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RCAHMS is working with BBC News Scotland to provide images for the Big Picture feature which is published midweek on the BBC News Scotland website. Each week we will select a visually striking image which is intended to highlight an area of RCAHMS' work.

 
 
  Melville Monument stands tall at the centre of St Andrew Square Garden in Edinburgh. For the first time in its 238-year history, the garden has been made accessible to the public after a recent redevelopment. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS. DP 019164 9th April 2008: Melville Monument, St Andrew Square, Edinburgh

Melville Monument, captured here by RCAHMS photographers, stands tall at the centre of St Andrew Square Garden in Edinburgh.

For the first time in its 238-year history, the garden has been made accessible to the public after a recent redevelopment. Dating back to 1770, and designed by James Craig as a key component of Edinburgh's New Town, the garden has until now only been accessible to residents and businesses in the surrounding area. At 41 metres in height, Melville Monument remains the focal point of the square. Created by William Burn between 1821 and 1823, it is dedicated to Henry Dundas, the first Lord Melville.

RCAHMS extensive archive contains many examples of Scotland's monuments and memorials, from earliest times to the present day. To find out more about St Andrew Square, and the nation's architectural and archaeological heritage, go to our searchable online database canmore.

 
 
  Engraving from 1818 showing view of Edinburgh's South Bridge from the Cowgate. Plans have now been revealed for the future redevelopment of the Cowgate and South Bridge sites after many buildings were destroyed in a fire in December 2002. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS. SC 934290 2nd April 2008: South Bridge, Edinburgh

RCAHMS archive holds a large number of drawings and engravings which provide a vivid illustration of Scotland's architectural heritage.

A fire in Edinburgh's Old Town in December 2002 destroyed a number of significant buildings in Edinburgh's Cowgate and South Bridge, and plans have now been unveiled for the future redevelopment of the site. This engraving by J. & H.S. Storer shows a view of South Bridge from the Cowgate in 1818.

Fire remains the biggest threat to the built heritage of Scotland. RCAHMS has a statutory duty to be kept informed of buildings under threat, and completed a survey of the Cowgate area shortly after the 2002 fire was brought under control, recording what was left of the affected buildings before they had to be demolished.

RCAHMS has also been working with Historic Scotland and the Scottish Fire Services to create the Scottish Historic Buildings National Fire Database (PDF, 388KB). This has collated fire risk information on all Category-A listed buildings in Scotland, providing access to plans, drawings, photographs, access routes and water supply locations in one database. This is now available directly to fire incident crews to help improve the effectiveness of fire-fighting operations.

For further information on the National Fire Database click on the link above, and for more details on South Bridge, including archive drawings and photographs, go to our searchable online database, Canmore.

 
 
  Aerial photograph of Jarlshof, the best known prehistoric archaeological site in the Shetland Islands. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS. SC 380193 26th March 2008: Jarlshof, the Shetland Islands

Jarlshof is the best known prehistoric archaeological site in the Shetland Islands. It lies near the southern tip of the Shetland mainland, close to the settlements of Sumburgh and Grutness.

A campaigner is currently arguing in Lerwick Sheriff Court that the Shetland Islands are not legally part of Scotland. He contends that Scotland's claim to Shetland, which dates back to 1469 when King Christian of Denmark pawned the islands to James III as part of a dowry, was only meant to be temporary.

Shetland has been populated since at least 1500 BC and is an archaeological treasure-trove. Buildings on the Jarlshof site - which is maintained by Historic Scotland - include the remains of a Bronze Age smithy, an Iron Age broch, Pictish houses, Viking long houses, a complex of wheelhouses, a mediaeval farmhouse and a 16th century laird's house.

For more information on the Shetland Islands and Jarlshof, go to RCAHMS searchable online database Canmore, and Historic Scotland's website.

