на русский to English content

Письма,контакты

КОНТАКТЫ

  FUNDAMENTAL SPACE STUDIES

FUNDAMENTAL SPACE STUDIES

 

Not all the results of fundamental science studies generate technologies, but absolutely all modern technologies are grounded on fundamental science studies

All existing achievements of our civilization are grounded on fundamental science studies conducted earlier. For example, internal combustion engines could not have existed without discoveries in such spheres as thermodynamics, molecular physics, electrodynamics, magnetism, organic chemistry, etc.

Now, due to acceleration of scientific and technical progress, the results of scientific research may be applied to technology and every day life approximately within 20-30 years. Some of them have major impact on technical progress.

Fundamental science, studying the Universe plays substantial part in this process. It would suffice to remember, that helium was first discovered on the Sun and only later found on Earth, or that nuclear physics uses some objects in the Universe as a natural laboratory, where Nature itself stages her experiments, impossible in earthly environment. As early as in 1920, long before nuclear physics was created, Arthur Eddington stated that thermonuclear fusion during conversion of hydrogen into helium is the source of star energy. The study of many occurrences in hot plasma is of critical importance for the solution of the greatest energy problem of the Humankind - controlled thermonuclear fusion. It may be carried out in plasma identical to the one in reactor which fills the circumterrestrial space.

Moreover, fundamental space research has powerful direct impact (with which only defense industry can be compared) on technologies development. This happens due to constant experimenters’ demands to increase sensitivity, resolution ability and to improve other scientific equipment parameters.

Fundamental space studies gave a powerful charge to the development of our knowledge of the Universe.

 

Medieval engraving

Modern conception

According to many prominent modern scientists at the turn of the ХХI century we witnessed a “revolution” in astronomy which is no less important than the revolution in physics, which happened at the beginning of the ХХ century and laid the foundation for many new science lines, hence modern technologies.

A tremendous role has already been played by space means, ensuring scientific research of many Universal objects.

They enable astrophysical research of far away objects by means of telescopes carried outside of the earthly atmosphere, hampering or preventing many types of observation from the surface of the Earth. Spacecrafts are capable of transporting scientific equipment to many objects of the Solar system so that we could study them remotely but being in the close proximity, or to perform in situ research. In the conditions of lengthy influence of space factors: vacuum, no-gravity (or, rather microgravity, caused by microacceleration) etc. on board a spacecraft scientists may carry out biological and technological experiments impossible on Earth.

Russia’s Federal Space Program for the period of 2006-2015 envisages the execution of over two dozens of scientifically purposed projects.

Among them there are full-scale space projects, within which specific spacecrafts equipped with targeted scientific equipment complexes, must be created. Moreover, additional scientific equipment complexes installation on Russian spacecrafts for national economic purposes will be effected, as well as Russian scientific equipment installation on foreign spacecrafts of scientific purpose.

Scientific space projects implementation particularity is the maximal usage of so called standardized space platforms - the main components of spacecrafts with the function of required payload working conditions provision – target equipment: for scientific research, remote earth sensing, radio communications, etc.

Space platform creation modular technology enables within short time frames and limited costs to customize the platform capabilities for application within spacecrafts of various types with various targeted equipment. For instance, within “Phobos - Grunt” project NPO Lavochkin company is developing a space platform applicable for a whole range of future scientific projects.

The use of standardized platform for small spacecrafts developed by means of extra-budgetary funds by NPO Lavochkin company is also very important. Within Russian project “Small Spacecrafts for Fundamental Space Studies” five launches of such spacecrafts are planned in 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016. They will ensure the receipt of results within a flexible program for solar-terrestrial communications, solar system small bodies’ observation, and astrophysics experiments.

Russia’s Federal Space Program for the period of 2006-2015 envisages in the section “Space means of technological purpose” that further there will be work along the following lines:

- exoatmospheric astrophysics - accessing of scientific data on the origin and evolution of the Universe;

- planetology - the study of planets and small bodies of the Solar system;

-  study of the Sun, cosmic plasma and solar-terrestrial connections;

- research in space biology, physiology and materials science.


Exoatmospheric astrophysics – accessing of scientific data on the origin and evolution of the Universe

Modern astrophysical space studies allow obtaining unique data on very remote cosmological objects and events which happened at the period of stars and galaxies origination.

