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AJHS: 799
1968-2004
Gore-Lieberman 2000. Placard advocating the election of the Democratic ticket headed by Vice President Albert Gore and Connecticut Senator Joseph Lieberman in the 2000 presidential elections. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 811
1881-1919
Workers in a garment factory, MA, ca. 1910. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 813
1881-1919
Abraham Cahan (1860-1951), founder of the Yiddish newspaper, the "Forverts" (Forward) in 1897, and author of novels that documented the immigrant experience. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 815
1949-1967
Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodger Sandy Koufax's rookie year jersey, 1955. During his relatively brief career, Koufax threw four no-hitters, broke numerous strikeout records, and led the National League in earned runs for an unprecedented 5 straight years. In 1965, like Hank Greenberg before him, Koufax declined to pitch on Yom Kippur, even though the holiday fell on the first game of the World Series. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 797
1830-1880
$2.00 Confederate note bearing the portrait of Judah P. Benjamin, the Louisiana senator who was appointed attorney general for the Confederacy in 1861. A year later he was appointed secretary of state, after serving briefly as secretary of war. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Judah Benjamin Papers, *P-45.)

AJHS: 798
1830-1880
Envelope addressed to Benjamin Peixotto in Bucharest, Romania, ca. 1874. Peixotto, a San Francisco lawyer and B'nai Brith activist, was appointed Consul-General to Romania by President Ulysses Grant in 1870. There, he was influential in making the recognition of Jewish civil rights a condition of Romania's obtaining the status of a sovereign kingdom in 1878. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

YIVO: 575
1881-1919
Tinted postcard of the Jewish Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, dedicated in 1906. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 241)

YIVO: 576
1881-1919
Aaron Barony and his family, Jewish settlers in North Dakota, ca. 1885. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 13.9)

YIVO: 577
1881-1919
Yiddish card commemorating the "Haymarket Martyrs." On May 4, 1886, at an anarchist rally in Chicago to protest police brutality, a bomb was thrown into the crowd and killed several protesters and policemen. 8 anarchists were arrested and charged with conspiracy to commit murder; in November 1887, 4 of them were executed. The Haymarket Tragedy, as it is known, was a seminal event in American labor history. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 89)

YIVO: 578
1881-1919
Members of the Jewish Socialist Verband, an organization devoted to spreading socialism among Jewish workers, with visiting Yiddish writer Abraham Reisen (with moustache, seated on ground at right), Chicago, 1912. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 55)

YIVO: 579
1881-1919
Lillian Wald, founder of the Henry Street Settlement and the Visiting Nurse Service, New York City, ca. 1910. Wald was also a passionate advocate for civil rights who insisted that all Henry Street classes be racially integrated. She was a co-founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639)

AJHS: 580
1830-1880
Rabbi Enoch Zundel, who came to New York in 1832 seeking aid for the impoverished Jewish community in Palestine. This portrait of him by A. A. Hoffay, printed in 1833, is the first published American engraving of a contemporary Jew. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 581
1830-1880
Advertising card for a store owned by the Marks Brothers, welcoming female volunteers, Philadelphia, PA, ca. 1863. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Marks Bros. Records, I-193)

AJHS: 582
1830-1880
Handwritten Jewish calendar belonging to Naphtali Phillips, New York City, 1844. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 584
1830-1880
Joseph Seligman (1819-1880) was born in Baiersdorf, Germany and emigrated to the U.S. at the age of 18. He first worked as a peddler and then founded a clothing company with his brothers. They later established an extremely successful banking house, J. and W. Seligman, which had branches in New York, San Francisco, New Orleans, London, Paris and Frankfurt. In 1877, the refusal of the Grand Hotel in Saratoga Springs, NY to rent him a room drew national attention to the issue of anti-Semitism. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 586
1830-1880
Invitation to the fifth anniversary dinner of the German Hebrew Benevolent Society, New York City, 1848. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 587
1830-1880
August Belmont, official U.S. agent for the House of Rothschild. Silhouette portrait by August Edouart, New York City, 1839. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 588
1830-1880
William Irvin and Miss Susan Irvin (?). Silhouette portrait by August Edouart, Saratoga, NY, 1843. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 589
1968-2004
Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who became the first Jewish woman to be appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1993, visiting the grade school she attended, P.S. 238, in the Midwood section of Brooklyn, NY, 1994. Photo by Mark Bonifacio. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 594
1949-1967
A Jewish chaplain during the Korean War, ca. 1950. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 598
1968-2004
Leaflet for a meeting organized at Columbia University by Lights in Action, a Jewish students organization, New York City, ca. 1992. Active from 1992-2001, Lights in Action's mission was to foster Jewish identity. Its members devised innovative ways to reach a large campus audience with projects such as providing students with "Shabbat in a Box," a kit that made it easy to celebrate the sabbath in dorm rooms. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 599
1968-2004
Passover haggadah issued by the Boston Committee to Challenge Anti-Semitism, MA, ca. 1970s. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 600
1830-1880
Selina Seixas Moses (1838-1917) was born into one of the oldest and most prominent American Jewish families and she married into another. She was the granddaughter of Gershom Mendes Seixas, the first American-born leader of a congregation. This image is from a rare series of 8 daguerrotypes taken over a period of 16 years, which capture Selina from her early childhood though her adolescence and marriage. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 601
1968-2004
Pro-Soviet Jewry buttons, ca. 1970s. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 602
1968-2004
Abraham Beame, first Jewish mayor of New York City, ca. 1973. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 604
1881-1919
Cover of "The Association Bulletin," a publication of the Young Men's Hebrew Association (YMHA), 1881. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 606
1881-1919
Call for the establishment of an American Jewish Historical Society, 1892. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 607
1881-1919
Jewish immigrants being examined at Ellis Island, New York City, 1900. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 608
1881-1919
Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) greeting card depicting a ship moving from "darkness" (symbolized by the double eagle emblem of the Russian Empire) to "light" (American eagle), ca. 1910. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Postcards Collection.)

AJHS: 609
1881-1919
Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) greeting card, 1910. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Postcards Collection.)

AJHS: 610
1881-1919
Stationery of Hadassah-The Women's Zionist Organization of America, founded in 1912. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives)

AJHS: 611
1881-1919
Danzing's five-and-ten-cent store, 1915. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 612
1881-1919
"A Boychik Up-To-Date," New York, ca. 1910. Words by L. Gilrod; music by D. Meyrowitz. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 613
1881-1919
Board of the Jewish Publication Society of America (JPS), established in 1888 to publish books of Jewish content in English, Philadelphia, PA, 1917. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 614
1881-1919
Louise Waterman Wise and her daughter, Justine, ca. 1914. The wife of Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Louise was a tireless advocate for the protection of children. She founded the child adoption agency that now bears her name, and was the first American Jewish woman to be awarded the Order of the British Empire, an honor she declined in protest of Britain's politicies toward Jews in Palestine. Justine Wise Polier became the first woman judge in New York. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 616
1881-1919
Poster for Abraham Shomer's "The Green Millionaire," starring Boris Thomashefsky, at the Thomashefsky Theater, New York City, 1910. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters Collection.)

AJHS: 621
1881-1919
Basketball team of the Hebrew Orphans Asylum, n.d. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 622
1920-1939
Campers and counselors at one of the early Cejwin camps, ca. 1925. "Cejwin" was an acronym for Central Jewish Institute, a New York City Jewish education community center that in 1917 presided over the creation of what would become the first system of Jewish community and educational camps in the U.S. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Schoolman Family Papers.)

AJHS: 623
1920-1939
Campers at one of the early Cejwin camps, ca. 1925. "Cejwin" was an acronym for Central Jewish Institute, a New York City Jewish education community center that in 1917 presided over the creation of what would become the first system of Jewish community and educational camps in the U.S. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Schoolman Family Papers.)

AJHS: 624
1920-1939
Citizenship certificate of Riva Cohen, a Jewish immigrant living in Detroit, MI, 1932. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 627
1920-1939
Portrait of attendees at the 25th anniversary banquet of Mu Sigma, a Jewish college fraternity, New York City, 1931. Photo by American Flashlight Company. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Mu Sigma Fraternity Collection.)

AJHS: 629
1920-1939
Workmen's Circle choir, Milwaukee, WI, 1936. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 631
1920-1939
Portrait of attendees at the banquet of the United Kosher Butchers of Massachusetts, Mattapan, MA, 1928. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 635
1920-1939
"Judel gra na skrzypkach" (Yidl mitn fidl). "Yiddle with his Fiddle" was a Yiddish film shot in Poland in 1936 by an American Jewish director, Joseph Green and starring an American actress, Molly Picon. It was the first Yiddish film to become an international hit. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters Collection.)

AJHS: 639
1949-1967
David Ben-Gurion, prime minister of Israel, speaking at an event sponsored by Hadassah-The Women's Zionist Organization, ca. 1940s. Photo courtesy Israel Government Press Office. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 18 Photographs People Ben Gurion)

AJHS: 640
1940-1948
Hadassah members sewing for a "Palestine Supplies Project," Cleveland, OH, 1940s. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 18 Photographs Chapters Ohio Cleveland)

AJHS: 641
1920-1939
"The Young Judaean," Vol. XXII, No.7, May 1935. Journal of Young Judaea, the Zionist youth movement sponsored by Hadassah. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 17 Publications Young Judaean)

AJHS: 644
1654-1776
A promissory note, signed in Hebrew, by an unidentified person, for a sum of money owed to Aaron Isaacs, 1741. Isaacs was a merchant, landowner, active patriot, and a convert to Christianity. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Aaron Isaacs Papers, *P-272.)

AJHS: 645
1881-1919
Envelope for Lippman Brothers Druggists, Savannah, GA, 19th century. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 646
1881-1919
Members of the Spielberger family and/or their employees in the doorway of their grocery store, Akron, OH, ca. 1900. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Spielberger Family Papers.)

AJHS: 647
1920-1939
A carpentry class building a model house at the Baron de Hirsch Trade School, New York City, n.d. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Baron de Hirsch Fund Records.)

AJHS: 649
1920-1939
Henry Roth (1906-1995) and (?), (Place?), ca. 1990. Roth was the author of one of the most famous novels ever written about the American Jewish immigrant experience, "Call It Sleep." Published in 1934, the largely autobiographical book is a portrait of a timid young Jewish boy in New York City. Roth later wrote a 4-volume autobiographical cycle, "The Mercy of a Rude Stream." (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Henry Roth Papers.)

AJHS: 651
1968-2004
Historian Lucy Dawidowicz (1915-1990). After living in Vilna, Poland during 1938-1939 to study at the YIVO Scientific Institute and escaping to the U.S. only days before the outbreak of WWII, Dawidowicz returned to Europe in 1946 to work with Jewish Holocaust survivors and to retrieve stolen books for YIVO. She later went on to publish important works of scholarship on the Holocaust and East European Jewry, as well as on Jewish life in America. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Lucy Dawidowicz Papers.)

AJHS: 652
1881-1919
Yiddish theater star Molly Picon (left) in "The Jolly Orphan," ca. 1918. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Molly Picon Papers.)

AJHS: 653
1654-1776
View of New Amsterdam, ca. 1670. Originally published in Arnoldus Montanus, "De Nieuwe en Onbekende Weereld, of Beschrijving van America" (Amsterdam: 1671). (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 654
1654-1776
The earliest known view of New Amsterdam, ca. 1626, when it was a fortified trading post on the tip of Manhattan. This drawing was probably made by Cryn Fredericksz, an employee of the West India Company, who visited the colony in 1625-26. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 655
1881-1919
Yiddish Rosh Hashanah greeting card, ca. 1910. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Postcards Collection.)

AJHS: 657
1654-1776
The Spanish Inquisition pursued "secret" Jews in the New World as well as the Old. This proceso, or transcript, of the 1590 trial of Miguel Hernandez de Almeijda in Mexico City records the efforts of the Inquisitors to convict him of professing himself to be a Catholic while secretly practicing Judaism. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Mexican Inquisition Collection.)

AJHS: 659
1920-1939
A street on the Lower East Side, New York City, 1934. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work Records.)

AJHS: 660
1881-1919
Interior of the synagogue in Surinam, 1882. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Sephardic Jewish communities were formed in the Caribbean Islands. American Jewish families, such as the Gomez, Seixas, and Lyons families, had branches in Jamaica, Surinam, or Barbados, as well as in Charleston, South Carolina, or New York. Ships' manifests give witness to a lively shipping trade in sugar, indigo, and tobacco between the island families and North American merchants. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 663
1881-1919
"The Hand That Rocked My Cradle Rules My Heart," 1919. Words and music by Irving Berlin. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 665
1654-1776
Page from the Misheberach of Shearith Israel, the oldest Jewish congregation in the U.S., founded in 1730. This book, written in Portuguese, dates from 1759 and contains information about ceremonies and early members of the synagogue. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Congregation Shearith Israel Records.)

AJHS: 666
1777-1829
Sampler of the 78th Psalm, embroidered by Rebecca Hendricks (1740-1844), New York City (?), late 18th century. Linen with cotton thread. Gift of Mrs. Louisa Salomon Hendricks. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 668
1881-1919
Silver sabbath candlesticks (one with a bullet hole) brought to the U.S. by the family of Edis Cetebrenick Grossman and her husband Jacob from Kiev in 1892. During a pogrom in the late 1880s, a bullet ripped through one of the candlesticks. The family continued to use the candlesticks at their new home in Boston. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 670
1881-1919
Knives used to slaughter according to kosher law, brought from Russia to the U.S. by Rabbi Joseph Lifland, ca. 1890s. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 671
1940-1948
A menorah made for Jewish chaplain Joseph Shubow by Jewish Holocaust survivors, 1945. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

: 672
1920-1939
Page from "An Open Letter to Jewish Business and Professional Women," a recruitment brochure published by Hadassah, 1938. (Hadassah Archives/RG 17 Pamphlets Membership)

AJHS: 673
1920-1939
S. Coltoff's smoke shop, Lower East Side, New York City, 1934. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work Records.)

YIVO: 677
1949-1967
Comedian Henny Youngman, ca. 1953. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639)

YIVO: 678

Interior of the Touro Synagogue, the oldest synagogue building in the U.S., dedicated in 1763, Newport, RI. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639)

YIVO: 679
1920-1939
Helena Rubinstein, a Jewish immigrant from Poland who began her cosmetics empire at the age of 18 in Australia with a single face cream, U.S., ca. 1940s. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639)

YIVO: 680
1920-1939
Montefiore Hospital, Bronx, NY, ca. 1929. The hospital was founded in 1884 by prominent members of New York City's Jewish community to provide care for patients with chronic illnesses such as tuberculosis, cancer, and heart disease. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639)

YIVO: 681
1920-1939
Graduation portrait of students of the Sea Gate Hebrew Institute, with Rabbi Israel Elfenbein, Brooklyn, NY, 1934. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 Israel Elfenbein)

YIVO: 682
1920-1939
New York City rabbi Israel Elfenbein (l), his wife, and Louis De Witt, a Reform rabbi from St. Louis, on a visit to Egypt, 1923. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 Israel Elfenbein)

YIVO: 683
1920-1939
Yiddish poet Mani Leib as the guest of honor at the 2nd annual Workmen's Circle children's conference in Roxsbury, Dorchester, Lynn, and Peabody, MA, ca. 1920s. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 Mani Leib 1)

YIVO: 684
1830-1880
Beth El Synagogue, 34th Street and Broadway, New York City, ca. 1852. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 349)

YIVO: 685
1830-1880
Carte de visite portrait of an unidentified rabbi, Baltimore, MD, ca. 1860s. Photo by Selby and McCauley. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 719)

YIVO: 686
1830-1880
New Year's Day portrait of the Hamburger brothers and their wives, place unknown, 1877. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 718)

YIVO: 687
1830-1880
First officers of the Harmonie Club, a social club founded in New York City by German Jews in 1852. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 598)

YIVO: 688
1949-1967
Rabbi Max Felshin (left) of the Radio City Synagogue leading a parade to celebrate the gift of a new Torah scroll in honor of the 300th anniversary of Jewish settlement in North America; the 3000th anniversary of Jerusalem; and the 13th anniversary of the synagogue, New York City, 1954. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 122)

ASF: 689
1949-1967
A plaque in a settlement for new immigrants in Israel honoring benefactors Rabbi David and Tamar de Sola Pool, Sephardic communal activists from the U.S., ca. 1950. (ASF)

ASF: 690
1949-1967
Circular from the Sephardic Jewish Center of the Bronx, NY, 1951. This synagogue was formed in 1948 as a merger of several Sephardic organizations. (ASF)

YUM: 694
1940-1948
Torah wimpel, made by Rev. Reuben Eshwege; ink and gouache on cotton, New York City, 1946. Wimpels are Torah binders crafted from the cloth used to wrap an infant at his circumcision. This example was made by and for German Jewish emigres living in New York City's Washington Heights neighborhood and features 1940s decorative motifs, such as a grapefruit topped with a maraschino cherry and a sofa from the family's furniture store. (YUM 94.166)