 
 
  Oblique aerial view of the Clyde Arc Bridge, Glasgow.  Repair works have begun on the bridge this week following its closure in January when a cable snapped. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS. DP 032345 19th March 2008: Clyde Arc Bridge, Glasgow

Aerial photography provides fascinating perspectives on some of Scotland’s most iconic works of engineering.

This week, work has begun to repair Glasgow's Clyde Arc Bridge – dubbed the 'Squinty Bridge' by locals – after a snapped cable in January resulted in its closure. The structure, which spans 140 metres, is a tied arch design, carrying four traffic lanes between Finnieston and Pacific Quay, and was opened in 2006.

RCAHMS has the most extensive collection of aerial photography in Scotland, with departments specialising in the preservation and commissioning of aerial photography. We also photograph high-profile new buildings in the course of construction, including the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh and the Glasgow Science Centre, and will be conducting a programme of aerial survey for the site of Glasgow’s Commonwealth Games in 2014.

For more information and images of dramatic engineering throughout Scotland, go to our searchable online database, Canmore.

 
 
  Photograph of the clock tower of George Heriot's School, with Edinburgh Castle in the background. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS. SC 665459 12th March 2008: Clock Tower, George Heriot's School, Edinburgh

Scotland possesses some of the finest examples of historic school architecture in the world.

This week it was revealed that a pupil of the famous George Heriot's School in Edinburgh came second in a worldwide mental arithmetic competition. 17-year-old Rock Tsui restricted himself to just 30 minutes' sleep in two days during the marathon contest.

Established in 1628 as George Heriot's Hospital - by bequest of the royal goldsmith George Heriot to care for "puire fatherless bairnes" - the school opened in 1659. Other notable examples of the rich architectural heritage in Scottish school architecture, particularly from the 17th to late 19th century, include buildings such as Glasgow's Kelvinside Academy, Kinghorn Burgh High School, Montrose Academy and the Neilsen Institute in Paisley.

RCAHMS researchers, surveyors and photographers have carried out extensive surveys of Scottish school architecture, and the RCAHMS collection contains numerous original plans, drawings and archive photographs.

To find out more, go to our searchable database, Canmore.

 
 
  RCAHMS aerial photograph of Murrayfield Stadium, Edinburgh, the home of Scottish rugby.  This Saturday sees the 114th Calcutta Cup match between Scotland and England. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS. SC581757 5th March 2008 : Murrayfield Stadium, Edinburgh

RCAHMS holds aerial photography and survey material for a large number of sports grounds and stadia throughout Scotland.

Murrayfield Stadium officially opened on 21 March 1925 with a game against England. Scotland won by 14 points to 11 to claim their first ever ‘Grand Slam’, the title awarded to the side that wins all their matches in the Five Nations tournament. This Saturday sees the 114th Calcutta Cup match between the two sides.

RCAHMS has carried out aerial surveys for over 30 years, recording the rapid changes that occur to our urban, industrial and rural landscapes. For architectural and industrial subjects, the aerial view offers an unrivalled vantage point, allowing individual buildings and townscapes to be seen in their context.

For more aerial and survey photography of Murrayfield and other sports grounds in Scotland, go to our searchable database, Canmore.

 
 
  1098620 - How it used to be done - one of the RCAHMS Commissioners, Professor Childe, preparing to set off on a survey, c.1942. Copyright: RCAHMS 27th February 2008 : RCAHMS Commissioners

A survey of monuments in military training areas was undertaken by RCAHMS in the Second World War, following damage to the Twinlaw cairns in Berwickshire which had been used for target practice by the Polish army. With key staff in the forces, Professor Vere Gordon Childe, Commissioner, travelled through Scotland in 1942-43 preparing handwritten accounts for more than 600 monuments.

This image shows Professor Childe preparing to set out on a survey. During the war and immediate post war years, special petrol coupons were secured to enable Commissioners to carry out fieldwork.

Commissioners continue to play a vital role. Since 1908, over 50 people have contributed to the work of RCAHMS as Commissioners, providing unpaid professional guidance and direction. A full list of current contributors can be found on our Commissioners page.