In its turn, it gives the possibility to make a profound breakthrough in researching of basic characteristics of matter, and to obtain new information in nuclear and quantum physics, theory of relativity, problems of space-time, etc.

To accomplish the tasks of this scientific sphere, in frame of the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006 – 2015, Section «Space means for fundamental space studies» envisages realization of the following projects. 

Full-scale space projects

«Radioastron»

Astrophysical space observatory providing results of radio-astrophysical observations of extragalactic objects with ultra-high resolution by radio-interferometrical methods together with a ground-based system of radio-telescopes within wave lengths ranges 1.35 – 6.0; 18.0; 92.0 cm, as well as researching of characteristics of near-Earth and interplanetary plasma.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2007.

«International space observatory / Ultraviolet»

Astrophysical observatory providing results of studies of astronomical objects 15–24 of magnitude within the spectral range of electromagnetic radiation waves from 100 to 3500 angstroms and dynamics of the processes going inside these objects.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2010.

 «Spectre - RG»

Astrophysical observatory providing results of studies of astronomical objects within X-ray and gamma ranges: 0.08 keV – 10.0 MeV.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2011.

«Gamma - 400»

Space observatory to determine the nature of «dark material» of the Universe, to develop the theory of origin of high-energy cosmic rays and physics of elementary particles.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2013.

«Millimetron»

Space observatory and interferometer functioning on its basis with angular resolution up to 30 nanoseconds of arc, that provides unique information on the global structure of the Universe; on the structure and evolution of galaxies, their nuclei, stars and planetary systems, as well as on organic compounds in the outer space, objects with ultrastrong gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2016.

«Astrometriya»

Space astrometrical complex providing construction of basic system of astronomical coordinates within the optical range, measurement of parallaxes of reference stars with the accuracy up to 10-6 angular seconds and solution of applied problems of space navigation.  

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2018.

Moreover, projects realized by means of installation of scientific equipment complexes on Russian spacecrafts for national economic purposes are scheduled.

«Conus»

Two interrelated experiments on space gamma rays bursts are made. First of them have been made on NASA’s Wind spacecraft by means of Russian Conus scientific equipment since November 1994. These observations were added by Conus experiments on two Russian Cosmos near-earth spacecrafts.  Equipment for the third spacecraft of this type is being prepared.

Launch of the spacecraft will be made in due time in accordance with the customer’s schedule of his major project, approximately in 2006.

«Pamela»

Studies on antimatter inside cosmic rays aboard Earth artificial satellite. Registration of fluxes and ranges of antiprotons and positrons. Investigation of antimatter atoms nuclei.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2006.

 «Nuclon»

Studies on chemical composition and energy spectrum of high-energy cosmic rays.

Launch of the spacecraft will be made in due time in accordance with the customer’s schedule of his major project, approximately in 2008.

 «TUS-М»

Monitoring of Earth atmosphere within the ultraviolet range allowing studies of characteristics of extremely high-energy space radiation.  

Launch of the spacecraft will be made in due time in accordance with the customer’s schedule of his major project, approximately in 2009.


Planetology - the study of planets and small bodies of the Solar system

 

 

These studies are of vital importance to understand the processes of beginnings and development of the Solar system. However first of all, they give a key to understand possible ways of future evolution of our planet and ways to maintain life existence on Earth for our descendants.

Studies of planets, their satellites, asteroids  and comets embrace search of life or its traces, and their reliable evidences would be the greatest science discovery of Humanity. It should be taken into account that XXI century will inevitably witnesses manned flights to the closest bodies of the Solar system. To prepare these flights it’s necessary to have detailed information on physical and chemical characteristics of these bodies.

Moreover, studies of the possibility of artificial changes of physical characteristics first on Mars and then on Venus can be essential for our descendants to inhabit these planets.

To accomplish the tasks of this scientific sphere, in frame of the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006 – 2015, Section «Space means for fundamental space studies» envisages realization of the following projects. 

Full-scale space projects

«Phobos – Grunt»

Space complex ensuring first delivery of the matter sample of Mars satellite Phobos to Earth to analyse its structure and physical-chemical characteristics that will allow obtaining data on origin of Mars satellites and interaction of small bodies of the Solar system with the solar wind.

