Virgil   virgilpagdom.gif (8618 bytes)
                                                         Vergilius Romanus fol. 3v, 5th. cent. AD (from manuscript)


   Course Outline of the Aeneid Topics - click this link.



   Useful Web Sites:                                          

Perseus Project Home Page

Map: Roman Empire (clickable for images, info)

      Aeneid Page !!       
        FAQ's - Modern Critics - E-Texts - Summaries, Study Questions -
        Other Resources - Bibliography

           Background - Rome's History - "Who's Who" in the Aeneid.

     The Virgil Home Page:  Internet Resources
    Virgil Web Sites: (invaluable)

     Virgil: Resource Page (Searches)

                Virgil Resource Page  (ignore ad, use Links, upper left corner of page)

                Virgil: Links to Other Sites   (Links)

                 Other Vergil Sites

                Virgil: Aeneid (& Georgics): A Resource page.

                        Maps: Aeneas in Italy, The Underworld, et al..

Vergil and Aeneas (Images, Photos)
        Cave of the Sibyl
        Lake Avernus: the entry to the Underworld


    OnLine Study Guide:  English text -links - Background - Characters - Study Questions

             Aeneid: English or Latin, with notes

                         Aeneid: John Dryden translation (Inter. Classics Archive)

                        Aeneid: English Text (entire) 


        Virgil: The Classic Text: "Tradition and Interpretation through the centuries".

       Some Virgilian Sites: Photographs

                   Virgil in Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance:
                             Online Bibliography

                   Virgil: Bibliography (draft)

                   Virgil: Basic Paperbacks

     Augustus: Sites on the Web: index

Some Augustan Legislation
          Monuments etc, built in the Age of Augustus
          Vergil & Augustus

     Platner & Ashby: Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome



1184 - Traditional date of the fall of Troy. 
753 - Traditional date for the foundation of Rome by Romulus.
5th C - Hellanicus of Lesbos identifies Aeneas as he founder of the Roman people. 
264-241 - First Punic War. 
218-201 - Second Punic War. 
151-146 - Third Punic War; final defeat of Carthage. Corinth is captured this same year. 
44 - Assassination of Julius Caesar on March 15. 
40 - Treaty of Brundisium manages to delay full-scale war between Mark Antony
         and Octavian. 
39-38 - Virgil publishes his first book of poetry, Eclogues.
     Some time after this, Virgil gains the patronage of Maecenas, and so becomes known
         to Octavian. 
31 - Battle of Actium; the turning point in the war between Octavian and Antony
         and Cleopatra. 
30 - Octavian captures Alexandria; Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide. 
c.29 - Virgil publishes his second book of poetry, Georgics
27 - Octavian formally reinstates the magistrates, senate, and people of Rome
        in their old constitutional roles;   paradoxically, this is when most scholars
        date the beginning of the Roman Empire. Octavian is awarded the title "Augustus." 
23 - The death of Marcellus, Augustus' nephew And son-in-law; he is mentioned in
, Bk VI. 
19 - Death of Virgil in Brundisium on Sept. 20. 
        Tradition says that on his deathbed he asked that the unfinished manuscript
        of the Aeneid be burned, but Augustus prevented it.
14 - Death of Augustus. 
C4 - Donatus and Servius write their Commentaries on the Aeneid
C5 - Macrobius writes Saturnalia, which includes many references to Virgil. 
1313-1321 - Dante writes The Divine Comedy
1553 - Gavin Douglas, a Scot, does the first complete British verse translation
        of the Aeneid
1697 - Dryden publishes his great verse translation.



Fitzgerald, Robert. The Aeneid.  (NY Vintage 1984)
Mandelbaum, Allen.
The Aeneid .  (NY Bantam 1981)    (translations)

Anderson, W.S.   "Vergil's Second Iliad"  TAPA 88 (1957) 17-30.
           "                 "On Vergil's Use of the Odyssey" Vergilius 9 (1963) 1-7.
Bailey, Cyril, 
Religion in Virgil   (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1935)
C. R Beye,
Ancient Epic Poetry: Homer, Apollonius, Virgil (Ithaca 1993)
Boardman, John, et al., (eds) 
The Oxford History of the Roman World
     (Oxford Univ Pr 1991). A very useful collection of essays for the non-specialist.
Clausen, W. 
Virgil's Aeneid & the Tradition of Hellenistic Poetry  (Berkeley 1987). 
     "An Interpretation of the Aeneid"  in:
Virgil: A Collection of Critical Essays,
     ed. S. Commager  (Englewood Cliffs NJ 1966).
Comparetti,  Domenico (tr. E.F.M. Benecke).
Virgil in the Middle Ages  (Macmillan 1908)
Connington, and Nettleship, Henry.
The Works of Virgil (2 vols.) (Bell & Sons London; 1858. 1884).