YUM: 695
1920-1939
"The Adventures of K'ton Ton," by Sadie Rose Weilerstein; illustrations by Jeannette Berkowitz. NY: League Press, 1935. A Jewish version of the Tom Thumb story that has become a classic, with many reprints since its first edition. (YUM 98.903 The Jean Moldovan Collection, Gift of the Jesselson Family)

YUM: 697
1940-1948
Poster stamp issued during World War II by the Council Against Intolerance, an organization that promoted intergroup tolerance and racial equality, depicting President Franklin D. Roosevelt, inscribed "Keep America United," New York City, ca. 1944. (YUM 2001.48a)

YIVO: 700
1777-1829
Title page of "Tsofnas Paneyakh" (Revelation of the Hidden) translated by Khaykl Hurwitz (1750-1822), Berditshev, 1817. This Yiddish translation of a book about the discovery of America by German author Joachim Heinrich Campe was the work of a pioneer of the Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment) in Russia. It was the first book published in modern Yiddish and the first book in Yiddish about America. It became popular reading among Jews in Eastern Europe. (YIVO Library/ Rare Book Room)

YIVO: 701
1777-1829
A page from "Tsofnas Paneyakh" (Revelation of the Hidden) translated by Khaykl Hurwitz (1750-1822), Berditshev, 1817. With an inscription mentioning the "discovery of America by the great genius Columbus." This Yiddish translation of a book about the discovery of America by German author Joachim Heinrich Campe was the work of a pioneer of the Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment) in Russia. It was the first book published in modern Yiddish and the first book in Yiddish about America. (YIVO Library/Rare Book Room)

YIVO: 702
1920-1939
Title page of "Ayola," by Moshe Toltshin, Chicago: Tseshinkis Farlag, 1933. The inscription is from the author to Shmuel Niger, the well-known literary critic, "the arbiter of the worth of every Yiddish book." (YIVO Library)

YIVO: 703
1920-1939
Title page of "Vagabundyade" (Vagabondage), by Ezekiel Brownstone, Chicago: Tseshinkis Farlag, 1935. The books produced by Tseshinkis Farlag, a Yiddish publishing house in Chicago, were known for their attractive graphic design. (YIVO Library)

YIVO: 704
1920-1939
Cover of "Dos gezang fun neger folk" (The Song of the Negro) by Zishe Bagish, Chicago: L.M. Stein, 1936. This book presents Yiddish translations of poems by Langston Hughes (the celebrated poet of the Harlem Renaissance), as well as a selection of African-American spirituals. The translator was Zishe Bagish (B. Vaysman), a Polish Yiddish poet with communist affiliations who died during the Holocaust. (YIVO Library)

AJHS: 705
1777-1829
Grace Seixas Nathan (Mrs. Simon Nathan; 1752-1831), by Henry Inman (1801-1846), ca. 1820; pen and ink on paper. Gift of Sarah Lyons. Poet, patriot, wife, and mother, Nathan dedicated her mind and heart to her family, religion, and country. The 7th child of Isaac and Rachel Levy Mendes in New York City, she fled with her family to settle in Philadelphia in the wake of the Revolution. There she met and married her husband, Simon Nathan in 1780. Her life with Simon is reflected in her family letters and a book of unpublished poems. Grace's literary interests were inherited by her great-granddaughter, the poet Emma Lazarus. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

YIVO: 707
1968-2004
Cover of a 2005 edition of "The Provincials: A Personal History of Jews in the South," by Eli N. Evans (University of North Carolina Press). First published in 1973, this book was one of the first books to survey the history and contributions of Jews to the South. The collage on the cover by Marilyn Cohen depicts Evans' mother's family, the Nachamsons of Kinston and Durham, NC, and was chosen to represent North Carolina as part of a project of fifty paintings entitled "Where Did They Go When They Came to America." (Courtesy of Eli N. Evans)

YIVO: 732
1920-1939
Certificate testifying that Manischewitz Matzohs are kosher, issued by the Union of Orthodox Rabbis, New York City, 1930. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 171)

AJHS: 756
1654-1776
David and Phila Franks (1720-1794; 1722-1811), attributed to Gerardus Duyckinck (1695-1746), ca. 1735; oil on canvas. Gift of Captain N. Taylor Phillips. David and Phila are the children of Abigail Levy Franks and Jacob Franks. Among the Franks' 9 children, 6 are known to have reached adulthood. Naphtali and Moses married Jewish women while David and Phila took Christian spouses. It is not known if the other children wed. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 773
1777-1829
Simon Nathan (1746-1822), by Henry Inman (1801-1846), ca. 1820; pen and ink on paper. Gift of Sarah Lyons. Shortly after his 1773 arrival in America, English-born merchant Simon Nathan had the opportunity to establish himself as a patriot. Nathan provided Governor Thomas Jefferson of Virginia with an interest-free loan of 300,000 continental dollars to clothe 500 men at Fort Pitt. Nathan's ongoing generosity resulted in a significant financial loss from which he never recovered, yet he continued to prosper as a public figure. He moved to Philadelphia around 1780, where he met and married Grace Mendes Seixas. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 788
1777-1829
Adolphus Simeon Solomons (1826-1910), artist unknown, ca. 1828; watercolor over a photograph. Adolphus Simeon Solomons was a member of the editorial staff of several New York newspapers, active in Washington political affairs, and was a spokesman for the Jewish community in Washington and American Jewry as a whole. He was a founding member of the American Red Cross and helped found Mount Sinai Hospital. Solomons was also appointed as general agent for the Baron de Hirsch Fund in the U.S. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 789
1777-1829
Uriah Phillips Levy (1792-1862), artist unknown, ca. 1816; oil on canvas. Gift of Amelia Levy Mayhoff. Levy was born to a distinguished Philadelphia family. In 1802, at the age of 10, he ran away from home and went to sea. Over the next 60 years, he rose from cabin boy to Commodore of the Mediterranean fleet of the U.S. Navy. This portrait is believed to have been painted to mark Levy's promotion to the rank of lieutenant in 1816. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 790
1830-1880
Emma Lazarus (1849-1887), New York City, 1886. Lazarus, a celebrated poet of the 19th century, was a daughter of a wealthy Jewish family who grew up in New York and Newport, RI. As a young poet, she became a protegee of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Moved by the plight of Russian Jewish immigrants, she wrote her most famous poem, "The New Colossus" (now emblazoned on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty), in 1883. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 795
1830-1880
Rabbi Sabato Morais (1823-1897), Sephardic Jewish leader, poet, historian, and educator, studied for the rabbinate in his native Livorno, Italy before serving as the Minister of the Spanish and Portuguese Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia from 1851-1897. He was one of the principle founders of the Jewish Theological Seminary, established in New York City in 1886. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

YIVO: 536
1949-1967
Holocaust commemoration event in Times Square, New York City, 1965. Photo by Joseph Brown. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 678)

YIVO: 537
1949-1967
The Fontainebleau Hotel, Miami Beach, FL, ca. 1960. Reviled by architectural critics when it was completed in 1954, Morris Lapidus's flamboyant creation was popular with the public. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 786)

YIVO: 538
1949-1967
Members of the Shomrim Society, the fraternal organization of Jewish police officers of the New York City Police Department, unveiling a monument to fallen Jewish policemen, ca. 1950s. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 619)

YIVO: 539
1968-2004
Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry rally, New York City, ca. 1970s. Photo by Mike Zwerling. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 620)

YIVO: 540
1949-1967
Pro-Soviet Jewry rally, ca. 1960s. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 620)

YIVO: 541
1949-1967
The chorus of Brandeis University and several bands performing the national anthems of the U.S. and Israel at a celebration in honor of the 10th anniversary of the State of Israel, at the Polo Grounds, New York City, 1958. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 607)

YIVO: 542
1949-1967
Boy Scout troupe 404, sponsored by Young Israel of Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, holding a model seder led by Harry Lowenbraun, ca. 1950s. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 612)

YIVO: 543
1949-1967
Children with the "Maccabee" revolving dreidel, a Hannukah decoration manufactured by the Dra-Dell Corp., North Bergen, NJ, ca. 1960s. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 415)

YIVO: 544
1949-1967
Congregation Beth Jacob, established in 1925, erected this new synagogue in Beverly Hills, CA in 1954. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 346)

YIVO: 545
1949-1967
Louis Blumberg, president of the Jewish Postal Workers Welfare League, giving a donation on behalf of the organization to Monroe Goldwater, co-chairman of the United Jewish Appeal, as Albert Goldman, Postmaster of the City of New York, looks on, ca. 1949. Photo by Irving Kaufman. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 274)

YIVO: 546
1949-1967
Hebrew Culture Club at New York University, New York City, ca. 1950s. Photo by Edward Ozern. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 105)

YIVO: 547
1949-1967
An exhibition of the works of Yiddish writer Isaac Leib Peretz at Harvard University's Widener Library, Cambridge, MA, 1952. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 106)

YIVO: 548
1968-2004
Orthodox rabbis with President Ronald Reagan in the White House during Hannukah, Washington, DC, 1987. Official White House photograph. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 736)

YIVO: 549
1949-1967
Rendering of North Shore Congregation Israel Temple, designed by Minoru Yamasaki, later the architect of the World Trade Center, Glencoe, IL, 1960. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 362)

YIVO: 550
1949-1967
Eliakum and Mildred Kipnis, B'nai Brith Hillel chaperones, Iowa City, IA, 1949. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 266)

YIVO: 551
1949-1967
Mrs. Phylis Acker receiving the first degree ever granted by Brandeis University from President Abram Leon Sachar (center) and Chairman George Alpert, Waltham, MA, 1952. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 248)

YIVO: 552
1949-1967
Members of the Jewish War Veterans meeting with New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey to urge his support for legislation barring discrimination in colleges and universities, Albany, NY, ca. 1950s. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 245)

YIVO: 553
1949-1967
Israeli prime minister David Ben-Gurion presenting an 18th-century menorah to U.S. president Harry S. Truman in the White House as Israeli ambassador Abba Eban looks on, Washington, DC, 1951. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 Ben Gurion 2)

YIVO: 554
1949-1967
Birdie Amsterdam, the first woman elected to the New York Supreme Court, New York City, ca. 1957. Photo by Bruno of Hollywood. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 Birdie Amsterdam)

YIVO: 555
1968-2004
Menachem Mendel Schneersohn, the Lubavitcher Rebbe, New York City, ca. 1980s. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 M. Schneershohn)

YIVO: 556
1949-1967
Author Bernard Malamud, winner of the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award in 1966 for his novel, "The Fixer." Photo by and courtesy of Janna Malamud. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 Bernard Malamud)

YIVO: 557
1949-1967
Drawing of Golda Meir from an invitation to an Israel Bond Fashion Show held at the Fontainebleau Hotel, Miami, FL, 1966. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 Golda Meir)

YIVO: 558
1968-2004
Israel prime minister Golda Meir at the White House with President Richard M. Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Washington, D.C., ca. 1973. Official White House photo. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 Golda Meir)

YIVO: 560
1968-2004
Rabbi Ellis MacLeod of Beth Emeth, a congregation of Black Jews, presenting New York State Attorney General Louis J. Lefkowitz with a prayerbook, New York, n.d. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639 Louis Lefkowitz)

YIVO: 561
1920-1939
Actor Eddie Cantor at an unidentified event, ca. 1930s. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639 Eddie Cantor)

YIVO: 562
1920-1939
Emmanuel Celler, member of Congress from New York City from 1923 to 1973, in a portrait marked up for printing in the Yiddish newspaper, "Der Tog" (The Day), ca. 1923. As a congressman, Celler was particularly involved in fighting for pro-immigration legislation. Photo by Harris and Ewing. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639 Emmanuel Celler)

YIVO: 563
1949-1967
Rabbi Eugene Borowitz (with Torah scrolls) officiating at Rosh Hashanah services at a Navy training center, Bainbridge, MD, ca. 1960s. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639 Eugene Borowitz)

YIVO: 564
1949-1967
Herman Wouk, author of "The Caine Mutiny" (1951), "Marjorie Morningstar" (1955), "The Winds of War" (1971), and many other novels, n.d. Photo by Angelo Pinto. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639 Herman Wouk)

YIVO: 565
1881-1919
The "Jewish Daily Forward" building, Lower East Side, New York, ca. 1920s. The "Forverts" (Forward) was founded as a daily in 1897 and became the most widely read Yiddish newspaper in the U.S. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 410)

YIVO: 566
1881-1919
Teachers and students of a Talmud Torah (community-run religious school), New Britain, CT, ca. 1910. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 17)

YIVO: 567
1881-1919
Printers of the Hebrew Publishing Company, New York City, 1909. Yiddish sign on the wall: "No Smoking." (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 47)

YIVO: 568
1881-1919
Members of the Jewish War Relief Association, one of many groups that raised money to aid Jews in Europe during WWI, Yonkers, NY, 1915. A note on the back of the photo claims that this group raised "thousands of dollars." (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 19)

YIVO: 569
1881-1919
Union organizer and socialist Rose Schneiderman in 1905, around the time she founded the Jewish Socialist United Cloth Hat and Cap Makers' Union. She later went on to become the president of the Women's Trade Union League and to play a leading role in establishing the International Ladies Garment Workers Union. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities Collection, RG 121 Rose Schneiderman)

YIVO: 571
1881-1919
Molly (Malke) Mendelson, Scranton, PA, ca. 1910. Photo by Schriever's Postal Photo. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 352)

YIVO: 572
1881-1919
View across Central Park of Temple Beth-El, the result of an 1874 merger between Anshe Chesed (est. 1828) and Adas Jeshurun (est. 1866), New York City, ca. 1900. In 1926, Beth-El merged with Temple Emanu-El. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 354)

YIVO: 573
1881-1919
A group of young men with an early edition of the "Forverts" (Forward), the Yiddish newspaper founded by Abraham Cahan in 1897. (The man holding the newspaper may be Cahan.) (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 574
1881-1919
Tinted postcard of Temple Emanuel, Denver, CO, ca. 1900. The congregation erected this building, now a Historic Landmark, in 1899 after a fire destroyed its previous synagogue. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 369)

AJHS: 502
1654-1776
Rachel Levy Seixas (Mrs. Isaac Mendes Seixas, 1719-1797), attributed to John Wollaston (active c. 1733-1775), 1750; oil on canvas. Gift of Captain N. Taylor Phillips. Rachel Levy was the oldest of 7 children born to Grace Mears Levy and Moses Raphael Levy (making her the half-sister of Abigail Levy Franks). She married London merchant Isaac Mendes Seixas in 1740. The young couple moved to New Jersey where Isaac opened a small country store. Gershom Mendes Seixas, who became the spiritual leader of Shearith Israel, was one of their 8 children. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 503
1777-1829
Zipporah Levy Seixas (Mrs. Benjamin Seixas) (1760-1832), artist unknown, ca. 1800; pen and ink; watercolor. Estate of Capt. N. Taylor Phillips. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 504
1777-1829
Adolphus (1826-1910) and Mary Jane Solomons (1818-1905), artist unknown, ca. 1827; oil on canvas. Gift of Estate of Irma P. Sellars. This painting of Adolphus, at 19 months of age, and his older sister Mary Jane, age 9, is believed to be one of the only pieces of evidence that exists regarding her life. The son of journalist John Solomons and Julia Levy Solomons and a great-grandson of Moses Raphael Levy, Adolphus spent the first 33 years of his life in New York, where he met and married Rachel Seixas Phillips. In 1859, Adolphus and Rachel moved their family of four daughters to Washington, D.C. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 480
1920-1939
Signature of composer George Gershwin. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 481
1920-1939
Flyer urging American Jews to support the American Jewish Congress and its activism in defense of Jews in Nazi Germany, New York City, 1933. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 482
1920-1939
Children on New York City's Lower East Side, 1934. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work Records.)

AJHS: 483
1940-1948
Detroit Tigers banner, ca. 1940. This was the last season that the team's star hitter Hank Greenberg played before volunteering for army service. He returned in 1945 to resume his baseball career. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 484
1920-1939
A street on the Lower East Side, New York City, 1933 or 1934. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work Records.)

AJHS: 485
1940-1948
Identity card of lawyer Raphael Lemkin, legal advisor to the U.S. Chief Prosecutor at the Nuremberg trials, 1946. In 1944, Lemkin had published "Axis Rule in Occupied Europe," in which the word "genocide" appeared in print for the first time. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Raphael Lemkin Papers.)