Besides this main task of delivery of the matter sample of Mars satellite Phobos to Earth, remote studies of Mars will be conducted.

Moreover, Phobos-Grunt spacecraft will serve as a basis for the spaceplatform for other projects realized in the interest of fundamental space studies.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2009.

«LunaGlob»

Space complex ensuring obtaining scientific results of great importance on internal structure of the Moon and its crater Aitken on the South Pole of the Moon; natural sources exploration; studies of influence of the incoming corpuscular fluxes and electromagnetic emission on the Moon.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2012.

«Venera - D»

Space complex ensuring measuring of the chemical composition of Venus atmosphere, surface shooting during the descending, estimation of the mineral composition of the surface layer, exact measurements of the temperature and pressure, radiant fluxes, characteristics of aerosol environment, data on seismic activity of the planet.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2016.

 Moreover, projects realized by means of installation of Russian scientific equipment on foreign spacecrafts for scientific purposes are scheduled.

At present foreign spacecrafts with Russian instruments as parts of their equipment are successfully operating:

NASA’s Mars-Odyssey spacecraft with Russian instrument Hand aboard launched in April 2001 is making scientific measurements on orbit around Mars.

ESA’s Mars-Express spacecraft launched in June 2003 is making scientific measurements on orbit around Mars. Six scientific instruments are installed on its board; most of them had their prototypes on Russian Mars-96 spacecraft. Russian scientists as co-researches are taking part in all scientific experiments of Mars-Express.

  ESA’s Venus-Express spacecraft was launched in November 2005. Its scientific equipment is practically similar to the equipment of ESA’s Mars-Express. Russian scientists as co-researches are taking part in all scientific experiments of Venus-Express.

Scientific equipment complexes are being created.

«LAND»

Russian LAND complex of scientific equipment will be installed on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The purpose of Russian LAND equipment is to search water ice in the polar regions of the Moon.

                Launch of NASA spacecraft is scheduled for 2008.

«DAN»

Russian DAN scientific equipment will be installed on NASA’s Mars rover. The main scientific task of DAN equipment is to prospect capacity of Mars permafrost.

                Launch of NASA spacecraft is scheduled for 2009.

Participation in the international projects

«Bepi Colombo»

Studies of Mercury by two spacecrafts inserted into orbits of this planet. Roscosmos participates in the international space project Bepi Colombo together with ESA and JAXA by installing several scientific instruments on both spacecrafts.

                Launch of the complex spacecraft going to Mercury is scheduled for 2012.


Study of the Sun, cosmic plasma and solar-terrestrial connections

The Sun is the closest typical star and is examined as an extended object. The Sun and its corona represent a natural laboratory to study basic plasma characteristics.

Scientific importance of studies of the Sun is that it makes a decisive impact on the main Earth processes including some technical systems. Such an impact affects different radio systems, power grids, wire lines in Arctic, intensity of the induced electrical currents in conduits, etc. As an example we can take two well-known failures of extensive power grids: on the 13th of March, 1989 at the sudden outburst of magnetic variations induced electrical current in Hydro-Quebec power system in Canada amounted to 100 amperes that caused a failure of the system. The energy for a large area with several million people was cut off. Similar cases happened in Arctic, for instance on the Kola Peninsula on the 11th-12th of February, 1958. For pipelines, grounded induces electrical currents inside increase corrosion greatly, and arcing can cause fire at the spots of leaks. Gravity of the problem was demonstrated another time by an absolute failure of TV broadcasting satellite Telstar-401 which happened on 11th of January, 1998 as a result of its intense energetic particles irradiation.

Gradually we realize that solar activity makes great influence on humans. A medical service informing on geomagnetic storms caused by solar activity is developing.

To accomplish the tasks of this scientific sphere, in frame of the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006 – 2015, Section «Space means for fundamental space studies» envisages realization of the following projects. 

Full-scale space projects

Guidance of the launched spacecraft.

«CORONAS-F»

In frame of the project «Complex near-earth observations of solar activity - CORONAS», CORONAS-F spacecraft was launched successfully in July, 2001. By its operating on orbit, new data on the structure of active areas of the Sun, solar bursts and other nonstationary processes in the atmosphere of the Sun, on its global variations (helio-seismology), as well as on radiation conditions in near-earth space caused by solar activities was obtained.

