(Click for all papers in chronological order)


Last updated: January 2008

p r o j e c t s

m e m b e r s

p a p e r s

c o n t a c t

h o m e


Response Selection
How do we plan movements of our eyes, arms or feet towards targets of interest? How do the processes of target selection and response selection interact? What is the substrate for eye-hand coordination?

Spatial Signals
How is spatial information encoded, stored and transformed in the brain?

Task Representations
We can switch rapidly between different tasks, though a task such as task-switching carries a price. Do monkeys show comparable behavior? How are tasks represented, and how is task switching implemented?

Vestibular System
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is an excellent model system for studying spatial representations and sensory to motor transformations.

Monkey fMRI
Functional MRI using monkey subjects



Response Selection




Spatial Signals





  • An anti-Hick's effect in monkey and human saccade reaction times.
    Lawrence BM, St.Johon A, Abrams, RA, Snyder LH
    Journal of Vision , 8(3):26-,1-7 (2008)

  • Subthreshold Microstimulation in the Frontal Eye Fields Updates Spatial Memories
    White RL, Snyder LH
    Exp Br Res 181:477–492 (2007)

  • Spatial constancy and the brain: insights from neural networks.
    White RL, Snyder LH
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci , 362:375-82 (2007)

  • Delay-period activity in visual, visuomovement, and movement neurons in the frontal eye field.
    Lawrence BM, White RL, & Snyder LH
    J Neurophysiol. 94, 1498-508 (2005)

  • A Neural Network Model of Flexible Spatial Updating
    White RL, Snyder LH
    J Neurophysiol 91, 1608-1619 (2004)

  • Effects of training on memory-guided saccade performance
    Visscher K, Viets E & Snyder LH
    Vision Research 43, 2061-2071 (2003)

  • Spatial Memory Following Shifts of Gaze. I. saccades to Memorized World-Fixed and Gaze-Fixed Targets
    Baker JT, Harper TM & Snyder LH
    J Neurophysiol 89, 2564-2576 (2003)

  • Accuracy of Saccades to Remembered Targets as a Function of Body Orientation in Space
    Vogelstein JT, Snyder LH and Angelaki DE
    J Neurophysiol 90, 521-524 (2003)

  • Separate body-and-world-referenced representations of visual space in parietal cortex
    Snyder LH, Grieve KL, Brotchie P and Andersen RA
    Nature 394, 887-891 (1998)

  • Head position signals used by parietal neurons to encode locations of visual stimuli
    Brotchie PR, Andersen RA, Snyder LH and Goodman SJ
    Nature 375, 232-235 (1995)

  • Coordinate transformations in the representation of spatial information
    Andersen RA, Snyder LH, Li C and Stricanne B
    Current Opinion in Neurobiology 3, 171-176 (1993)

Task Representations





  • Task switching in human and non-human primates: Understanding rule encoding and control from behavior to single neurons
    Stoet G & Snyder LH
    In press. in S.A. Bunge and J.D. Wallis (Eds.). The Neuroscience of rule-guided behavior. Oxford University Press.
  • Extensive practice does not eliminate human switch costs
    Stoet G & Snyder LH
    Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience 7(3): 192-197 (2007).
  • Correlates of stimulus-response congruence in posterior parietal cortex (PPC)
    Stoet G & Snyder LH
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19: 194-203 (2007).
  • Effects of the NMDA Antagonist Ketamine on Task-Switching Performance:Evidence for Specific Impairments of Executive Control.
    Stoet G & Snyder LH
    Neuropsychopharmacology Aug;31 (8): 1675-81 (2006)

  • Single neurons in posterior parietal cortex of monkeys encode cognitive set
    Stoet G & Snyder LH
    Neuron 42:1003-1012 (2004)

  • Task preparation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
    Stoet G & Snyder LH
    Animal Cognition 6:121-130 (2003)

  • Executive control and task-switching in monkeys
    Stoet G & Snyder LH
    Neuropsychologia 41/10, 1357-1364 (2003)


Vestibular System





  • The contributions of vestibular signals to the representations of space in the posterior parietal cortex
    Andersen RA, Shenoy KV, Snyder LH, Bradley DC and Crowell JA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci. 871, 282-292 (1999)

  • This way up: illusions and internal models in the vestibular system
    Snyder LH
    Nature Neuroscience 2, 396-398 (1999)

  • Behavior and Physiology of the Macaque Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Response to Sudden Off-Axis Rotation: Computing Eye Translation
    Snyder, LH and King, WM
    Brain Research Bulletin 40, 293-301(1996)

  • Brotchie PR, Andersen RA, Snyder LH, Goodman SJ.
    Head position signals used by parietal neurons to encode locations of visual stimuli.
    Nature. 375, 232-5 (1995)

  • Effect of Viewing Distance and Location of the Axis of Head Rotation on the Monkeys Vestibuloocular Reflex. I. Eye Movement Responses.
    Snyder LH and King WM
    Journal of Neurophysiology 67, 861-874 (1992)

  • Changes in Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) Anticipate Changes in Vergence Angle in Monkey
    Snyder LH, Lawrence DM and King WM
    Vision Research 32, 569-575 (1991)

  • Vertical Vestibuloocular Reflex in Cat: Asymmetry and Adaption
    Snyder LH and King WM
    Journal of Neurophysiology 59, 279-298 (1988)


Monkey MRI



  • Intrinsic functional architecture in the anaesthetized monkey brain
    Vincent et al.
    Nature 447(7140):83-6 (2007)
  • Distribution of Activity Across the Monkey Cerebral Cortical Surface, Thalamus and Midbrain during Rapid, Visually Guided Saccades.
    Baker JT, Patel GH, Corbetta M, Snyder LH.
    Cereb Cortex 16, 447-59 (2006)






  • Movement intention is better predicted than attention in the posterior parietal cortex.
    Quiroga RQ, Snyder LH, Batista AP, Cui H, Andersen RA
    J Neuroscience. 26, 3615-3620 (2006)

  • Frame-up. Focus on "eye-centered, head-centered, and complex coding of visual and auditory targets in the intraparietal sulcus".
    Snyder LH
    J Neurophysiol. 94, 2259-60
  • Don't go there.
    Snyder LH & Lawrence BM
    Neuron. 43, 297-9 (ƒ2004)

  • Moving forward by looking away
    Snyder LH
    Nature 408, 921-923 (2000)

  • The Use of a Thermoplastic Cap to Protect Against Self-induced Trauma in a Nonhuman Primate
    Musch KL and Snyder LH
    Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 37, 75-76 (1998)