AJHS: 486
1949-1967
Jewish debutante ball, High Point, NC, 1952. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 488
1968-2004
Holocaust survivor and grandson, 1981. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 489
1968-2004
Sally Priesand, the first woman rabbi, ordained by the Reform movement's Hebrew Union College in 1972. Photo by and courtesy of Dr. Karla Goldman. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 493
1777-1829
Rachel Machado Phillips Levy (Mrs. Michael Levy;(1769-1839), attributed to Adolph Ulrich Wertmuller (1751-1811), ca. 1795; oil on canvas. Purchase from Daphne Engstrom. Daughter of Jonas Phillips and Rebecca Machado, Rachel was the 6th of their 21 children. In 1787, she married Philadelphia merchant Michael Levy; their children included naval hero Uriah Phillips Levy. Rachel would have been in her mid-twenties, already the mother of 5 children, when this portrait was done. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 494
1830-1880
Uriah Phillips Levy (1792-1862) was born to distinguished Philadelphia family, 4th of 10 children of Michael Levy and Rachel Phillips Levy. In 1802, at the age of 10, he ran away from home and went to sea. Over the next 60 years, he rose from cabin boy to Commodore of the Mediterranean fleet of the U.S. Navy. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 495
1777-1829
A gentleman of the Lopez family, artist unknown, early 19th century; oil on canvas. Gift of Captain N. Taylor Phillips. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 496
1777-1829
Aaron Lopez (1731-1782), artist unknown, date unknown; pastel. Gift of Estate of N. Taylor Phillips. Aaron Lopez was a Jewish merchant and philanthropist from Newport, RI. The Lopez family moved from Portugal to Newport in the 1750s and became active in shipping, whaling, and the manufacture of candles. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 497
1830-1880
Isaac Moses, Jr. (1819-1889), by Jacob Hart Lazarus (1822-1891), n.d.; oil on canvas. Gift of Blanche Moses. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 500
1777-1829
Jonas Phillips (1736-1803), attributed to Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827), ca. 1790; oil on canvas. Bequest of Isaac Graff, Esq. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 501
1830-1880
Naphtali Phillips (1773-1870), attributed to James Herring (1794-1867); oil on canvas. Gift of Captain N. Taylor Phillips. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

YIVO: 358
1968-2004
Playbill for "Esther: A Vaudeville Megillah" by Liz Swados at the Mosaic Theater, 92nd St Y, New York City, 1988. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 20 Folder 87/88)

YIVO: 359
1920-1939
Fundraising brochure highlighting the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee's rescue of Jewish refugees stranded on the Czechoslovakian-Hungarian border, 1938. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 20 Folder "UJA/JDC")

YIVO: 360
1940-1948
"In That Spirit We Go Forward." United Jewish Appeal fundraising brochure, ca. 1942, with a photograph of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill meeting aboard an American cruiser off the coast of Newfoundland in summer 1941 before America's entry into WWII. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 20 Folder "UJA/JDC")

YIVO: 361
1881-1919
Yiddish handbill advertising a rally featuring an appearances by socialist leader Eugene Debs, socialist congressman Meyer London, labor leader Joseph Barondess, and Abrahan Cahan, editor of the Yiddish newspaper, the "Forverts" (Forward), New York City, ca. 1916. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 21 Folder XI)

YIVO: 362
1949-1967
"With pride in our past and faith in our future." Fundraising brochure for the Reform movement's Union of American Hebrew Congregations, New York City, 1951-1952. "In other days,and other lands men suffered and died for the right to worship as they please. Here in free America all we are required to do by custom and tradition is maintain the institutions of our faith out of our own resources." (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 20 Folder "UAHC")

YIVO: 363
1881-1919
Confirmation certificate of Moses Cahn, Congregation Rodeph Shalom, New York City, 1896. (YIVO/David Cahn Papers, RG 1211 Box 1 Folder "Misc Material")

YIVO: 364
1881-1919
Order of service at the dedication of the synagogue of Cong. Shaar Hashomajim, New York City, 1889. (YIVO/David Cahn Papers, RG 1211 Box 1 Folder "Misc Material")

YIVO: 365
1830-1880
Cantor David Cahn, president of the Cantors Organization of America, with Pinchas Minkowsky, chief cantor of Odessa, at a resort in Germany, ca. 1890s. (YIVO/David Cahn Papers, RG 1211 Box 1 Folder "Misc Material")

YIVO: 366
1881-1919
Spoof booklet in honor of the wedding of Moe J. (Moses) Cahn, son of cantor David Cahn, and Renee Alexander, New York City, 1909. (YIVO/David Cahn Papers, RG 1211 Box 1 Folder "Misc Material")

YIVO: 367
1881-1919
Program of the memorial service for Jewish veterans of the Spanish-American War at Rodeph Shalom synagogue, New York City, 1905. (YIVO/David Cahn Papers, RG 1211 Box 1 Folder "Misc Material")

YIVO: 369
1881-1919
Invitation to a benefit concert given for "a distressed widow with six children" by cantor David Cahn, New York City, 1881. (YIVO/David Cahn Papers, RG 1211 Box 1 Scrapbook)

LBI: 371
1830-1880
"Judisches Schulwesen in Amerika" (Jewish Education in America), by Bernard Felsenthal, Chicago, 1866. A book based on a lecture delivered by Felsenthal, a leader of American Reform Judaism, in 1865 at Ramah, a B'nai Brith lodge in Chicago. (LBI/Library)

YIVO: 372
1940-1948
A young Jewish girl who had been hidden by non-Jews in Poland during the war arriving on the S.S. Batory in New York on her way to a new home with her uncle in Toronto, Canada, ca. 1948. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 133)

YIVO: 373
1949-1967
Jewish Holocaust survivors arriving in the U.S. aboard the S.S. General Stewart, wearing buttons of the United Service for New Americans, their sponsoring aid organization, 1951. A note on the back of the photograph states that this mother and son would be settled in Springfield, MA. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 133)

YIVO: 374
1940-1948
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, n.d. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities, RG 121 Stephen Wise)

YIVO: 376
1949-1967
Jewish Holocaust survivors from Czechoslovakia arriving at LaGuardia Airport, New York, 1949. (YIVO/Records, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, RG 335.9 US 1)

AJHS: 378
1654-1776
Bilhah Abigail Franks (1696-1756), attributed to Gerardus Duyckinck (1695-1746), ca. 1735; oil on canvas. Gift of Captain N. Taylor Phillips. Abigail, the daughter of Moses Raphael Levy and Richea Asher Levy, married merchant Jacob Franks in 1712. Her letters to her son Naphtali constitute an important record of American Jewish colonial life. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 380
1654-1776
David and Phila Franks (1720-1794; 1722-1811), attributed to Gerardus Duyckinck (1695-1746), ca. 1735; oil on canvas. Gift of Captain N. Taylor Phillips. David and Phila are the children of Abigail Levy Franks and Jacob Franks. Among the Franks' 9 children, 6 are known to have reached adulthood. Naphtali and Moses married Jewish women while David and Phila took Christian spouses. It is not known if the other children wed. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 381
1654-1776
Jacob Franks (1688-1769), attributed to Gerardus Duyckinck (1695-1746), ca. 1735; oil on canvas. Gift of Captain N. Taylor Phillips. Son of a London broker, Jacob Franks immigrated to New York City around 1708 and married Abigail Levy in 1712. They had 9 children. Franks was one of 4 men to lay the cornerstone of Congregation Shearith Israel's Mill Street Synagogue in 1729, and served as its "parnas" in 1730. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 382
1654-1776
Phila Franks (1722-1811), attributed to Gerardus Duyckinck (1695-1746); oil on canvas. Gift of Captain N.Taylor Phillips. Phila was the oldest daughter of Abigail Levy Franks and Jacob Franks. In 1742, she eloped with Oliver Delancey, son of a prominent Huguenot New York merchant family. The couple were Loyalists during the American Revolution and moved permanently to England after the war. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 383
1777-1829
Michael Gratz (1740-1811), attributed to Thomas Sully (1783-1872), ca. 1805-1808; oil on canvas. Michael Gratz arrived in Philadelphia in 1758 with a pioneering passion for the potential of the frontier. His firm, B. and M. Gratz, formed in partnership with his brother, Barnard, redefined boundaries in American business. Some of its business involved land speculation in the West, fur trade based in the Ohio River Valley, and a kosher meat contract in Curacao. Michael married Miriam Simon of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in June of 1769. Rebecca Gratz, founder of the first Jewish Sunday school, was one of their 12 children. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 384
1777-1829
Jacob Hart, Sr. (1746-1822), by Philip Parisen (d.1822), 1818; oil on canvas. Gift of the Phillips Family. Born in Hurth, Bavaria, Hart immigrated to America, settling in Baltimore at age 29. A merchant and a patriot, he supplied General Lafayette's troops with clothing and shoes to aid in their 1781 campaign against the British. Hart married Leah Nathan of Philadelphia in 1771. The couple settled in New York with their family of 13 children, where Hart played an active role in the leadership of Shearith Israel, serving as its "parnas" in 1800. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 385
1777-1829
Leah Nathan Hart (1760-1854), by Philip Parisen (d. 1822), 1818; oil on canvas. Gift of Mrs. Zillan and Rebecca Jacobs. A bride at age 19, Leah had 13 children and dozens of grandchildren by the time her portrait was painted in 1818, at age 58. Leah Nathan and her twin sister, Rachel, were the oldest children in a family of 5 daughters born to Caroline Webb and Lyon Nathan, the first Jewish sexton in Philadelphia. After marriage to Jacob Hart in 1777, Leah moved with him first to Baltimore and then to New York. She died at the age of 93. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 386
1777-1829
Nathan Hart (1797-1857), by Philip Parisen (d.1822), 1818; oil on canvas. Gift of of Mrs. Zillah and Rebecca Jacobs. Nathan Hart was born as one of a set of twins to Leah and Jacob Hart in New York. Neither Nathan nor his twin brother, Leon, ever married. According to the records of Nathan's estate, he lived a modest life in his home on Elm Street in New York and counted various Jewish books among his possessions. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 387
1654-1776
Title page of "A Grammar of the Hebrew Tongue" by Judah Monis, Boston, MA, 1735. In the 18th century, Harvard College required every undergraduate to study Hebrew so that he could read the Bible in its original language. Rabbi Judah Monis moved from New York to Cambridge to join the faculty of Harvard and become its Hebrew instructor. As a condition of joining the faculty, however, Monis had to convert to Christianity, a choice that he later claimed to have made of his own free will. His grammar book was the first Hebrew instruction text printed in America. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 388
1654-1776
Page from the circumcision register of Abraham I. Abrahams, New York City, 1768. Abrahams acted as a "mohel" (circumciser) and rabbi for Congregation Shearith Israel. This registry of circumcisions contains 81 names of the adults, children, and babies that Abrahams circumcised in states all along the east coast. Among the listings is a 56-year-old man and his 3 sons, as well as "Levy Moses' son Jacob in Prison at Jamaica, Long Island." Abrahams also worked as a distiller, snuffmaker, tobacconist, and merchant, and served as a New York constable in 1753. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection.)

AJHS: 389
1654-1776
"Evening Service of Roshashanah and Kippur, or The Beginning of the Year, and Day of Atonement," New York, 1761. The author of this prayerbook is anonymous but is believed to be Isaac Pinto. Together with "Prayers for Shabbath, Rosh-Hashanah and Kippur," published in 1766, it constitutes the first translation of a Jewish prayer book into English in America. This copy of the book was owned by Simeon Levy of Newport, RI. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. A.S.W. Rosenbach Rare Book Collection.)

AJHS: 390
1654-1776
"Prayers for Shabbath, Rosh-Hashanah and Kippur," by Isaac Pinto, New York, 1766. Together with "Evening Service of Roshashanah and Kippur, or The Beginning of the Year, and Day of Atonement," believed to have been published anonymously by Pinto in 1761, it constitutes the first translation of a Jewish prayer book into English in America. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. A.S.W. Rosenbach Rare Book Collection.)

AJHS: 392
1654-1776
Ketubbah (marriage contract) of Haym Salomon (1740-1785) and Rachel Franks, New York City, 1777. Polish-born Salomon was drawn to the patriot cause shortly after his arrival in New York. Arrested as a spy by the British in 1776 and sent to military prison, his life was spared in exchange for his interpreter services in the commissary department, where he secretly assisted patriot prisoners to escape. During the war, he married 15-year-old Rachel, the daughter of Moses B. Franks. Salomon later fled to Philadelphia, were he became a successful broker and commissioner, serving the French army and the U.S. He is often referred to as the "Financier of the Revolution." (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 393

Prayer for George Washington. One of the regular features of Jewish religious services in the U.S. is the Prayer for Government. This prayer, composed and delivered by Gershom Mendes Seixas at Shearith Israel synagogue in New York City in 1784, calls on God to protect General George Washington and Governor George Clinton. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection)

AJHS: 394

Circumcision set and trunk of the Seixas family, assembled by Isaac Mendes Seixas (ca. 1708-ca. 1780) in the mid-18th century. The circumcision clip was probably commissioned from New York's leading silversmith, Myer Myers (1723-1795). (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Seixas Family Papers.)

AJHS: 395
1654-1776
Ark lintel from the home of Joseph Simon, Lancaster, PA, mid-18th century. Before there were synagogues in many communities, colonial Jews not only prayed at private homes, but also fashioned their own ritual objects. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 396
1654-1776
Page from the notebook of Rachel Gratz (1764-1831), the daughter of Philadelphia merchant Bernard Gratz, who, among his many endeavors, was involved in opening up the West for trade. Rachel's notebook, composed of carefully transcribed math lessons, is indicative of the value placed on education during the mid-1700s, when paper was expensive and public education scarce. Rachel was later second wife to Solomon Etting, a crusader for Jewish civil rights in Maryland. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Gratz Family Papers.)

AJHS: 397
1777-1829
B'nai Jeshurun Synagogue, New York, NY, 1827. In 1825, a group of members from Cong. Shearith Israel,where Sephardic-style ritual held sway, broke away and formed B'nai Jeshurun, New York's first Ashkenazic synagogue. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection.)

AJHS: 398
1830-1880
"On the Truth of a Revelation," a Sermon by Sabato Morais, Philadelphia, PA, ca. 1850. Sabato Morais, a rabbi and reformist, later became one of the founders of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 399
1830-1880
Daguerrotype portrait of Judah Touro (1775-1840), the first great American Jewish philanthropist and one of the first American philanthropists of any religion. Son of the spiritual leader of the Newport synagogue, Touro contributed the funds for a synagogue and Jewish hospital in New Orleans, the building of a Bunker Hill monument in Boston, and the restoration of the synagogue in Newport, which now bears his name. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 400
1830-1880
Selina Seixas Moses (1838-1917) was born into one of the oldest and most prominent American Jewish families and she married into another. She was the granddaughter of Gershom Mendes Seixas, the first American-born leader of a congregation. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 401

Rebecca Gratz (1781-1869), founder of America's first independent Jewish women's charitable society, the first Jewish Sunday school, the Philadelphia Orphan Asylum, and the first Jewish Foster Home in Philadelphia. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Gratz Family Papers.)

AJHS: 402
1830-1880
Israel Moses, ca. 1840s. Moses was a career Army surgeon who joined in the exploration of the Oregon Territory in 1846 and served in the Mexican War in 1847. After resigning from the military in 1855, he reenlisted during the Civil War and was in charge of camp hospitals for the Army of the Potomac. He died in 1870. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 404
1777-1829
Drawing of Mordecai Manuel Noah (1785-1851), editor, politician, and playwright, n.d. Noah was one of the most influential Jews in the U.S. in the early 19th century. In 1825, after many years of interest in the idea of a Jewish territorial restoration, Noah helped purchased a tract of land on Grand Island near Buffalo, which he named Ararat after the resting place of the biblical Noah's ark. Though the founding of Ararat was celebrated with a dramatic ceremony attended by hundreds, including dignitaries of the Seneca tribe (Noah was convinced that Native Americans were the ten lost tribes of Israel), the Jewish colony envisioned by Noah never took shape. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 405
1830-1880
Benjamin Cardozo, son of Judge Albert Cardozo and Rebecca Nathan, leaders of New York City's Congregation Shearith Israel, ca. 1878. In 1932, Benjamin became the second Jew to be appointed to the Supreme Court. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 406
1830-1880
Carte de visite portraits of 4 women: Rebecca Phillips (1810-1882), Harriet Hendricks (1812-1874), Emily Grace Hendricks (1812-1874), and Miriam Hendricks (1843-1929). (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 407
1830-1880
Rabbi David Einhorn (1809-1879). Born in Dispeck, Bavaria, Einhorn emigrated to the U.S. in 1855 and became rabbi of Cong. Har Sinai in Baltimore, MD. His advocacy of radical reform placed him at odds with many other American Reform rabbis, who took more moderate positions on the issue. Einhorn's denunciation of slavery in 1861 placed his life in danger and he was forced to flee Baltimore. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 414
1830-1880
Title page of the first American Jewish cookbook, by Esther Levy, published by W.S. Turner in Philadelphia in 1871. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 415
1881-1919
Alice Davis Menken (1870-1936), ca. 1890. Menken was descended from several prominent Sephardi families, with ties to Daughters of the American Revolution. As was typical for Jewish women of her class and generation, she became involved in social work, getting her start in the settlement house run by the sisterhood of Cong. Shearith Israel. She went on to work extensively with young, Jewish female delinquents, often immigrants, whom she frequently took into her home. Her belief in rehabilitation rather than punishment for young offenders made her a pioneer in the field of penal reform. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Alice Davis Menken Papers.)