Launch preparation of the spacecrafts

«CORONAS - Photon»

Space complex ensuring results of complex observations of solar radiation, processes of energy storage and its transformation into accelerated particles during solar bursts to monitor «space weather» and to elaborate measures to protect human health from negative impacts.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2007.

«Resonans»

Space complex ensuring study of parameters of processes of low-frequency waves transmission in magnetically active plasma of Earth magnetosphere, study of mechanisms of resonance interaction of waves and particles in near-earth space registered by ground heating short-wave bench and artificial satellite of Earth. Results of the control of man-caused impacts on Earth magnetosphere and geophysical processes.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2012.

«Interheliozond»

Space complex to study parameters of electromagnetic radiation of the Sun from close distances (30–40 radii of the Sun) with high sensitivity and resolution in optical, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma ranges, as well as parameters of the solar wind to solve the problems of solar corona heating and acceleration of the solar wind, origin of the solar bursts and corona plasma outburst.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2014.

«TERION - F

Space complex ensuring results of study of parameters of ionosphere and thermosphere, as well as of mechanisms forming thermosphere and ionosphere connections on a planetary scale on the basis of direct and remote methods of measurements onboard low-orbit spacecraft at a height of 300 km.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2018.

Research in space biology, physiology and materials science

Medico-biological studies

Studies of zero-gravity impact on living organisms and of physiological mechanisms of adaptation to zero-gravity during space flights, as well as studies of combined effects of zero-gravity and other factors have great importance for long-term human flights necessary to explore Solar system planets.

The use of lower organisms to make medico-biological experiments (in contrast to experiments on humans) gives more possibilities including further preparation of the biological material. Studies of intracellular processes, cells, tissues, organs and organisms in general on automatic spacecrafts of this type gave great results. We received data on the absence of serious biological restrictions of the stay duration of living organisms and humans under conditions of the space flight. Prospects of the artificial gravity force to maintain the optimal organism state and to avert its irreversible changes were demonstrated. Evidences of the necessity of strictly differential approach to the creation of training equipment for different human muscles were found.

Russia’s Federal Space Program for the period of 2006-2015 in the section “Space means for fundamental space studies” envisages continuation of Bion project.

«Bion-М»

Space complex ensuring studies of parameters of physical state of biological objects under space factors influence during the orbital flight up to 45 days in order to provide medico-biological assurance of long-term manned space flights.

Launches of Bion-M spacecrafts are scheduled for 2010, 2013 and 2016.

Physics of microgravity

The use of space means to solve the issues of space material science allows obtaining material samples with unique characteristics in comparison with earth analogues under microgravitational conditions.

Such studies are made on automatic Photon spacecrafts. As a result basic knowledge on zero-gravity influence on the processes of heat and mass transfer inside the liquid matters and growth of crystals in its depth was obtained. Constant and variable magnetic fields influence on these processes was studied. A series of experiments on electroforetical separations and purifications of biologically active substances, as well as ion-exchange diffusion under zero-gravity conditions was made.

Russia’s Federal Space Program for the period of 2006-2015 in the section “Space means of technological purpose” envisages realization of the following projects:

 «Photon–М»

Space complex to carry out studies in space technology and biotechnology under microgravity conditions.

It is designed to get new knowledge on zero-gravity physiscs; technological processes of manufacturing of semiconducting materials, biomedicals (at the level of microgravitation 2·10-6g) with improved characteristics. Operation life on orbit of the spacecraft is 30 days.

Launches of the spacecrafts are scheduled for 2006 and 2008.

«Vozvrat–MKA»

Fundamentally new space complex with a returnable spacecraft to make microgravity experiments.

It is designed to get basic knowledge on the processes inside melts and solutions, as well as inside biological structures under conditions of super-low level microgravitation (lower 10-7g) in an effort of their further usage in manufacturing of new materials and biomedicals on Earth as well as onboard OKA-T-ISS space complex. Operation life on orbit of the spacecraft is 1 year.

Launch of the spacecraft is scheduled for 2014.


Разработка и поддержание Интернет-представительства Роскосмоса – «Издательство «РЕСТАРТ»