III. COURTYARD / ENDERÛN COURTYARD
This courtyard, in dimension of 100x90m, of the palace consists of the buildings which have been constructed for the need of the sultans since Fatih’s period, the dormitories which were needed by Enderûn organization, and buildings such as mosque and Turkish bath.
At side of Marmara, first There were Turkish bath and an area where falcons were being trained, later There replaced the building Seferli Koğuşu(Imperial Wordrobe) and Meşkhane, which was important for Enderûn life, in front of Büyük Oda (Grand Room) and Seferli Koğuşları(Imperial Wordrobe). Fatih Pavilion used as a treasury building followed those. Mosque of Grand Room and Meşkhane could not remain these days.
Kiler Koğuşu and Hazine Koğuşu are at the opposite of the courtyard. Has Oda and Has Oda Koğuşu, on the other corner, are the buildings at the side of Haliç. There is also, Ağalar Mosque in this direction. In the centre of Enderûn Courtyard there was Havuz Köşkü Pool Pavilion once but Enderûn Kütüphanesi Enderun Library was replaced in the 18th centruy. It is also known as III. Ahmed Library.
The buildings, once were used as Enderûn Hastahane and Eczahanesi, is being used as Museum Manager Residence today.
The dormitories of Enderûn Mektebi having used for Enderun’s staff since are arranged both at the entrance of Enderûn Courtyard and along two sides of Bâb-üs Saade. The dormitories, the left one is called Small room and the right one is called Grand Room are lying along the walls of Enderûn Divan Courtyard.
We can describe Enderûn as a school in which the sultan, his akhadims and his page boys used to live together and so some of them used to be educated. In Ottoman palaces, Enderûn Organization was an organization which had already existed before Topkapı Palace. The dormitories which took on a shape in the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmed (1451-1481), the courtyard with the buildings belonging to the sultan and villas belonging to the sultan are placed in marble terrace and flower garden and this was called Sofa-i Hümâyûn.
Enderûn Organization is divided in two main parts: First one is page boys who were serving to the sultan and the other is the directors consisted of akhadim ağas. By this system young men who were turned into Muslim from Christianity and gathered from various nations were educated and they became governors who were needed in the army, the palace and the government.
This is just in the opposite of Bâb-üs Saade and it goes united with its fringes to the gate. There the sultans used to concern state goverment. In this place, called Arz Odası or Arz Divanhanesi, the sultans used to welcome foreign ambassadors and arrange meetings with the commanders who were going to battle and arrange Divan meetings with governors on Sunday and Tuesday called “Arz Günleri”. The works in the building which went for restoration in 2003 finished. It is open for visitors.
It was built by Sultan IV. Murad in 1635. The class who used to clean the sultan’s laundry with ceremony gained its name because they used to join the battle with sultan. The building was restored by Sultan III. Ahmet in early 18th century. The vaulted dormitory part in the entrance apricot and which was remained from Byzantine Empire has 14 columns. There displays some sultan’s clothes and caftans made by precious fabrics from Fatih to II.Abdülhamid, which are all from Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Padişah Elbiseleri Koleksiyonu. In the range of “Saray’da Lâle Sergisi” which will have been opened by April 11th in 2006, the tulip patterned works belonging to palace collections and the tulip patterned caftans and clothes from 16th to 18th centuries are going to be displayed for 3 months in this building.
Fatih Pavilion ( Fatih Köşkü )
It is one of the first structures constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmed in 1962-63 to form the plan of Topkapi Palace. This structure has also quadruple arrangement like the other structures at the Palace. It is formed by the connection of the other open room at Bosphorus side via a marmite terrace to the three rooms overlooking the Marmara Sea. The villas, solid walls and two big vaulted storehouses, and another storehouse from Byzantine Empire consist of the main walls of inner palace.
I. Mahmud (18th century) added Elçi Hazinesi (Treasury of Ambassador) to the treasury portico, the portico and the terrace parts of which was closed by walls in Yavuz Sultan Selim’ s period.
In 19th century, the villa to which French style vitrines were added in order to be displayed for important visitors became one of the early examples of Turkish Museum.
The Building, today used as Treasury Section (Hazine Seksiyon), was restored in 2000 by the sponsorship of Gilan Mücevherat and renewed by replacing new earthquake-resistant, modern vitirines .
Under the responsibility of the head of kitchen called Kilercibaşı (Chief Cook), Kilerli Koğuşu used to concern on cooking the sultans meals, preparing the sultans table and taking dinner service . After 1856 Enderûn fire in 1856, it was reconstructed as Hazine Kethüdalığı. Since 1960 it has been using as Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Müdüriyeti
Chamber of Treasury (Hazine Koğuşu)
The dormitory which were under the management of Hazinedarbaşı Chief Treasurer who was also the chief of Ehl-i Hiref organization was responsible of the treasury. It remained from Fatih’ s period to the end of the Ottoman Empire. Although Enderûn organization was dissolved in 19th century it continued with Hasoda Koğuşu. It was reconstructed as Hazine Kethüdalığı Dairesi in 1858 after Enderûn fire in 1856. In April 19th in 2006, it will welcome ‘Sarayda Hamam ve Berber’ Exhibition
Hasoda Koğuşu / Chamber of Sacred Relics
Hasoda which was built as the sultans’ private department in Fatih Sultan Mehmed period, is double – storied and has four places.
The place in entrance was named Şadırvanlı Sofa due to the marble fountain under Kubbe Altı. The other two parts of the four places was designed as two rooms with dome which are connected to one another and the hall by the doors.
The first room on the right side of the entrance is Arzhane where the sultans used to meet arz agas and where they used to present their offers to the sultans. Today in the place, there exhibits the sacred properties belonging to Hz. Muhammed and Kaaba. Koran is being read
The second room is the most important place in the building; Hasoda where the sultanate thore is being kept. The room in which the sultans were sleeping in Classical period started to be mentioned Chamber of Sacred Relics (Kutsal Emanetler Dairesi) from 19th century because it has the sacred properties such as Prophet Muhammed’ s Hırka-ı Saadet and Sancak-ı Şerif. Iznik tiles which are the most precious examples of Ottaman are seen on the walls. The room is not open for visitors.
Hasodalıların koğuşu ,today called as Destimal Odası, is in the hall of Şadırvanlı Sofa. In the room some sacred properties before Hz. Muhammed are displayed today.
Hasoda Koğuşu was formed by page boys who were under the sultans’ personel service In 19th century, the porticos in front of Hasoda Koğuşu were closed and a new dormitory for Emanet-i Mukaddese was built. Today it is used as Padişah Portreleri Sergi Salonu
Treasury of Weaponsmaster
In the place where you can enter by passing through Arzhane, the extremely important Kurans and other books in a library called Emanet Hazinesi (Sacred Treasury) were kept. From outside it is seen as if it had one dome but actually it has two domes. Today there are some properties belonging to the palace. It is not open for visitors.
On side of Haliç of Enderûn courtyard , Has Oda takes place. Used for worship by sultans, akagas and pageboys, the mosque must have been built in Fatih Sultan Mehmed’ s period (1451-1481). To make it to face at Mecca it was placed slightly in a diagonal way in the courtyard. Today it is used as Palace Library. It has the sultans’ manuscripts which they kept in the treasury and profoundly important manuscripts and the books with miniature.
In order to use the library, it is required to submit a petition that states the subject to be studied to General Directorate for Culturel Heritage and Museums. The library open to the native and foreign researchers serves between 9.00- 12.00 and 13.00- 16.30 Mon– Fri.