AJHS: 416
1881-1919
"The New Colossus." Copy of the poem handwritten by its author, Emma Lazarus. In 1883, at the request of her friend Georgina Schuyler, the American Jewish poet Emma Lazarus composed a sonnet to be auctioned in order to raise funds to help pay for construction of the pedestal on which the Statue of Liberty now stands. The poem brought a disappointing amount at auction and was soon forgotten. After Lazarus's untimely death in 1887, however, Schuyler commissioned a plaque with the sonnet inscribed on it and arranged for it be hung on the pedestal. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 417
1881-1919
Levi Isaacs, sexton of Congregation Shearith Israel, in Freemason regalia, New York City, ca. 1895. In the 19th century, Jewish membership in the Masons and other fraternal orders was common. In small towns, lodge membership was close to universal. These lodges offered a chance to socialize with other Jews away from the chaos of synagogue politics and congregational bickering. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 419
1881-1919
Announcement for a Purim Ball supporting the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum, New York, 1881. The Jewish masquerade balls held by the philanthropic Purim Association intermittently from 1862-1902 were eagerly attended social occasions. The Association raised and distributed over $300,000 to educational and religious organizations during its 37-year history. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Purim Association Collection.)

AJHS: 425
1881-1919
The first store in Cotopaxi Colony, CO, ca. 1890s. The Cotopaxi Colony, a Jewish community, was settled by immigrants and funded by Emanuel H. Saltiel, the Portuguese owner of a silver mine in Cotopaxi, and by philanthropist Baron de Hirsch. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 432
1881-1919
Map of the U.S. in English and Yiddish printed in John Foster Carr's "Guide to the United States for the Jewish Immigrant" (Immigrant Publication Society, New York, 1916). The names of the states, their capitals, and major cities are printed in English and transliterated into Yiddish. New York City and Brooklyn have their own entries, despite the fact that by 1916, Brooklyn had been absorbed into New York City. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 434
1881-1919
Owner and employees of the Boston Matzo Baking Company, Boston, MA, ca. 1910. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 435
1881-1919
A letter from the Industrial Removal Office requesting that an immigrant be sent to work in Denver, 1910. Formally created in 1901 as part of the Jewish Agricultural Society, the Industrial Removal Office (IRO) attempted to find work for immigrants throughout the U.S. The aim of the IRO was to assuage anti-Semitism and anti-immigrant sentiment by reducing the concentration of immigrants in crowded neighborhoods such as the Lower East Side and promoting their settlement in the American heartland, where, it was felt, it would be easier for them to assimilate. By 1922, the IRO had distributed about 79,000 individuals throughout the U.S. and Canada. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Industrial Removal Office Records.)

AJHS: 436
1881-1919
Four photos of Jews who served in the U.S. armed forces during WWI. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. American Jewish Committee/ Office of War Records.)

AJHS: 438
1881-1919
A sewing class at the Jewish Manual Training School, Chicago, IL, 1892. From the 1880s into the 1930s, Jewish vocational training schools sought to provide women, mostly immigrants, not only with marketable skills, but also with "habits of greater refinement and culture." To that end, the curriculum combined training in acceptable forms of female employment, such as sewing and bookkeeping with instruction in subjects such as music, hygiene, and "housewifely wisdom." (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 439
1881-1919
"Yiddle on Your Fiddle Play Some Rag Time," 1909. Words and music by Irving Berlin. Chorus: Yiddle in the middle of your fiddle, play some ragtime/ Get busy/ I'm dizzy/ I'm feeling two years young/ Mine choc'late baby, if you'll maybe play for Sadie/ Some more ragtime/ Yiddle, don't you stop, if you do, I'll drop/ For I just can't make my eyes shut up/ Yiddle on your fiddle, play some ragtime." (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 441
1881-1919
Unidentified bar mitzvah boy, St. Louis, MO, ca. 1915. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 442
1881-1919
Boxing gloves worn by Benny Leonard in his lightweight title defense against Joe Welling in 1920. Leonard is considered by many to be the greatest lightweight champion who ever lived. The champion for 7-and-a-half years, he did not lose a fight in a 20-year span from 1912-1932 except for a single disqualification in 1922. A contemporary sportswriter called Leonard "the most famous Jew in America... beloved by thin-faced little Jewish boys, who, in their poverty, dreamed of themselves as champions of the world." (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 443
1920-1939
Poster for "East Side Sadie," a silent Yiddish movie produced by Sidney Goldin, 1929. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters Collection)

AJHS: 451
1920-1939
Yiddish theater star Molly Picon, ca. 1920s. Photo by Rappaport Studios. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Molly Picon Papers.)

AJHS: 452
1940-1948
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise (1874-1949), an American Jewish religious leader and Zionist, played an important role in Jewish communal affairs. At a time when most Reform Jews were opposed to Zionism, Wise became a founder of the Zionist Organization of America in 1897. In 1907, he founded the Free Synagogue, advocating a free pulpit, abolition of distinctions between rich and poor, and participation by the synagogue in the community. In 1914, Wise founded the Jewish Institute of Religion to train liberal rabbis. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA, and Brandeis University. All Rights Reserved. Stephen Samuel Wise Papers.)

AJHS: 453
1920-1939
A vendor selling Beinish Dienstag's kosher knishes from a pushcart, Lower East Side, New York City, 1934. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work Records.)

AJHS: 454
1940-1948
Rabbi chaplain Aryeh Lev conducting services in the Pacific Theater during WWII, 1944. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. National Jewish Welfare Board/Military Chaplaincy Records.)

AJHS: 455
1940-1948
Frontispiece of the "Survivors Talmud," printed by the U.S. Army in 1948 at the request of American Jewish military chaplains who wanted to help Holocaust survivors in displaced persons camps in Germany resume Jewish learning. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 456
1920-1939
Baseball signed by Hank Greenberg and other members of the Detroit Tigers, ca. 1935. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 457
1940-1948
U.S. Army chaplain Robert Marcus conducting services in a graveyard, Europe, ca. 1945. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. National Jewish Welfare Board/Military Chaplaincy Records.)

AJHS: 458
1940-1948
Helmet of U.S. Army chaplain Joseph Shubow, 1945. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Joseph Shubow Papers.)

AJHS: 459
1949-1967
Telegram from Boston Red Sox hitter Ted Williams to Detroit Tiger slugger Hank Greenberg asking if he can use his bat in the World Series, 1946. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 466
1654-1776
The first synagogue of Shearith Israel on Mill Street, New York City, consecrated on the seventh day of Passover, April 8, 1730. It was the first structure in North America erected specifically to serve as a synagogue. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 467
1654-1776
19th-century photograph of the Touro Synagogue, Newport, RI, dedicated in 1763, and now the oldest synagogue building still in continuous use in the U.S. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 468
1881-1919
Participants at a Poale Zion convention, Boston, MA, 1900. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 470
1881-1919
Cover of the February 1911 issue of "The Review," a publication of the Young Men's Hebrew Association (YMHA) of Philadelphia, PA. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 472
1777-1829
Circular announcing the reopening of the Polonies Talmud Torah, the Jewish day school of Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, 1808. This school, a successor to the one maintained by the congregation before the American Revolution, was plagued by financial troubles and low enrollment, and closed and reopened several times in the early 19th century. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection)

AJHS: 474
1881-1919
Solomon Schechter (1847-1915). In 1902, scholar Solomon Schechter arrived in the U.S. from England to head the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS). Under Schechter�s leadership, Conservative Judaism began to take shape as a distinct movement, with JTS as its flagship institution. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 476
1881-1919
Henrietta Szold, founder of Hadassah-The Women's Zionist Organization of America, 1942. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 18 Photographs People H. Szold Portraits 1942)

AJHS: 477
1881-1919
Louis D. Brandeis, ca. 1916. Born in Kentucky to German Jewish parents, Brandeis was a graduate of Harvard Law School who became famous for his litigation in an Oregon case about limiting women's working hours. A firm believer in the regulation of big business, he worked with Woodrow Wilson to establish legal restraints, such as the Federal Reserve Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act. During WWI, he became a leader of the American Zionist movement and in 1916 was appointed to the Supreme Court. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 478
1920-1939
Campers at a Cejwin camp, 1930. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Schoolman Family Papers.)

AJHS: 479
1920-1939
"The World's Foremost Problem," Dearborn, MI, 1920. The first in a series called "The International Jew," published by "The Dearborn Independent," Henry Ford's weekly newspaper, which included excerpts from the anti-Semitic "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion." The anti-Semitic series provoked a mass boycott of Ford automobiles by American Jews. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

YIVO: 1
1920-1939
William Edlin's delegate card for the Preliminary Conference for a permanent American Jewish Congress, 1921. The American Jewish Congress was first convened in 1918 in response to American Jews' concerns about Jews in Europe at the end of WWI. (YIVO/William Edlin Papers, RG 251 Folder 69)

YIVO: 2
1881-1919
"Down with tsarist despotism! Long live the socialist revolution!" Yiddish handbill advertising a concert celebrating the first anniversary of the Russian revolution, sponsored by "the Russian Revolution Support Association," New York City, ca. 1918. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 21 Folder XI)

YIVO: 3
1920-1939
Socialist Party membership booklet, Washington, DC, 1931-34. The bearer was a member in good standing since 1905. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 21 XI)

YIVO: 4
1920-1939
Socialist Party membership booklet, Washington, DC, 1931-34. The bearer was a member in good standing since 1905. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 21 Folder XI)

YIVO: 6
1881-1919
"Free Speech and Free Press." Printed copy of a speech delivered by Morris Hillquit, founder of the United Hebrew Trades and leading theoretician of the American Socialist Party, at a gathering of the editors of the socialist newspaper "New York Call," in Washington, DC, 1917. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 21 Folder XIV)

YIVO: 7
1949-1967
Handbill advertising a May Day Rally sponsored by a coalition of socialist, anti-communist organizations, New York City, 1956. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 21 Folder IX)

YIVO: 8
1920-1939
Letter from Al Smith, governor of New York, with congratulations on the founding of the Hunts Point Jewish Center, Bronx, NY, 1924. (YIVO/Israel Elfenbein Papers, RG 773 Folder 14)

YIVO: 9
1920-1939
Letter from New York Congressman Benjamin Fairchild to rabbi and activist Israel Elfenbein, 1924, affirming his opposition to an amendment to an immigration law that was widely regarded as discriminatory to Jews, Italians, and Asians. (YIVO/Israel Elfenbein Papers, RG 773 Folder 14)

YIVO: 10
1920-1939
Letter from Maurice Schwartz, director of the Yiddish Art Theater, offering writer Kalman Marmor tickets to a performance of "Mashke Khazer," New York City, 1924. (YIVO/Kalman Marmor Papers, RG 205 Folder 582)

YIVO: 11
1920-1939
Yiddish invitation to the opening ceremonies of Harmonia, a "forest" school, "created by workers for the children of workers" and billed as the "first Yiddish secular parochial school in America," Plainfield, NJ, 1924. (YIVO/Kalman Marmor Papers, RG 205 Folder 593)

YIVO: 12
1881-1919
Russian Young Socialists membership booklet, Bronx, NY, 1908. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 21 Folder X)

YIVO: 13
1920-1939
Portrait montage of members of the Jewish Ministers Cantors Association of America and Canada, 1926. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 804)

YIVO: 14
1920-1939
Yiddish/English invitation to an exhibition at the Jewish Art Center, founded by Jewish artists who rejected assimilation in favor of emphasizing the connection between art and Jewish culture, New York City, 1926. (YIVO/Kalman Marmor Papers, RG 205 Folder 571)

YIVO: 15
1968-2004
Brochure for the Radical Zionist Alliance, a socialist Zionist organization, New York City, 1968. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 22 Folder "Liberation Project")

YIVO: 16
1949-1967
Invitation to a United Jewish Appeal (UJA) event featuring a dramatization of Leon Uris's novel "Exodus," New York City, 1959. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 27 Folder 1959)

YIVO: 17
1949-1967
Fundraising brochure of the United Jewish Appeal (UJA), New York City, 1955. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 27)

YIVO: 18
1968-2004
Brochure promoting Jewish and African-American unity, issued by the Joint Board Fur, Leather and Machine Workers Union, ca. 1970s. Cover illustration by Milton Ost. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 56)

YIVO: 19
1920-1939
Prominent Jewish leaders at a meeting of Hadassah, 1929: (1) Rebecca Kohut; (2) Nathan Straus; (3) "Mrs. Schwartz"; (4) Nahum Sokolov; (5) Unidentified; (6) "Mrs. Zunser-Shomer"; (7) Emma Shomer. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 226)

YIVO: 20
1968-2004
Brochure of AIPAC (American Israel Public Affairs Committee), an organization founded in 1954 to lobby on behalf of Israel on Capitol Hill, Washington, DC, ca. 1980s. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 90)

YIVO: 21
1920-1939
Paper ring for a bottle of "Good Health" seltzer, indicating that the product is kosher for Passover, n.d. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 171)

YIVO: 22
1949-1967
Flyer for a celebration in honor of the 17th anniversary of the birth of the State of Israel, at the Jewish Community Center, Toledo, OH, 1965. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 150)

YIVO: 23
1940-1948
"Children are happy in the Soviet Union." Crayon drawing by a student in an IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) school, ca. 1940s. The IWW, founded as a radical trade union organization in 1905, had Yiddish-speaking chapters and also operated schools for workers' children. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 103 Folder "IWW Schools")

YIVO: 24
1920-1939
Students from Workmen's Circle schools at a rally, Philadelphia, PA, 1935. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 448)

YIVO: 25
1920-1939
Yiddish postcard advertising a meeting with Jewish members of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, volunteers who fought in the Spanish Civil War on the Republican side, New York City, ca. 1938. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 297)

YIVO: 26
1920-1939
Label from a bottle of Monarch's Manischewitz Kosher for Passover Sacramental Concord Grape Wine, n.d. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 171)

YIVO: 27
1940-1948
Yiddish advertising brochure for Tide laundry detergent with a symbol indicating that the product has been certified as kosher, printed by Proctor and Gamble, ca. 1940s. The brochure also contains short blurbs in Italian, Polish, German, and Spanish. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 171)

YIVO: 28
1881-1919
Advertising card for the Little Hungarian Inn, a "strictly kosher" Catskills hotel catering to Jews from New York City, n.d., Mountaindale, NY. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 171)

YIVO: 29
1920-1939
Junior Hadassah members Edith Bukspan and Evelyn Weinkle serving in an honor guard next to a statue of Theodor Herzl at the Palestine Pavilion at the World's Fair, New York City, 1940. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 604)

YIVO: 30
1940-1948
Crowds gathered for the launching of the S.S. Benjamin Peixotto, one of a series of "Liberty Ships" named after historically prominent American Jews, Fairfield, MD, 1944. Peixotto was president of B'nai Brith during the Civil War and was U.S. Consul in Romania in the 1870s. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 110)

YIVO: 31
1940-1948
Brochure for the Ruthey Lenore Jewish Matrimonial Agency, New York City, ca. 1940s. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 171)

YIVO: 32
1920-1939
Advertisement for the Abraham I. Segal Restaurant, New York City, ca. 1920s. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 171)

YIVO: 34
1940-1948
Commemoration of the first anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising at the Warshaver synagogue, New York City, 1944. Photo by Larry Gordon. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 277)

YIVO: 35
1940-1948
Overflow crowds listening to speeches at an anti-Nazi rally at Madison Square Garden, New York City, 1944. Photo by Larry Gordon. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 238)

YIVO: 37
1940-1948
Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia examining a copy of the Yiddish daily "Der Tog" (The Day), on D-Day, New York City, 1944. The newspaper's headline reads, "Invasion Begun." Photo by Larry Gordon. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 139)

YIVO: 38
1940-1948
Prayers at the Warshaver Synagogue on D-Day, New York City, 1944. Photo by Larry Gordon. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 139)

YIVO: 39
1940-1948
A first anniversary commemoration of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, broadcast from the steps of City Hall, New York City, 1944. (1st row, l-r) M. I. Nurenberger, editor of the Canadian Jewish News; Dr. Joseph Thon; Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia; Isaac Rubinstein, former Chief Rabbi of Wilno (Vilna), Poland. (2nd row, 1st and 2nd from l) Yiddish writer Shalom Asch; Polish Jewish poet Julian Tuwim. (YIVO/American Memorial to Six Million Jews of Europe, Records, RG 1206)

YIVO: 40
1940-1948
Cover to the catalog of "Matryrs and Heroes of the Ghettos," the first exhibition dealing with Jewish resistance against the Nazis, organized by the Jewish Labor Committee, New York City, 1945. (YIVO/American Memorial to Six Million Jews of Europe, Records, RG 1206 Folder 6)

YIVO: 41
1920-1939
Card announcing the move of Goldstein's Hats, a Sabbath-observant business, from Delancey Street to Houston Street, New York City, n.d. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 171)

YIVO: 42
1940-1948
Eisig and Golda Diamond, two of the over 900 refugees granted temporary refuge in the U.S. at the Fort Ontario refugee center in Oswego, NY, being readmitted to the U.S. as permanent residents at the U.S. Consulate in Niagara Falls, Ontario, 1946. Photo by International News. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 753)

