think callsigns should never be reissued (it doesn't seem to be a problem with
               cars or telephone numbers) so this is a handy way to use up all the calls too quickly!
               For every future M0 there will probably be an M3 as well - eventually using up the M series
               twice as fast as it should be. I have to say though, if there's a G0ZZZ in one century and
               a different G0ZZZ in another is that really a problem telling them apart?! Just how do all
               those John Smiths out there tell who's who? Some people are incredibly posessive of the
               callsign 'given' to them (allowed to them, in reality), but I really don't care if someone
               else has 'my' callsign long after I'm gone. Is it fair on future generations to make them
               use even more longwinded calls? GW23ABC? MM0MMMM/MM?!  But I digress...
                 (actually WRC-2003 ammended art.19 to enable 4-letter suffixes. Yuk.)

               With the Foundation Licence being so simple, even for a complete newcomer, I can see how
               some say it really is becoming more like CB - but I still believe there is room for us all.
               An Amateur Licence isn't a prize for a lot of learning, rather it is the first step to a
               lifetime of learning. The licensee almost cannot fail to learn by doing. If some people
               delay more active experimentation a little (or never get there), that is purely their
               own business. Yes, it's human nature to look down on those who haven't 'caught up' with us
               (yet), but please try exchanging self-pride and snobbery for a more humble gratitude for
               the position in which you find yourself. A 'real' amateur helps and encourages beginners.
               Always remember it's a hobby, folks. Being a wise and decent human being should take priority!


2003           July 4th  -  WRC 2003 ammends the ITU regs such that Morse testing for HF  is no longer
               mandatory, but up to each administration. Effective 5th July, but each country waits
               for its own rule changes to be announced...

               July 25th -  UK Gazette notice announces the end of Morse testing for HF access. All previous
               Full Class A and Full Class B licencees are now in the single Full class, similarly with the
               Intermediate classes A and B. Effective 26th July 2003  there are now just 3 classes :
               FULL : G (all), M0, M1, M5
               INTERMEDIATE : 2 (all)
               FOUNDATION : M3

               New Full and Intermediate callsigns use 0, so that you can't tell if an M0 or 2E0 was
               licenced before July 2003 or not - whether they've passed a Morse test or not. Very kind
               of them to blur the issue in favour of 'Morse is irrelevant', hehe. If they'd stopped M0
               and carried on using M1, an M0 would have always denoted a Morse pass. Too much to expect
               logic, I suppose. I've come to expect the complete opposite of what seems reasonable!
               In fairness, it says to the world that Class B has disappeared / has been upgraded to Full,
               rather than Class A being downgraded to Class B level; amusingly pleasant in actual fact.
               You can't get a Class B callsign any more, we're special! (and equal to new M0s... ROFL)

2003-7  M0  (Full)    2E0  (int.)     M3  (Foundation)                  Last RAE exam in Dec 2003

2004           The manual for the Full class course is encouragingly called "Advance!", so some people
               got confused and starting calling the Full class the Advanced class. The name appears to
               have stuck! January Radcom announces that M4 will be used for the next FL series after M3.

2006           December 1st - New Lifetime Licences (no more £15 per year charge, just check in every 5 years)
               with some changes to the conditions including :
                 Logging now optional, only mandatory if required by Ofcom for interference investigations.
                 More bands available to M3 FLs, such as 28MHz.
                 Club GX callsigns now for general use, optionally.
                 Suffixes like /M now optional, but new /A for Alternative Address. No /P locations needed.
                 No more BR68 booklet as such, the similar terms & condtions are now part of the licence.

               (CB: December 8th - CB deregulated, no licences required. "iTrip" 50nW FM transmitters now legal)

               December 16th - FCC announces Morse will no longer (early 2007) be needed for HF access.




"Remember that licence is the noun and license is the verb (Americans use license for the noun too).
To remember the spellings, think of advice (noun) and advise (verb)."

3 Jan 2007

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