Conte, G.B.  (tr. C. Segal et al.)
The Rhetoric of Imitation (Ithaca, 1986).
Duckworth, George, 
Structural Patterns and Proportions in Vergil's Aeneid (U Mich Pr, 1962)
Feeney, D. C.
The Gods in the Epic: Poets and Critics of the Classical Tradition 
     (Clarendon Pr, 199l). An in-depth study of the role of the gods in post-Homeric epic.
                                     excellent chapter on the Aeneid.
Frank, Tenney. Vergil, a Biography  (Clarendon Press 1922)
Glover, T. R.
Virgil   (Macmillan 1912)

Gransden, K.W.
Virgil's Iliad: An Essay on Epic Narrative (Cambridge 1984)
Griffin, Jasper.
Virgil. (Oxford Univ Pr, 1986}.
         A clear, well-written introduction for the interested layperson to Virgil's life, 
         background, and works.  Due to the limitations of space, the chapter on the 
         is necessarily rather superficial, but well worth reading. 
Harrison, S. J.. ed.
Oxford Readings in Virgil’s Aeneid. ( Oxford Univ Pr. 1990).
        A very valuable collection of essays. 
Highet, Gilbert.
Poets in a Landscape ( Alfred A. Knopf 1957)
Johnson, W. R.
Darkness Visible: A Study of Virgil’s Aeneid.
         (Berkeley, Univ Cal Press 1976). Important study of the Aeneid, which focuses
                     on the poem's paradoxical aspects, particularly in comparison with Homer. 
Knauer, G.  "Vergil's Aeneid and Homer" in:
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 5 (1964) 61-84.
Knight, W. F. Jackson.
Roman Virgil  (Faber & Faber 1953)
G. Lee "Imitation and the Poetry of Virgil"  pp1-13 in:
Virgil, ed. I. (McAuslan & P. Walcot, Oxford1990)
Letters, F. J. H. Virgil  (Sheed & Ward 1946)
Lyne, R. O. A. M.
Further Voices in Vergil's Aeneid. (Clarendon Pr 1987)
     An in-depth, fascinating study of some of the Aeneid's most troubling ambiguities. 
Mackail, J. W.,
Virgil and his Meaning to the World of Today  (Marshall Jones Co Boston 1922)
McAuslan, Ian , and Peter Walcot, eds. "Virgil"
Greece & Rome Studies, Oxford UP 1990). collection of various scholarIy articles
Martindale, Charles (ed,.
The Cambridge Companion to Virgil. (CambridgeUP 1997).
            A collection of in-depth essays on various aspects of Virgil's work. 
Nettleship, Henry,
Suggestions Introductory to a Study of the Aeneid  (Clarendon Press 1875)
Vergil   (Appleton & Co., New York, 1880)
Nitchie, Elizabeth.
Vergil and the English Poets  (Columbia UP 1919)

Otis, Brooks,  "The Odyssean Aeneid and the Iliadic Aeneid" pp 89-106 in:
Virgil: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. S. Commager, (Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1966)
Oxford Classical Dictionary  (Clarendon Press 1957)
Pavlock, B,  Eros,
Imitation, and the Epic Tradition (Ithaca 1990)
P�schl, V.  (tr. G. Seligson)
The Art of Vergil: Image and Symbol in the Aeneid   (Ann Arbor 1962).
Prescott, Henry W,
The Development of Virgil's Art   (Univ of Chicago Pr 1927)
Rand, Edward Kennard,
The Magical Art of Virgil  (Harvard UP 1931)
Sellar, William Young,
The Roman Poets of the Augustan Age - Virgil   (Clarendon Press 1908)
Smith, William and Anthon, Charles, 
A New Classical Dictionary  (Harper 1851)
Syme, Ronald,
The Roman Revolution  (Clarendon Press 1939)

Williams, R. D.,
The Aeneid  (Allen & Unwin 1987)
         A clear, useful introduction to the poem. written for non-specialists.
Wiseman, T. P., 
Remus: A Roman Myth  (Cambridge UP 1995).
         A thorough, very readable. and fascinating exploration of the fiction of Remus in Roman myth
         and of the Romulus and Remus story overall. Includes an appendix giving various different
         ancient versions of Rome's story. 
Woodford, Susan, 
The Trojan War in Ancient Art (Ithaca: Cornell Univ 1993).
        A useful summary of the mythical background to the Trojan War, with illustrations from ancient art. 

See also  Virgil Bibliography  for Late Antiquity, Middle Ages, & Renaissance.