YIVO: 43
1940-1948
Circular inviting supporters to the annual dinner of the Einstein Fund for the Settlement, Care, and Rehabilitation of Jewish Refugee War Orphans in Birobidjan and the Orphans of Heroic Stalingrad, signed by honorary president Albert Einstein, New York City, 1946. The organization was a division of Ambijan, an American support group for Birobidjan, the "Jewish homeland" that Stalin established in the Soviet far east in 1928. (YIVO/Kalman Marmor Papers, RG 205 Folder 585)

YIVO: 44
1940-1948
Crowds on Riverside Drive, New York City, at the cornerstone-laying ceremony for a Holocaust memorial, 1948. Photo by John D. Schiff. (YIVO/American Memorial to Six Million Jews of Europe, Records, RG 1206)

YIVO: 45
1920-1939
Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) postcard sent to the customers of S. Bloom, an engraver, New York City. This copy was sent to Yiddish writer Abraham Reisin at the offices of the Yiddish newspaper "Forverts" (Forward) in 1939. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 171)

YIVO: 46
1968-2004
"Pupa for Pataki." Page from the Annual Dinner Journal of Yeshivath Kehilath Yakov Pupa, Brooklyn, NY, 1994. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 162)

YIVO: 47
1920-1939
An anti-Semitic incident: "Jew" painted on a shop window, n.d. Photo by Jack Downey, PM. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 237)

YIVO: 48
1920-1939
Members of the Workmen's Circle at a rally in Union Square, New York City, ca. 1930s. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 174)

YIVO: 49
1940-1948
New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia (4th from l) at a pro-tolerance rally, ca. 1944. Photo by Cosmo-Sileo. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 291)

YIVO: 50
1920-1939
Cong. Beth David, a Sephardic synagogue, Los Angeles, CA, ca. 1932. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 331)

YIVO: 51
1920-1939
Teacher and students at a Workmen's Circle school, Milwaukee, WI, ca. 1939. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 461)

YIVO: 52
1940-1948
Joseph Isaac Schneersohn, the Lubavitcher Rebbe (spiritual leader of Lubavitcher Hasidim), giving a radio address surrounded by his followers soon after his arrival in the U.S., New York City, 1940. (YIVO/Records, Day-Morning Journal, RG 639 Lubavitcher Rebbe)

YIVO: 53
1920-1939
Rabbi Joseph Lookstein, a graduate of the Rabbi Isaac Elhanan Theological Seminary and the first American-educated rabbi to hold a pulpit, n.d. (YIVO/Records, Day-Morning Journal, RG 639 Joseph Lookstein)

YIVO: 54
1949-1967
Flyer advertising a meeting of a B'nai Brith lodge in Tucson, AZ, 1966. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 150)

YIVO: 55
1920-1939
International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) President David Dubinsky, with First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (left) and labor activist Rose Schneiderman, 1938. Photo by International News. (YIVO/Records, Day-Morning Journal, RG 639 David Dubinsky)

YIVO: 56
1920-1939
Composer George Gershwin, ca. 1920s, not long after he achieved fame with his first major work, "Rhapsody in Blue." Photo by Maurice Goldberg. (YIVO/Records, Day-Morning Journal, RG 639 George Gershwin)

YIVO: 57
1940-1948
American Zionist leader Abba Hillel Silver (center), n.d. Photo by Alexander Archer. (YIVO/Day-Morning Journal, Records, RG 639 Abba Hillel Silver)

YIVO: 60
1940-1948
Opera singer Richard Tucker, n.d. Discovered by the Metropolitan Opera while leading services at a Brooklyn synagogue, Tucker went on to become one of opera's most acclaimed tenors. (YIVO/Records, Day-Morning Journal, RG 639 Richard Tucker)

YIVO: 62
1940-1948
Playwright Arthur Miller, ca. 1940s. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities, RG 121 Arthur Miller)

YIVO: 64
1920-1939
Composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein, n.d. (YIVO/Photographs of Personalities, RG 121 Leonard Bernstein)

YIVO: 66
1949-1967
People posing with a civil rights wall poster distributed by the National Labor Service, ca. 1950s. Photo by Llewellyn Ransom, Press Photo Service. (YIVO/American Jewish Committee Records, RG 347.17.10 Box 55 Folder 48)

YIVO: 67
1940-1948
Participants in a clothing drive organized by the Chicago branch of the Jewish Labor Committee during WWII. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 95)

YIVO: 68
1920-1939
Flyer for a rally to promote the observance of the Sabbath, at Cong. Chevra Torah Anshei Chesed, Brooklyn, NY, 1925. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Folder 2.8)

YIVO: 69
1920-1939
Circular from the American Red Cross asking editors of Yiddish newspapers to print an ad on behalf of Jews in Europe who are seeking American relatives, n.d. (YIVO/Kalman Marmor Papers, RG 205 Folder 572)

YIVO: 70
1949-1967
Holocaust memorial, Tucson, AZ, ca. 1963. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 150)

YIVO: 71
1940-1948
Handbill for a concert at Carnegie Hall arranged by the Jewish Music Alliance, a federation of Jewish choruses, New York City, ca. 1943. (YIVO/Kalman Marmor Papers, RG 205 Folder 580)

YIVO: 72
1949-1967
Yiddish invitation to an event in honor of the first anniversary of the death of Yiddish playwright Peretz Hirschbein at the hall of the Los Angeles Yiddish Culture Club, 1949. (YIVO/Kalman Marmor Papers, RG 205 Folder 602)

YIVO: 73
1940-1948
Flyer for an event held by the Communist Party to commemorate the first anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, featuring an address by Michael Gold, author of "Jews Without Money," New York City, 1944. (YIVO/Kalman Marmor Papers, RG 205 Folder 461)

LBI: 74
1920-1939
Letter from the Hamburg-Amerika line about passage on the St. Louis, a ship carrying hundreds of Jewish refugees which was denied entry by Cuba, where many had hoped to obtain visas for the U.S., 1939. The ship was forced to return to Europe, where its passengers found temporary haven. Many of them were eventually murdered by the Nazis. (LBI/ Georges and Lillian Friedmann Collection)

YUM: 75
1920-1939
Postcard of the Palestine Pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair, Queens, NY. Miller Art Co., Inc, Brooklyn, New York. (YUM 96.285)

YUM: 76
1920-1939
Matchbook from the Tel Aviv Cafe at the Palestine Pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair, Queens, NY. (YUM 99.255)

AJHS: 77
1920-1939
Spanish-language poster for the American Yiddish film, "Tevye der milkiger (Tevye the Dairyman)," for audiences in Latin America, ca. 1940. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters)

YIVO: 79
1949-1967
"When Is Bingo A Moral Issue?" Invitation to a lecture by Rabbi Leonard Zion at Temple Beth Am, Lakewood, NJ, 1955. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 151 Folder "Lakewood")

YIVO: 80
1949-1967
Fundraising brochure for a new Jewish community center, Levittown, NJ, 1962. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 151 Folder "Levittown")

YIVO: 81
1949-1967
"What is My Fair Share?" Donation amount calculator, Levittown, NJ, ca. 1950s. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 151 Folder "Levittown")

YIVO: 83
1949-1967
Flyer advertising an Oneg Shabbath service in honor of Girl Scout Week, Lewiston, NJ, ca. 1950s. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 152 Folder "Lewiston")

YIVO: 85
1949-1967
Form authorizing Rabbi Manning H. Bleich to perform the pre-Passover ritual of selling "chometz" (leavened goods) on behalf of a congregant, Lewistown, PA, 1954. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 152 Folder "Lewistown")

YIVO: 86
1949-1967
Brochure for Jewish Book Month with a list of books recommended by the Bureau of Jewish Education and synagogue librarians, Cleveland, OH, 1954. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 156 Folder "Cleveland")

YIVO: 87
1949-1967
Brochure for Jewish community centers in the Cleveland area, OH, 1954-1955. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 156 Folder "Cleveland")

YIVO: 88
1968-2004
Invitation to the dedication of the new "bimah" (reader's platform) and menorah of the Beth Shalom Congregation, Kansas City, MO, 1980. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 156)

YIVO: 89
1920-1939
"President Arthur's Zion Ship," 1925. Words and music by Solomon Small. Song composed in honor of the acquisition of the S.S. President Arthur by the American Palestine Line, a Jewish company. Refrain: "President Arthur, sail/ Blazing for my children a trail./ I have waited ages long/ With a mother's yearning strong./ Israel, my child thou art free/ Cometh redemption to thee..." (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Folder 279 Box 20)

YIVO: 90
1920-1939
"Prohibition," 1919. Words and music by Rubin Doctor. A Yiddish/English song bewailing the institution of Prohibition in the U.S. Refrain: "Prohibition, Prohibition, no more drinking/ Prohibition, Prohibition, I tell you not a bit/ He who a bit of schnapps would buy/ Must to Europe fly / Prohibition, Prohibition, is now the law of the land." (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Folder 279 Box 20)

YIVO: 91
1920-1939
"My Yiddishe Momme," 1925. Lyrics by Jack Yellen; music by Jack Yellen and Lew Pollack. (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Folder 247 Box 18)

YIVO: 92
1968-2004
Flyer advertising Friday night lectures and panel discussions at Temple B'rith Kodesh, Rochester, NY, 1970: "The Sun's Eclipse--What is God Telling Us?" and "What Youth Thinks of Us/What We Think of Youth." (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 156 Folder "Rochester")

YIVO: 93
1920-1939
"Steam, steam, steam," 1930. Words and music by Sam Lowenwirth. Yiddish/English song of the Depression with a comic twist on poverty, broken radiators, and landlords. (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Folder 331 Box 24)

YIVO: 94
1940-1948
"To Victory!," 1942. Words by Eva Franklin, music by Abraham Ellstein. A patriotic march by Abraham Ellstein, well-known composer of Yiddish theater and Jewish liturgical music. (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Folder 341 Box 24)

YIVO: 95
1920-1939
"Thank God," 1939. Words and music by Lipa Feingold. "Thank God! I am here/ And not over there/ Where hatred and strife/ Are poisoning the air." (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Folder 339 Box 24)

YIVO: 98
1940-1948
"Salute to Israel," 1948. Words and music by Harry Lifson. (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Folder 293 Box 21)

YIVO: 99
1920-1939
"Der Yidisher Korbn/Depreson (The Jewish Sacrifice/Depression)," 1936. Words and music by Rudolph Pearson. Two songs, one lamenting Jewish homelessness; the other about an unemployed man who commits suicide out of despair. (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Folder 409 Box 29)

YIVO: 100
1920-1939
"A Yiddishe Momme," 1925. Lyrics by Jack Yellen; music by Jack Yellen and Lew Pollack. Yiddish version of the song popularized by Sophie Tucker. (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Folder 409 Box 28)

YUM: 102
1920-1939
"Ingele Ringele," by Leon Elba; illustrations by Aaron J. Goodelman, NY: Farlag Matones of the Sholem Aleichem Folk Institute, 1929. Yiddish children's book. (YUM 98.901 The Jean Moldovan Collection, Gift of the Jesselson Family)

YUM: 103
1949-1967
"Mother and Child" by Isaac Soyer (1907-1981), New York City, 1965; oil on canvas. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Gabriel Vogelson. (YUM 73.8)

YUM: 105
1920-1939
"Gilenu Alef-bet" (The Play Way to Hebrew), by Emanuel Gamoran and Abraham H. Friedland; illustrations by Nelson Ronsheim. Cincinnati: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1935. Gift of the Jesselson Family. (YUM 98.860 The Jean Moldovan Collection, Gift of the Jesselson Family)

YUM: 106
1920-1939
An illustration and the title page from "The Adventures of K'ton Ton," by Sadie Rose Weilerstein; illustrations by Jeannette Berkowitz. NY: League Press, 1935. A Jewish version of the Tom Thumb story that has become a classic, with many reprints since its first edition. (YUM 98.903 The Jean Moldovan Collection, Gift of the Jesselson Family)

YUM: 108
1920-1939
Portrait of Abraham Soyer, by his son, Raphael Soyer, New York City, 1939. Oil on canvas. Gift of Mrs. Rebecca Soyer. (YUM 88.71)

YUM: 109
1920-1939
Postcard of the Palestine Pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair, Queens, NY. Grinnell Litho Co., New York. (YUM 2000.4)

YUM: 110
1920-1939
Laying of the cornerstone of the Rabbi Isaac Elhanan Rabbinical Seminary, New York City, 1927. (YUM 89.416/The Hyman B. Grinstein Collection on the Early Jews of New York)

YUM: 111
1920-1939
Trowel presented by the Board of Directors of Yeshiva University to Nathan Levy on the occasion of the laying of the cornerstone for the school's new building, New York City, 1927. Made by Beetar Inc., silver, gilt, ivory. (YUM 95.502)

YUM: 112
1940-1948
Zionist Rally at Madison Square Garden, New York City, 1946. Photo by Alexander Archer. (YUM 89.286/The Hyman B. Grinstein Collection on the Early Jews of New York)

YUM: 113
1949-1967
Gertrude Berg, star of the radio and television show, "The Goldbergs." A card from the series, "Television and Radio Stars of NBC." New York City, ca. 1949. Color print. (YUM 91.181a)

YUM: 123
1940-1948
"Children in Penthouse," by Joseph Floch, 1941; oil on canvas. Joseph Floch (b. 1895) was a native of Vienna who studied at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and was a founder of the Hagenbund, a society of progressive artists. He moved to Paris in 1925 and then in 1941 emigrated to the U.S., where he settled in New York. (YUM 83.41 Gift of the Artist)

YUM: 125
1940-1948
"Jews Have Always Fought for Freedom," illustration by Arthur Szyk (1894-1951) for the cover of a publication issued in honor of a 1943 visit to the U.S. by Solomon Mikhoels and Itsik Feffer, representatives of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, an organization established by the Soviet Union to promote international Jewish support for the Russian war effort. (YUM 89.169)

YUM: 129
1940-1948
Cover of a book of poster stamps illustrated by Arthur Szyk for the Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe, a group founded by Peter Bergson in 1943 to develop plans to rescue Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe and to lobby the U.S. government to take greater action on their behalf. (YUM 2001.10 Gift of Cami Green)

YUM: 130
1920-1939
Campaign placard for Judge Alfred Frankenthaler, a candidate for the New York Supreme Court, ca. 1926. Frankenthaler served on the court from 1927-1940 and was the father of artist Helen Frankenthaler. (YUM 2001.29 Gift of Cami Green)

YUM: 135
1940-1948
Rosh Hashanah appeal by the American Committee of the General Israel Orphans' Home for Girls in Jerusalem, New York City, 1944. (YUM 2001.75 Gift of Cami Green)

YUM: 136
1940-1948
Wedding dress worn by a Jewish woman, 1945. In accordance with wartime fabric use rationing, this dress was made with as little fabric as possible, despite the fact that wedding dresses were exempt from the regulations. (YUM 95.74 Gift of Rosaline Eichen)

YUM: 137
1940-1948
"The Children's Passover Haggadah," translated by Ben-Ami Sharfstein; illustrations by Siegmund Furst. NY: Shilo Publishing House, 1945. Siegmund Forst, a Viennese-trained artist, pioneered ornamental Hebrew script design and Jewish book illustration in the U.S. This 1945 haggadah is one of the first attempts to present the Holocaust in a children's book. Its illustrations depict not only Egyptian taskmasters, but also Romans, Cossacks, and Nazis, and patriotic American images such as the children with fife and drum seen here. (YUM 98.961)

YUM: 140
1940-1948
"Just one step backwards, please." Cartoon by Arthur Szyk (1894-1951) showing Great Britain refusing to allow Jewish refugees to enter Palestine. New Canaan, CT, 1946. Drawing, ink on paper. Gift of Erica and Ludwig Jesselson. (YUM 74.11)

YUM: 145
1940-1948
Cartoon by Arthur Szyk (1894-1951) showing Great Britain advising the U.S. not to recognize the new State of Israel. New Canaan, CT, 1948. Drawing, ink on paper. Gift of Erica and Ludwig Jesselson. (YUM 1974.9)

YUM: 150
1940-1948
1948 poster stamps: "Back the Jewish State. Make the UN Decision a Reality." (YUM 2001.30 Gift of Cami Green)

LBI: 152
1940-1948
Otto Stern, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1943. (LBI)

LBI: 153
1940-1948
Albert Einstein talking with two students in Princeton, NJ, 1946. Photo by Paula Wright. (LBI/Albert Einstein Collection, F3136I)

LBI: 154
1920-1939
Albert, Elsa, and Margot Einstein in Princeton, NJ, 1934. (LBI/Albert Einstein Collection, F5369)

LBI: 155
1940-1948
Note from the desk of Felix Frankfurter, 1941. Frankfurter was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1939. (LBI/Albert Salomon Collection)

LBI: 156
1920-1939
"The Pioneer Woman," a publication of the Zionist women's organization, Pioneer Women, September 1930. (LBI/Margo Wolff Collection)

LBI: 157
1920-1939
Advertisement from "The Pioneer Woman," a publication of the Zionist women's organization, Pioneer Women, 1937. (LBI/Margo Wolff Collection)

ASF: 158
1920-1939
A Greek Jewish immigrant couple, Sam and Rachel Emanuel, New York City, ca. 1920s. (ASF)

ASF: 159
1920-1939
Affadavit of Albert Isaac, a Jewish immigrant from Salonica, Greece, stating his ability to support family members, thus helping them to become eligible for immigration visas, New York City, 1926. (ASF)

ASF: 160
1920-1939
A metal case for carrying valuables, brought to the U.S. by a Greek Jewish immigrant. (ASF)

ASF: 161
1940-1948
"Haggadah in Ladino," with illustrations by Arthur Szyk, ca. 1940s. (ASF)

YIVO: 175
1940-1948
Women examining a list of Civil Defense volunteer opportunities in the lobby of Educational Alliance, New York City, ca. 1942. (YIVO/Records, Educational Alliance, RG 312 Folder 116)

YIVO: 176
1940-1948
Boy scouts participating in a newspaper drive at the Educational Alliance as part of the war effort, New York City, ca. 1942. (YIVO/Records, Educational Alliance, RG 312 Folder 116)

YIVO: 177
1940-1948
Members of the Educational Alliance Boys Club softball team, New York City, 1942. (YIVO/Educational Alliance, Records, RG 312 Folder 54)

YIVO: 178
1940-1948
Boxing at the Educational Alliance, Lower East Side, New York City, 1945. (YIVO/Educational Alliance, Records, RG 312 Folder 49)

YIVO: 179
1940-1948
Teenagers playing basketball at the Educational Alliance, New York City, 1948. (YIVO/Educational Alliance Records, RG 312 Folder 50)

YIVO: 180
1920-1939
Grand opening of the new "The Day-Jewish Morning Journal" office, New York City, 1930s. The Yiddish dailies "Der Tog" (The Day) and the "Morgn-zhurnal" (Morning Journal) merged in 1922. Photo by Emjay Photographers. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 768)

YIVO: 181
1920-1939
Unidentified women on the boardwalk at Atlantic City [?], NJ, n.d. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 737)

YIVO: 182
1920-1939
Teenagers from Boston at a gathering of the socialist Zionist youth group Hashomer Hatzair in Philadelphia, PA, 1936. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 726)

YIVO: 183
1920-1939
Board of the Minsker Ladies Benevolent Society, New York City, ca. 1935. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 740)

YIVO: 185
1920-1939
Unidentified Jewish couple, Asheville, NC. Inscribed on photo: "Me and 'ma sugar'." (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 839)

ASF: 186
1949-1967
A 1954 issue of "The Sephardi," the newsletter of the Central Sephardic Jewish Community of America. (ASF/Central Sephardic Jewish Community of America, Records)

ASF: 188
1949-1967
Mimeographed announcement of the Sephardic Youth League, New York City, 1952. The list of summer outings includes a boat ride, picnic, and bus ride to "a surprise destination." (ASF/Central Sephardic Jewish Community of America, Records)

ASF: 190
1940-1948
Cover of the journal of the annual Hannukah dinner and dance of the Women's Division of the Central Sephardic Jewish Community of America, New York City, 1945. The "V" is a popular wartime symbol: "V is for Victory!" (ASF/Central Sephardic Jewish Community of America, Woman's Division, Records)

ASF: 191
1949-1967
American Sephardic religious leader Rabbi David de Sola Pool (center, with white goatee) during a trip to Israel, ca. 1950. (ASF)

ASF: 192
1949-1967
Members of a Sephardic youth group at a festive gathering, New York City, ca. 1949. (ASF/Central Sephardic Jewish Community of America, Records)

AJHS: 194
1881-1919
Students and instructors of a painting course for Jewish immigrants at the Baron de Hirsch Trade School, New York, NY, ca. 1900. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Baron de Hirsch Fund Records, I-80 Box 163 Series VI Trade Schools 1870-1935 #979 )

AJHS: 195
1920-1939
Students and instructors of a metal-working course for Jewish immigrants at the Baron de Hirsch Trade School, New York, NY, ca. 1921. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Baron de Hirsch Fund Records, I-80 Box 163 Series VI Trade Schools 1870-1935 #1151.)

AJHS: 196
1920-1939
Sign-painting class at the Baron de Hirsch Trade School, New York, NY, 1925. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Baron de Hirsch Fund Records, I-80 Box 139 Photos 2 #922.)

AJHS: 197
1940-1948
An instructor from the Jewish Agricultural Society teaching Jewish children how to plant "Victory Gardens," as a part of a government program that encouraged people to grow vegetable gardens to alleviate food shortages during WWII, Stone Ridge, NY, ca. 1943. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Baron de Hirsch Fund Records, I-80 Box 139 Photos 2 #749.)

AJHS: 198
1881-1919
A newly constructed school in Woodbine, NJ, ca. 1895, a community founded by the Baron de Hirsch Fund to serve as a haven for Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Baron de Hirsch Fund Records, I-80 Box 139 Photos 2 #881.)

AJHS: 199
1881-1919
A Russian Jewish family one year after their arrival in Woodbine, NJ, ca. 1900. The town of Woodbine was established in 1891 by the Baron de Hirsch Fund as part of its program to settle Jewish immigrants in self-sustaining communities. By 1903, it would become an independent borough and America's first self-governing Jewish community. Inscribed on photo: "The Belle of Woodbine... just make the girl standing before the door." (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Baron de Hirsch Fund Records, I-80 Box 1 Photos 1 #265.)

AJHS: 200
1881-1919
Military band in Woodbine, NJ, ca. 1895, a community founded by the Baron de Hirsch Fund to serve as a haven for Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Baron de Hirsch Fund Records, I-80 Box 1 Photos 1 #48.)

AJHS: 201
1949-1967
"Adam Baum, Loch, New York. There was just himself and his wife when he came to this farm--now raising another 'crop' besides poultry. Has 6000 capacity." A Jewish farmer who received aid from the Baron de Hirsch Fund, ca. 1950. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Baron de Hirsch Fund Records, I-80 Box 1 Photos 1 #724.)

AJHS: 202
1920-1939
Two girls under a sign for the East Side Hebrew School, a Talmud Torah (religious school) on Attorney Street on the Lower East Side, New York City, 1933. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work Records, *I-7 Box 4 Folder 76.)

AJHS: 203
1920-1939
Crowds at an anti-Hitler rally near City Hall, New York City, 1933. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work, Records, *I-7 Box 4 Folder 77.)

AJHS: 205
1920-1939
Sign in a shop window, Lower East Side, New York City, 1933. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work, *I-7 Box 4 Folder 81.)

AJHS: 206
1920-1939
Election posters on the Lower East Side, New York, NY, 1934. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work, *I-7 Box 4 Folder 85.)

AJHS: 207
1920-1939
Children on a street on the Lower East Side, New York City, 1933. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work Records, *I-7 Box 4 Folder 85.)

AJHS: 208
1881-1919
Freda Jacobi with her grandchildren Alice and Edith, Montgomery, AL, ca. 1917. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacobi-Schlossberg Family Papers, *P-705 Box 6.)

AJHS: 209
1881-1919
Alice Jacobi Schlossberg entertaining family and friends on the patio of her home in Woodmere, Long Island, 1935. Some of the women are her grandmother's friends from Montgomery, Alabama. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacobi-Schlossberg Family Papers, *P-705 Box 6.)

AJHS: 210
1949-1967
A page from the booklet of the 11th anniversary dance of the Bayside, Queens chapter of the Alpha Phi Pi fraternity, 1950. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Greene Family Papers, P-587.)

AJHS: 211
1949-1967
Souvenir journal of a pledge luncheon of the United Order of True Sisters, New York City, 1951. The UOTS (Unabhaengiger Orden Treue Schwestern) was founded in 1846 by a group of German Jewish women affiliated with Temple Emanu-El in New York. It was a secret order devoted to charitable works. The UOTS gradually developed English-speaking chapters and is still in existence today. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Greene Family Papers, P-587 Box 1.)

: 213
1940-1948
Page from a booklet entitled "Why I Belong to Hadassah," ca. 1944. During WWII, it became increasingly common for American Jewish publications to link the fight for Jewish rights with patriotism. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 17 Pamphlets Membership)

: 214
1920-1939
Cover of "An Open Letter to Jewish Business and Professional Women," a recruitment brochure published by Hadassah, 1938. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 17 Pamphlets Membership)

AJHS: 215
1940-1948
Telegram from Hadassah officials Rose L. Halprin and Judith G. Epstein to Mrs. William K. Dorfman about the UN decision to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, 1947. The telegram asks Mrs. Dorfman to organize a celebration in her Hadassah chapter and ends, "Because we know that you will consider it a blessed mitzvah to pay for this telegram, we send it you collect." (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 4 Zionist Political Activity Box 11 Folder 80A)

AJHS: 216
1940-1948
Attendees at a Hadassah convention in Atlantic City, NJ, standing in front of an exhibition about the Hadassah Medical School in Jerusalem, 1947. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 18 Photographs Box 1)

AJHS: 217
1940-1948
Registration table at a Hadassah convention, Atlantic City, NJ, 1947. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 18 Photographs Box 1)

YIVO: 218
1940-1948
YIVO staff and associates unpacking books and other YIVO materials that were recovered after WWII with the help of the U.S. Army, New York City, 1947. YIVO's former headquarters in Poland had been looted by the Nazis for artifacts, which were sent to the anti-Semitic "Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question" in Frankfurt, Germany. (YIVO/ YIVO Institute, Records, RG 100)

YIVO: 219
1940-1948
Workers at the Carmel Bros. cloakmaking factory commemorating the first anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto, New York City, 1944. The 10-minute work stoppage was sponsored by the Jewish Labor Committee. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 220
1949-1967
Max Weinreich, founder of YIVO, teaching a Yiddish class at City College, New York City, ca. 1950s. Photo by Alexander Archer. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 221
1949-1967
Dr. Uriel Weinreich served as the first holder of Columbia University's Atran Chair in Yiddish Language, Literature and Culture, the first Yiddish studies chair ever to be established at an American university. This cartoon from the newspaper "Der Tog-Morgn Zhurnal" (The Day-Morning Journal) depicts philanthropist Frank Atran escorting "Madame Yiddish" onto the Columbia campus. (YIVO Library, courtesy Roberta Newman)

YIVO: 222
1920-1939
Students of the United Hebrew Free Schools with visiting musician Solomon Shmulewitz-Small, Detroit, MI, 1930s. (YIVO/Solomon Shmulewitz-Small Papers)

YIVO: 223
1881-1919
Rosh Hashanah portrait greeting card with wishes for the new year in English, Hebrew, and German, New York City, ca. 1889. Photo by Ph. Hurwitz. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 224
1881-1919
Jewish immigrants outside a shelter run by HIAS (Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society), New York City, 1916. (YIVO/Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society-HIAS, Records)

YIVO: 225
1949-1967
A dance at Grossinger's, the popular Catskill Mountains resort, Liberty, NY, 1959. (YIVO/Grossinger's Country Club, Records, Box 4 411)

YIVO: 226
1881-1919
Morris Cohen, a Jewish immigrant from Glasgow, Scotland (or an immigrant from Eastern Europe who stopped over in Scotland) in his vegetable garden, Arpin, WI, ca. 1910. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 227
1920-1939
A scene from "Tog un nakht" (Day and night) by Sh. Ansky, starring Chaim Shneyer, Miriam Elias, and Victor Packer, with sets and costumes by Boris Aronson, at Unzer teater (Our Theater), Bronx, NY, ca. 1923. Photo by Kessner's Studio. (YIVO/Yiddish Theater Photographs Collection)

YIVO: 228
1968-2004
"Is Yiddish Literature disappearing?" Isaac Bashevis Singer's notes for his speech at the ceremony awarding him the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1978. (YIVO/Manuscripts Collection)

YIVO: 229
1949-1967
Advertisement promoting civil rights, ca. 1960s. (YIVO/American Jewish Committee Records, RG 347.17.10 Box 55 Folder 48)

YIVO: 230
1881-1919
Berel and Celia Herskowitz and their children, Chaim, Avrum, and Meyer (who would be known in America as Henry, Abe, and Max), in New York City, 1894 or 1895, soon after their immigration from Veresport, Hungary. Photo by Feinberg Studio. (YIVO/Genealogy and Family History Collection)

YIVO: 232
1881-1919
Composite portrait of members of former New York City mayor Edward Koch's mother's family, the Silpes, New York City, ca. 1910. The elderly woman and man and the little girl in the foreground, as well as the boy and girl in the back row, were family members in Poland who were pasted into the negative to create a photographic "reunion." (YIVO/Genealogy and Family History Collection)

YIVO: 234
1920-1939
"Portrait Studies of Jewish Women," a regular feature of the Art Section of the Yiddish newspaper, "Forverts" (Forward), during the 1920s and 1930s. Readers were encouraged to send in photographs of friends and relatives in both Europe and America. (YIVO Library)

AJHS: 235
1881-1919
Poster for Abraham Shomer's "Alrightnikes," at Kessler's Thalia Theater, New York City, 1910. On poster: "Something entirely new and ALRIGHT! In the theater that is ALRIGHT! With the acting troupe that is ALRIGHT!" (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters.)

AJHS: 237
1920-1939
Poster for a double bill at the Lenox Theater in Harlem, New York City: "Dos Khupe Kleyd" (The Wedding Dress) and a concert by "the world's only Black cantor" with a choir from Newark, NJ, 1922. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters.)

AJHS: 239
1881-1919
Poster for Abraham Shomer's "Oyfn yam und Ellis Ayland" (At Sea and on Ellis Island), starring Keni Lipzin at her theater, New York City, 1911. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters Collection.)

AJHS: 240
1881-1919
Poster for Joseph Rumshinsky's musical "Di khaznte" (literally, the cantor's wife) starring Boris Thomashefsky, at the Lawrence Opera House, Lawrence, MA, 1918. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters.)

AJHS: 242
1881-1919
Poster advertising a special holiday performance in honor of Succoth of "The Jews in Morocco," by Sigmund Feinman, directed by David Kessler, at the Thalia Theater, New York City, 1899. The poster also advertises a new play about the Dreyfus trial. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters Collection.)

AJHS: 243
1920-1939
Poster for "Vu iz mayn kind? (Where is My Child?)," an American Yiddish movie starring Celia Adler, 1937. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters.)

AJHS: 244
1881-1919
Poster for "The Devil's Power," a comedy by Isidore Zolotarefski, starring Jacob P. Adler, Sara Adler, and Celia Adler at the Arch Street Theater, Philadelphia, PA, ca. 1910. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters Collection.)

AJHS: 246
1881-1919
Poster with portrait of Maurice Schwartz, founder and director of the Yiddish Art Theater, n.d. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters.)

AJHS: 247
1920-1939
Poster with portrait of cantor Moyshe Oysher, who also starred in Yiddish movies, n.d. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters.)

AJHS: 248
1920-1939
Poster for Joseph Lateiner's "The Rabbi's Family," starring Samuel Goldenberg and Ludwig Satz at the People's Theater, New York City, 1921. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Yiddish Theater Posters.)

LBI: 251
1881-1919
Membership application of seltzer manufacturer Morris Schlossman to the Kaiser Franz Josef Kr. Unsterst. Verein, a fraternal organization in New York City, 1896. (LBI/Kaiser Franz Josef Kr. Unsterst. Verein, AR 11100 Folder 2)

LBI: 252
1940-1948
Cover of the journal of the diamond jubilee dinner of the Freedom Benevolent Society, New York City, 1942. This Jewish fraternal organization was formerly known as the Kaiser Franz Josef Kr. Unterst. Verein. It changed its name sometime in the 1930s or early 1940s, probably in response to the rise of the Nazism or in order to express its members' patriotism after the U.S. entered WWII. (LBI/Kaiser Franz Josef Kr. Unterst. Verein Collection, AR 11099 Folder 1)

LBI: 253
1940-1948
Page from the journal of the diamond jubilee dinner of the Freedom Benevolent Society, New York City, 1942. The "V"s in the border stand for the popular WWII slogan, "V is for Victory." (LBI/Kaiser Franz Josef Kr. Unterst. Verein Collection, AR 11099 Folder 1)

LBI: 254
1920-1939
Program for a Friday night cultural gathering aboard the S.S. Statendam, a Dutch ship that brought a number of Jewish refugees to New York, 1938. (LBI/Achtentuch Family Collection, AR 10514 Folder 1)

LBI: 255
1940-1948
Viennese Jewish dramatist and poet Richard Beer-Hofmann after his emigration to the U.S., Woodstock, NY, 1941. (LBI/Miriam Beer-Hofmann Lens Collection, PM-B-20 F 5830B)

LBI: 256
1940-1948
German rabbi and philosopher Leo Baeck (2nd from l) receiving an honorary doctorate from the Reform movement's Jewish Institute of Religion, New York City, 1948. (2nd from r) Rabbi Stephen S. Wise. Photo by Heinz. (LBI/Leo Baeck Collection, PG-11 F 1723A)

LBI: 257
1940-1948
WLIB commentator Estelle M. Sternberger (r), Executive Director of World Peaceways, a pacifist group, with others, celebrating the station's acquisition of a new transmitter and her 10th anniversary on the air, New York City, ca. 1940s. (LBI/Margo Wolff Collection, PG-13 F 12654)

LBI: 258
1940-1948
Viennese Jewish playwright, novelist, and poet Franz Werfel (right), his wife Alma (widow of composer Gustave Mahler), and Professor Klarmann, CA, 1945. The Werfels fled to the U.S. from France in 1940. (LBI/Johannes and Gertrude Urzidil Collection, ALB 32 F 11139)

LBI: 259
1940-1948
World-renowned Viennese Jewish pianist and emigree Moriz Rosenthal (center, with cane) at a reception in his honor at the New York College of Music, 1942. Postcard by Artvue Post Card Company. (LBI/Karl Adler Collection, OG-14 F 20)

LBI: 260
1920-1939
A map from "New York ist gross - Amerika ist groesser," published in the 1930s by the National Coordinating Committee for Aid to Refugees and Emigrants Coming from Germany. The booklet urged refugees to consider settling in towns and cities across the U.S. rather than remaining in New York. (LBI/Library)

LBI: 261
1830-1880
"Der Priestersegen" (The Priestly Benediction), the farewell sermon of Reform Rabbi Moses Mielziner, delivered at Anshe Chesed synagogue, New York City in 1873. In 1874, Anshe Chesed merged with Adas Jeshurun to form a new synagogue, Beth El. (LBI/Library)

LBI: 263
1940-1948
Cast list from "We Will Never Die," a pageant by Ben Hecht, dedicated to "the 2,000,000 Jewish dead of Europe," which debuted in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1943. (LBI/Library)

YIVO: 266
1968-2004
Certificate proclaiming June 1969 as Michigan Jewish History Month. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 151)

YIVO: 267
1968-2004
Certificate given to Nathan Glotzer stating that trees have been planted in Israel in memory of his wife, Clara Glotzer, a longtime member of the Mothers Orphan Club of Williamsburg, Brooklyn, 1973. (Courtesy Estelle Newman)

AJHS: 271
1777-1829
List of "Israelites" who served in a company led by Capt Richard Lushington, that was formed in 1779 and based in Charleston, SC during the Revolutionary War. It was known as "the Jew Company," though only a minority of its members were actually Jewish. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Cohen Family Papers, *P-3.)

AJHS: 274
1881-1919
Ray Frank, San Francisco, CA, 1897. In 1891, Ray (Rachel) Frank, a California journalist, delivered a High Holiday sermon to a group of 1,000 Jews and Christians in Spokane Falls, Washington, thereby becoming the first Jewish woman to preach from a pulpit in the U.S. For the next 10 years, Frank delivered lectures and sermons throughout the Western U.S., promoting the importance of spirituality, family, and the participation of women in Judaism. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 275
1949-1967
Lois Sondra Greene wearing a Star of David, Queens, New York, ca. 1950. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Greene Family Papers, P-587.)

AJHS: 276
1920-1939
Bar mitzvah portrait of twins Irwin (l) and Leon (r) Melz, New York City, 1927. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Greene Family Papers, P-587 Box 1 Photos.)

AJHS: 277
1940-1948
Lois Greene and other girls practicing archery at Camp Watitoh, Becket, MA, 1940. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Greene Family Papers, P-587 Box 1 Photos.)

AJHS: 278
1920-1939
Several generations of the Metz family, 1920. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Greene Family Papers, P-587 Box 1 Photos.)

AJHS: 281
1881-1919
Marion Metz at the piano, 1918. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Greene Family Papers, P-587 Box 1 Photos.)

AJHS: 282
1881-1919
Betti and Ludwig Spielberger, immigrants from Hungary, at the family homestead, Akron, OH, ca. 1910. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Spielberger Family Papers, P-609, Folder: Betti and Ludwig Spielberger.)

AJHS: 283
1881-1919
Robert Morris Schmaltz playing the violin, as his grandfather Ludwig Spielberger looks on, Akron, OH (?), ca. 1916. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Spielberger Family Papers, P-609 Folder: Family Groups.)

AJHS: 284
1881-1919
Katie Schmaltz Spielberger in her grocery store, Detroit, MI. ca. 1915. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Spielberger Family Papers, P-609 Folder: Katie Spielberger.)

AJHS: 285
1881-1919
Hungarian Jewish immigrant Ludwig Spielberger in the doorway of his grocery store, Akron, OH, ca. 1900. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Spielberger Family Papers, P-609 Folder: Ludwig Spielberger.)

AJHS: 286
1881-1919
Hungarian Jewish immigrant Ludwig Spielberger with his horse behind his grocery store, Akron, OH, ca. 1910. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Spielberger Family Papers, P-609 Folder: Ludwig Spielberger.)

AJHS: 287
1881-1919
Morris Spielberger, Denver, CO, ca. 1911. Inscribed on photo: "Dear Mother, Hope this picture will relieve you of the unpleasant dreams you are having about me. Morris." (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Spielberger Family Papers, P-609 Folder: Morris Spielberger.)

AJHS: 288
1654-1776
Hand-drawn map of the Jewish burial ground on Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA, 1765. At the time, Philadelphia's Jewish community numbered about 25 families. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Congregation Mikveh Israel, Records, *I-26.)

AJHS: 289
1777-1829
Order of verses recited at the dedication of Mikveh Israel synagogue, the first permanent synagogue building erected in Philadelphia, PA, 1782. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Congregation Mikveh Israel, Records, *I-26.)

AJHS: 290
1881-1919
Hanukkah card printed on the reverse with the program for an evening of entertainment at the religious school of Mikveh Israel synagogue, Philadelphia, PA, 1907. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Congregation Mikveh Israel, Records, *I-26.)

AJHS: 291
1654-1776
Continental currency signed B. Levy, New York City, 1776. Beginning in 1775, the Continental Congress issued currency to finance the Revolutionary War. These notes, called Continentals, had no backing in gold or silver. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Levy Family Papers, *P-120.)

AJHS: 292
1777-1829
Customs declaration for tefillin (phylacteries) imported to the U.S. from England by Simon Nathan, 1793. In the late 18th century, most Jewish ritual items still needed to be imported from abroad. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Simon Nathan Papers, *P-54.)

AJHS: 293
1830-1880
Ketubbah (marriage contract) of Harmon Hendricks Nathan and Miriam Hendricks, 1865. Both bride and groom were the descendants of prominent colonial Jewish families. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Simon Nathan Papers, *P-54.)

AJHS: 294
1777-1829
Certificate stating that Catherine Owens and her children, Barnet O. Cohen and Benjamin Phillips Owens Cohen, were free persons of color. The boys' father was Barnet Cohen, a slaveowner in King's Creek, S.C., 1810. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Cohen Family Papers, *P-375.)

AJHS: 295
1881-1919
Page from the receipt book of Solomon Cohen, recording a loan, Cohen's Bluff, SC, 1882. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Cohen Family Papers, *P-375.)

AJHS: 296
1777-1829
Letter from Nathan Nathans about his entrance into school, 1816. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Nathans Family Papers, *P-336.)

AJHS: 297
1830-1880
Confederate bond certificate held by Benjamin D. Lazarus, 1864. The Lazaruses were a well-known mercantile family of South Carolina. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Lazarus Family Papers, *P-444.)

AJHS: 298
1830-1880
Bill of sale for two slaves owned by Jacob De La Motta and sold by his executor, Benjamin D. Lazarus, SC, 1852. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Lazarus Family Papers, *P-444.)

AJHS: 299
1830-1880
Isaac Leeser, cantor and spiritual leader of Philadelphia�s Congregation Mikveh Israel, was the first American congregational leader to introduce regular English-language sermons during weekly Sabbath services in 1831. In 1843, he founded the first Jewish monthly in the U.S., "The Occident and American Jewish Advocate" and a few years later, published an English translation of the Pentateuch. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Moses Solomons Papers, *P-20.)

AJHS: 300
1830-1880
Notice inviting Isaac Leeser, religious leader of Philadelphia's Congregation Mikveh Israel, to a B'nai Brith meeting, n.d. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Moses Solomons Papers, *P-20.)

AJHS: 301
1830-1880
Stock certificate issued by the Bank of North Carolina and signed by its president George Washington Mordecai, Raleigh, NC, 1863. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Mordecai Family Papers, *P-116.)

AJHS: 303
1777-1829
Letter to a Mr. Harris asking him to serve temporarily as "shokhet" (kosher slaughterer) for Congregation Shearith Israel, 1796. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 1 Folder 17.)

AJHS: 304
1654-1776
Letter from New York City merchant Isaac Mendes Seixas introducing his son, Gershom, "hazan" (religious leader) of Congregation Shearith Israel to merchant Joseph Simon, leader of the Jewish community in Lancaster, PA, ca. 1769. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 1 Folder 26.)

AJHS: 305
1830-1880
Resolution in favor of raising funds for the relief of famine in Ireland, Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, 1847. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 1 Folder 42.)

AJHS: 306
1830-1880
Resolution in favor of holding a special service in honor of the new holiday of Thanksgiving at Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, 1847. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 1 Folder 43.)

AJHS: 307
1777-1829
Order of services arranged after the Revolution, at Shearith Israel Synagogue in New York City or at Mikveh Israel Synagogue in Philadelphia, 1789. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 1 Folder 49)

AJHS: 308
1777-1829
Letter from Rachel Hays for a seat at Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, 1797. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection,*P-116 Lyons Box 1 Folder 52)

AJHS: 309
1777-1829
Proposal of Simeon Levy for establishing a religious school at Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, 1792. The school taught Hebrew, translation into English, and religious instruction, and in 1793, Gershom Mendes Seixas became its instructor. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 1 Folder 53.)

AJHS: 313
1777-1829
List of students enrolled in the religious school of Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, 1795. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Lyons Box 2 Folder 76.)

AJHS: 314
1654-1776
Petition of Benjamin Jacobs to marry a non-Jew, submitted to the officers of Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, ca. 1775. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 2 Folder 107.)

AJHS: 315
1777-1829
Order for matzohs for Passover submitted to Congregation Shearith Israel by Simeon Levy, New York City, 1805. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Folder 167.)

AJHS: 316
1830-1880
Circular announcing the formation of a "Women's Hebra" (women's organization) at Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, 1830. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 3 Folder 190.)

AJHS: 317
1830-1880
Letter from J. Moses, a Lieutenant Colonel in the Excelsior Brigade, thanking the Congregation Shearith Israel branch of the Ladies Army Relief Association for a donation of clothing and other materials, New York City, 1861. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, P-116 Box 3 Folder 217.)

AJHS: 319
1830-1880
A lesson plan from the Polonies Talmud Torah School, the religious school of Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, 1843. The school still bears the name of its first major benefactor, Meir Polonies, who donated $900 in 1802. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 5 Folder 299.)

AJHS: 320
1830-1880
Prayer for averting cholera, Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City, ca. 1832. In 1832, North America was swept by a cholera epidemic and New York State was particularly hard hit. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Jacques Judah Lyons Collection, *P-116 Box 5 Folder 303.)

YIVO: 338
1940-1948
Brochure for "Unser Camp," a summer camp run by the Farband-Labor Zionist Order, Highland Mills, NY, 1948. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 3 Folder 3.5)

YIVO: 339
1949-1967
"America Salutes Israel." Farband-Labor Zionist Order rally at Yankee Stadium celebrating Israel Independence Day, featuring an appearance by the Israeli Olympic Soccer Team, New York City, 1956. "It is your sacred duty to attend!" (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 3 Folder 3.5)

YIVO: 340
1940-1948
Flyer for a rally protesting British policies restricting Jewish immigration to Palestine, organized by the National Labor Committee for Palestine, a Zionist organization, New York City, 1943. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 3 Folder 3.5)

YIVO: 341
1920-1939
Yiddish flyer for a pro-Zionist rally sponsored by Farband-Labor Zionist Order, Philadelphia, PA, 1938. "Come and carry out your duty to the Jewish people, to all of European Jewry in its hour of need. Eretz Yisroel [the Land of Israel] is the only beacon of hope right now!" (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 3 Folder 3.5)

YIVO: 342
1949-1967
Matchbook advertising "Unser Camp-Kinderwelt," a summer camp sponsored by the Farband-Labor Zionist Order, Highland Mills, NY, 1950. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 3 Folder 3.7)

YIVO: 343
1949-1967
Handbill invitation to the groundbreaking ceremony for the new Talmud Torah building of the Ocean Parkway Jewish Center, Brooklyn, NY, 1951. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 4 Folder 4.1)

YIVO: 344
1920-1939
Yiddish/English poster for a benefit concert for the religious school of Cong. Talmud Chaim Bnei Moses, featuring child performer Chaim'l Parness, Bronx, NY, 1936. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 5 Folder 5.3)

YIVO: 346
1881-1919
Card of Ida Harris, "independent social worker," Lower East Side, New York City, n.d. Written on back: "The bearer Mrs. J. G--- of 1-- Willet Street is absolutely in need of help. She has eight children and no money. Help her with matzos and other things if possible. She is no 'shnorer' [beggar]. Yours, Ida Harris." (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 16 Folder 1)

YIVO: 347
1920-1939
Button for the Israel Orphan Institute, one of several Jewish orphanages in New York City, ca. 1925. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 16 Folder 2)

YIVO: 348
1881-1919
Business card of Mrs. Elizabeth Barnett, a representative of the Central Committee for Friendly Aid to Jewish Girls, New York City, ca. 1919. This organization did social work with Jewish girls paroled from reform schools and prisons, as well as with unwed mothers. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 16 Folder 2)

YIVO: 349
1881-1919
Yiddish flyer for "Women According to the Talmud," a lecture by Yehezkel Levitt, Washington DC, 1909. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 16 Folder 2)

YIVO: 350
1920-1939
Yiddish/English flyer inviting members of the Rebecca Marks Ladies Free Loan Association to a meeting to plan a raffle and dance, Lower East Side, New York City, 1932. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 16 Folder 2)

YIVO: 351
1920-1939
Page from a Yiddish coupon booklet for donations to the Tubercular Jewish Ex-Patients Home, Los Angeles, CA, ca. 1920s. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 16 Folder "Hospitals")

YIVO: 352
1920-1939
Cover of "Federation Illustrated," published by the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, New York City, 1936. Lotte Jacobi, the well-known German Jewish photographer, who had emigrated to the U.S. the year before, is among the photographers whose work appears on the cover and in the journal. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 16 Folder "Federation Jewish Philanthropy")

YIVO: 353
1940-1948
"Hope for European Jewry." Fundraising brochure for the United Jewish Appeal featuring an endorsement by U.S. President Harry S. Truman, Los Angeles, CA, 1946. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 16 Folder "Federation Jewish Philanthropy")

YIVO: 354
1920-1939
May Day greetings from the soccer team of Local 234 and from Local 368 of the Soft Drink Workers Union in "The Butcher Worker," a Yiddish-English publication of the American Federation of Labor, 1938. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 20)

YIVO: 355
1920-1939
Ad for the legendary Lower East Side restaurant Moskowitz and Lupowitz, in "The Butcher Worker," a Yiddish-English publication of the American Federation of Labor, 1938. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 20)

YIVO: 357
1968-2004
Playbill for "Riverside Drive" by Leon Kobrin, performed by the Folksbiene Theater, the oldest Yiddish theater in the U.S., New York City, 1987. (YIVO/United States Collection, RG 117 Box 20 Folder 87/88)

AJHS: 823
1968-2004
"Speak Out for Silent Soviet Jewry." Poster designed by Harriet Lener for the New York Conference on Soviet Jewry, 1978. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. National Conference on Soviet Jewry Collection.)

AJHS: 826
1968-2004
Cover of the "Jewish Liberation Project Hagada" by Aviva Cantor Zuckoff, New York City, 1971. This haggadah offered a leftist Zionist adaptation of the seder ritual. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

YIVO: 840
1881-1919
Program of the annual memorial meeting of the Krakauer Society, Chebra Rofei Cholim, New York City, 1915. Marks Starlight and Max Sternglanz are probably relatives (Starlight is a translation of Sternglanz). (YIVO/David Cahn Papers, RG 1211 Box 1 Folder "Misc Material")

YIVO: 842
1940-1948
Handbill for a concert at Carnegie Hall arranged by the Jewish Music Alliance, a federation of Jewish choruses, New York City, ca. 1943. (YIVO/Kalman Marmor Papers, RG 205 Folder 580)

YIVO: 849
1881-1919
Sarah Eisenberg (marked with x) and coworkers at a women's hat factory, New York City, ca. 1915. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 850
1949-1967
Poster advertising the first U.S. appearance of the Warsaw Jewish State Theater, New York, 1967, starring Ida Kaminska, one of the few stars of the Yiddish stage to return to Poland after the Holocaust. (YIVO)

YIVO: 851
1881-1919
"Leben zol Amerika!" (Long Live America!). Music by Professor M. Rubinstein, Lyrics by Leo Rosenberg, NY, 1910. (YIVO/Music Collection)

YIVO: 852
1881-1919
A Difficult Path. Cartoon by Isidore Busatt, in the Yiddish humor magazine, "Der groyser kundes" (The Big Stick), 1914. "With great pity, in honor of the rabbinical convention held in New York last week, at which hundreds of rabbis wracked their brains over the difficult religious issue as to how to get American youth into 'kheyder' (religious school)." Union of Rabbis: "Little boy, little boy, come to kheyder, an angel will throw you a penny!" Little boy:"Get outta here you kike, I'll hit you!" (YIVO Library, courtesy Edward Portnoy)

YIVO: 853
1881-1919
Among Pharoahs. Cartoon by Lola (Leon Israel) on cover of the Yiddish humor magazine, "Der Groyser kundes" (The Big Stick), 1913. Pharoah, King of Egypt: "The Jews once worked for us, too, but like this? No!" (YIVO Library, courtesy Edward Portnoy)

YIVO: 854
1881-1919
The American Melting Pot. Cartoon by Isidore Busatt in "Der groyser kundes" (The Big Stick), 1911. Uncle Sam: "No one can cook up a kasha like I can! I take in all the 'green' vegetables from all corners of the earth, I stuff them into my melting pot, and I mix them for so long that they come out in a pure, American pudding!" (YIVO Library, courtesy Edward Portnoy)

YIVO: 855
1881-1919
Today's Exodus from Egypt. Cartoon by Lola (Leon Israel) in "Der groyser kundes" (The Big Stick), 1914. "Today's Moses pulling today's Jews out of today's Egypts." (YIVO Library, courtesy Edward Portnoy)

YIVO: 856
1940-1948
"Lamed is for ladder." Pages from "Mayn alefbeys" (My alphabet), by I. Kaminski, illustrations by Note Kozlowski, NY, 1945. (YIVO Library)

YIVO: 857
1920-1939
"Beets for Passover," 1921. Words and music by Solomon Golub. (YIVO/Music Collection, RG 112 Music Folder 32)

YUM: 2545
1940-1948
Rabbi Jacob Sagalowitch with his wife and grandson in front of the synagogue he founded, Kehillat Yaakov, New York City, ca. 1943. The synagogue is now known as the Carlebach Shul. Sagalowitsch was formerly the Chief Rabbi of Brussels and Danzig. Gift of Joel Sagall. (YUM 2001.279)

LBI: 581678
1940-1948
A synagogue in New York City's Washington Heights, a neighborhood where many German Jewish refugees settled, 1940. (LBI/Kurt Goldschmidt Collection, F13615)

YIVO: 4208
1881-1919
Portrait of unidentified young man, Haverhill, MA, ca. 1890. Photo by E. Fowler. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 823)

YIVO: 581681
1920-1939
Participants and Yiddish signs at a demonstration of Poale Zion Left, a socialist Zionist organization, New York City, 1930. (YIVO)

YIVO: 581682
1940-1948
Visiting Soviet Yiddish actor Solomon Mikhoels (r) and writer Itsik Feffer (l) with Albert Einstein, U.S., 1943. Both Mikhoels and Feffer were members of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, an organization that promoted and raised funds for the Soviet war effort among overseas Jewish communities. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 581683
1949-1967
Students with a teacher at Yeshivas Chofetz Chaim-Talmudical Academy, Baltimore, MD, ca. 1950s. (YIVO)

YIVO: 581684
1940-1948
Children at the Oswego Refugee Center, NY, 1944. 982 refugees were granted temporary haven at Fort Oswego at the special request of the War Refugee Board (est. 1944), the only official U.S. government rescue organization. After the war, all the Oswego refugees were permitted to remain in the U.S. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919016
1920-1939
Graduates of a Workmen's Circle teachers' course, New York, NY, ca. 1924. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 453)

YIVO: 68919019
1920-1939
Prominent members of ILGWU (International Ladies Garment Workers Union), 1930. (YIVO)

YIVO: 932
1920-1939
Albert Einstein and his wife with Hopi Indians near the Grand Canyon, Arizona, 1931. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919020
1920-1939
1935 French press pass for Yiddish writer Isaac Bashevis Singer, who immigrated to the U.S. from Poland that same year. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919021
1920-1939
Portrait montage of the officers and board of directors of the United Vilner Ladies Relief, on the occasion of the landmanshaft's 15th anniversary, New York City, 1938. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919022
1920-1939
A gathering of members of the Jewish Socialist Farband, an organization founded in 1921 to promote socialism and secular Yiddish culture, RI, 1924. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919023
1920-1939
Members of the committee that published the "Morgn-Frayhayt" (Morning Freedom) Yiddish newspaper, which was affiliated with the Jewish section of the Communist Party, New York City, 1932. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919024
1968-2004
"Gore, Gonif [Thief]." Button, issued by the National Jewish Democratic Council, alluding to the 2000 presidential election scandal in Florida, accusing the Republican Party of trying to steal the election. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919025
1968-2004
"Nixon." Hebrew-English button, 1968 or 1972 presidential campaign. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919026
1968-2004
"Gore Lieberman 2000 - Keep it Kosher." Button promoting the Democratic Party ticket, 2000 presidential campaign. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919027
1968-2004
"Clinton Gore." Hebrew-English button promoting the Democratic Party ticket, 1992 or 1996 presidential campaign. (YIVO)

YIVO: 68919028
1920-1939
Fanny Lifshits and Khane Weintraub posing with "pushkes" (donation boxes) for the Jewish National Fund, Detroit, MI, 1921. Photo by Gorman's Studio. (YIVO/Genealogy and Family History Collection, RG 126 Box 23 Folder 143/74)

YIVO: 68919029
1940-1948
Purple Heart posthumously awarded to Staff Sergeant William Friedkas, who died of wounds sustained in battle in 1944. His only brother Nathan was also killed in action during the war. (YIVO/Genealogy and Family History Collection, RG 126 Box 8, Folder 8.3)

YIVO: 68919030
1940-1948
Nathan Friedkas, a photographer in the U.S. Army, who died in action during the war, ca. 1943. His only brother, William, a sergeant, was also killed in battle. (YIVO/Genealogy and Family History Collection, RG 126 Box 8 Folder 8.3)

YIVO: 68919031
1920-1939
Dues booklet for Jack Diamond, a "reader" for cigar makers and a member of the Cigar Makers' International Union of America since 1903, New York City, 1930. (YIVO/Genealogy and Family History Collection, RG 126 62.2)

YIVO: 41776
1920-1939
"Boycott Nazi Goods and Services," May-June 1938. Vol. 2, No. 5-6. A newsletter issued by the Joint Boycott Council of the American Jewish Congress and the Jewish Labor Committee. (YIVO/Joseph L. Tenenbaum Papers, RG 283 Folder 28)

YIVO: 61770
1920-1939
Participants at an unidentified Young Israel event, 1930s. (YIVO/Genealogy and Family History Collection, RG 126 56)

YIVO: 68919033
1881-1919
Wedding portrait, New York City, ca. 1880s. Photo by A. Smith. (YIVO/Genealogy and Family History Collection, RG 126 56)

YIVO: 68919034
1920-1939
Visitors at the grave of Yiddish playwright Jacob Gordin (1853-1909), ca. 1920s, NY. Photo by Paley. (YIVO/Yiddish Theater Photographs Collection, RG 119 Gordin, Jacob 7)

YIVO: 68919035
1881-1919
Souvenir card with portraits of the cast of Abraham Goldfaden's "Shmendrik," one of the first Yiddish plays ever performed in the U.S., New York City, 1885. (YIVO/Yiddish Theater Photographs Collection, RG 119 US051)

YIVO: 3912
1881-1919
Portrait of 23-year-old Isidor Klein, New York City, 1904. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 356)

YIVO: 494522939
1881-1919
Portrait of Jewish immigrants from Romania: Mordechai and Reyzye Schwartz with their daughter Rivke, New York City, ca. 1890. Photo by J. Klein. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 398)

YIVO: 4149
1881-1919
Portrait of unidentified immigrant couple, New York City, ca. 1900. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 845)

YIVO: 5165
1920-1939
Unidentified young graduate, ca. 1930s. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 356)

YIVO: 24809
1968-2004
Rabbi Joy Levitt officiating at the signing of the "ketubbah" (marriage contract) at the wedding of Leonard Newman and Nancy Lipsitt, New York City, 1997. (Courtesy Roberta Newman)

YIVO: 4225
1968-2004
Certificate awarded to Esther Newman for completing the Jewish Board of Family and Children's Services Doula course, whose graduates provide comfort and companionship to terminally ill and elderly patients, New York City, 2002. (Courtesy Estelle Newman)

YIVO: 3187
1949-1967
Carolyn Kaplan and Estelle Newman in a sukkah at the Huntington Jewish Center, Huntington, NY, ca. 1967. (Courtesy Estelle Newman)

YIVO: 505610
1968-2004
Supplement to the High Holiday prayerbook distributed to worshippers on Rosh Hashana at Kehillath Shalom, a Reconstructionist synagogue in Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 2002. (Courtesy Estelle Newman)

YIVO: 85353
1968-2004
Bat mitzvah of Alisa Newman at Kehillath Shalom, a Reconstructionist synagogue in Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1979. (L-r) Rabbi Arthur Schwartz, Leonard Newman, Malcolm Newman, Alisa Newman. (Courtesy Roberta Newman)

YIVO: 266696
1968-2004
Official van of Kibbutz Gezer (Carrot), a kibbutz in settled mostly by American and Canadian Jews who were members of the Habonim Zionist youth movement, Israel, 1976. (Courtesy Roberta Newman)

YIVO: 8380
1968-2004
"Join the DC 37 Fight for Life inIsrael." Flyer issued by District Council 37, a New York City union, during the 1973 October War. (Courtesy Roberta Newman)

YIVO: 937
1920-1939
Button in honor of the 50th anniversary of Alexander's Department Store, a chain begun by George Farkas in New York City in 1928. (YIVO)

YIVO: 16863
1968-2004
"Liz Holtzman for Senator," button, 1980 or 1982. In 1972, Brooklynite Elizabeth Holtzman became the youngest woman ever to be elected to the House of Representatives when she was elected to Congress at the age of 32. In 1980 and 1982, she ran unsuccessfully for the Senate. (YIVO)

YIVO: 1070
1968-2004
"Dinkins Mayor Dinkins." Hebrew/Yiddish-English sticker promoting the candidacy of David Dinkins for Mayor, New York City, 1989 or 1993. Dinkins was elected as the first African-American mayor of New York City in 1989, but lost the 1993 election to Rudolph Giuliani. (YIVO)

YIVO: 5492
1881-1919
Unidentified boy with long curls, Brooklyn, NY, ca. 1900. Some Orthodox Jews refrain from cutting a boy's hair until he is 3 years old. This is in deference to Rabbi Isaac Luria's dictum that "children are like trees in the field," which, according to sacred law, may not be harvested during their first 3 years of blooming. This photo may have been taken shortly before the boy's "opshern" (ritual first haircut). Photo by A. Warshaw. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 882
1881-1919
Unidentified brother and sister, wearing clothes bought several sizes too big "to grow into," Brooklyn, NY, ca. 1890. The children's hair is beginning to grow back after having been shaved, possibly to avoid infection from one of the scalp diseases that spread frequently among city children in the summertime. Photo by A. Warshaw. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 969
1881-1919
Unidentified Jewish immigrant, Brooklyn, NY, ca. 1895. This woman may have commissioned her portrait in order to show off her fancy new lace collar to relatives back home in Europe. Photo by H. Caplan. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 892
1881-1919
Souvenir portrait of Sarah Eisenberg, taken against a painted backdrop at a beach resort, NY, ca. 1911. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection, RG 120 US 798)

YIVO: 19428
1881-1919
B. Muckian, Brooklyn, NY, 1890. Photo by Amos Silkworth. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 58628
1881-1919
Unidentified bride and groom, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, NY, ca. 1910. Photo by H. Caplan. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

YIVO: 390780
1881-1919
Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) portrait greeting card with inscriptions in Hebrew, German, and English, New York City, ca. 1890. Photo by Ph. Hurwitz. (YIVO/Territorial Photographic Collection)

AJHS: 35113
1654-1776
Moses Raphael Levy (1665-1728), artist unknown, ca. 1735; oil on canvas. Gift of Captain N. Taylor Phillips. German-bron Levy immigrated to America in the late 17th century and settled in New York City, where he was made a freeman in 1695. Established as an independent merchant-trader, Levy owned a fleet of ships, invested in real estate, and conducted business in Eruope, India, the Caribbean, and North America. Like many Jews of his era, he was prominent in both New York's Jewish community and the larger society: he became a president of Congregation Shearith Israel and also contributed to the Trinity Church steeple building fund. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved.)

AJHS: 53255
1654-1776
Page from the Misheberach of Shearith Israel, the oldest Jewish congregation in the U.S., founded in 1730. This book, written in Portuguese, dates from 1759 and contains information about ceremonies and early members of the synagogue. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Congregation Shearith Israel Records.)

AJHS: 9521
1968-2004
Trilingual (English, Hebrew, Yiddish) flyer for Jewish Book Month featuring a photograph of Rabbi Samuel Geffen and his grandson, Jonah Geffen, New York City, 1978. Photo by Bill Aron. (Private Collection)

AJHS: 8001
1968-2004
Flyer announcing the establishment of the New York Havurah Community Seminary, 1968. The first havurah (small, communal prayer group) was formed in Somerville, MA in 1968 as an appealing alternative to worship in large congregations. The New York havurah was the second such alternative prayer group to be formed. The idea quickly spread to other communities. Many of the initial members of the New York Havurah, all student radicals at the time, now occupy positions of senior leadership in the world Jewish community. (Private Collection)

AJHS: 5159
1968-2004
Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel speaking at the first meeting of the Conservative Movement's Rabbinical Assembly of America to take place in Israel, ca. 1964. At table, l-r, facing camera: Rabbi Wolfe Kelman, Executive Vice President of the RA; Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion; Rabbi Jacob Segal, Congregation Adas Shalom, Detroit, Michigan. (Private Collection)

AJHS: 5672715
1968-2004
Students of New York City's Park Avenue Synagogue High School on a trip to the Soviet Union, 1985. The trip, an example of the of organized Jewish student travel movement that began in the 1960s, was focused on learning about the situation of Soviet Jewry and exploring the roots of the American Jewish community in Russia. (Private Collection)

AJHS: 22653
1968-2004
Portion of the text for a special ceremony created at The Abraham Joshua Heschel School in New York City in honor of the signing of the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, 1979. (Private Collection)

AJHS: 5796989
1968-2004
Program of a conference on Jewish-Catholic relations co-sponsored by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai Brith and the Diocese of Brooklyn to mark the 25th anniversary of Nostra Aetate, the Vatican II document that opened a new chapter in Jewish-Catholic relations, Queens, NY, 1991. (Private Collection)

AJHS: 24426888
1968-2004
Cover of a loose-leaf makhzor (prayerbook) created by Alan Sugarman at the Hebrew High School of Temple Israel for the High Holidays, Great Neck, NY, 1968. "...the times have changed, and in this jet age, personal theologies and family structures are being questioned and scrutinized as young and old alike search for what is real. This Machzor... is the result of the students' search for relevance in life." (Private Collection)

AJHS: 80651
1920-1939
An anti-Hitler rally near City Hall, New York City, 1933. (American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY and Newton Centre, MA. All Rights Reserved. Graduate School for Jewish Social Work Records.)

AJHS: 77139
1968-2004
Hadassah Nurses Council packing relief supplies for shipment to Sarajevo, Bosnia, 1995. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 18 Photographs Events 1995)

AJHS: 69404
1968-2004
Hadassah members departing for a trip to Israel, San Francisco, CA, 1967 or 1973. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 18 Photographs Events)

AJHS: 7987
1968-2004
Hadassah members at a pro-choice rally, ca. 1990s. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 18 Photographs Events)

AJHS: 16085
1968-2004
Hadassah President Rose Matzkin speaking at a pro-Israel rally, New York City, November, 1973. Photo by Alexander Archer. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 18 Photographs Events)

AJHS: 53802478
1968-2004
Cover of a brochure for Tel Yehudah, a summer camp of Young Judaea, the youth organization of Hadassah-The Women's Zionist Organization of America, Barryville, NY, 1992. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 17 Pamphlets Young Judaea Camps Tel Yehudah)

AJHS: 69941
1968-2004
"What's It to You?" Brochure for Hadassah's Zionist youth movement, Hashachar (The Dawn), 1970. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 17 Pamphlets Young Judaea General Brochures)

AJHS: 5117
1968-2004
Cover of the Fall 1995 edition of "Young Judaean," the magazine of Hadassah's Zionist youth movement, marking the assassination of Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 17 Publications Young Judaean Fall 1995)

AJHS: 968
1949-1967
Cover of the January 1952 edition of "Young Judaean," the magazine of Hadassah's Zionist youth movement. (AJHS/Hadassah Archives/RG 17 Publications Young Judaean)


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