This is one of the images which feature in an exhibition charting the history of RCAHMS which is on display in our search room throughout 2008. Opening times and a location plan can be found on our Contact page.

 
 
  SC1074415 - The Forth Rail Bridge photographed by the Royal Air Force on 20th October 1941. Copyright: RCAHMS (RAF World War II Collection) 20th February 2008 : The Forth Rail Bridge

This recently digitised view of the Forth Rail Bridge was photographed by the Royal Air Force on 20th October 1941. It is taken from the national collection of aerial photography for Scotland, held at RCAHMS, which contains over 1.5 million aerial photographs covering the whole of the Scottish landscape, ranging in date from the 1940s to the present day. This includes material taken by the RAF and Luftwaffe during wartime as well as photography by the Ordnance Survey dating from 1955 to 2001.

This image is from the 'M' series of 8,000 photographs taken mainly between 1940 and 1944 covering both military and civilian sites. The series includes the CAM (camouflage) oblique air photographs which were taken to assess camouflage on buildings throughout Scotland.

RCAHMS holds over 900 collection items on The Forth Rail Bridge including unique photographs of the bridge under construction, many of which can be seen on our searchable database Canmore.

 
 
  DP037719 - An aerial view of the Caltongate development site in Edinburgh, recently approved by the City of Edinburgh Council. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS 13th February 2008 : Caltongate, Edinburgh

RCAHMS has carried out aerial surveys for over 30 years. It has transformed our knowledge of prehistory and the Roman occupation of Scotland through the discovery of large numbers of sites only visible as cropmarks.

Our aerial survey team also record the rapid changes that occur to our urban, industrial and rural landscapes. This image, taken in November 2007, shows the location of the new Caltongate development in Edinburgh. The site of the former bus station will be turned into a hotel, conference centre, homes, shops and restaurants. The City of Edinburgh Council has recently approved major parts of this development and Scottish Ministers will shortly make the final decision.

External websites:

 
 
 
  A dramatic silhouetted view of RCAHMS staff using Global Positioning Systems to survey an archaeological site. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS 6th February 2008 : RCAHMS's survey work

RCAHMS is the only national body that systematically identifies, surveys and analyses Scotland's built heritage. This is an ongoing task as perceptions of the historic environment change, knowledge and research develops, and as landscapes and townscapes are built, demolished and radically altered.

This task is carried out by a highly experienced team of staff who undertake field work throughout Scotland, visiting sites and buildings to systematically create a record of them and undertaking programmes of research to understand and analyse their context and significance to Scotland's built environment.

The survey teams use the latest technology for recording such as global positioning systems, electronic data logging and digital photography. Although traditional methods are also still essential.

This dramatic silhouetted view of RCAHMS staff using global positioning systems is one of the images which feature in an exhibition charting the history of RCAHMS which will be on display in our search room throughout 2008. Opening times and a location plan can be found on our Contact page.

 
 
 
  SC367264 - Lady Victoria Colliery, Newtongrange, Midlothian. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS 12th December 2007 : Lady Victoria Colliery, Newtongrange, Midlothian

September 2007 saw the official launch of RCAHMS' centenary project, Treasured Places, with an online vote to find the nation's favourite image from our unique national collection. The winning image was a survey drawing of Lady Victoria Colliery (now the Scottish Mining Museum) in Newtongrange, prepared by RCAHMS in 1999.

The Edinburgh Makar Valerie Gillies has written a poem celebrating the winning image and its links to Scotland's industrial heritage. On 28th January 2008 RCAHMS was delighted to welcome Linda Fabiani MSP to John Sinclair House where Fergus Waters, Director of the Scottish Mining Museum, was presented with the framed Treasured Places winning image and poem. Read the full poem on our Latest News page.

External websites:

 
 
  The ruins of St Kilda Village in the Western Isles. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS. 23rd January 2008 : St Kilda Village, Western Isles

The arrangement of St Kilda Village along a curving street is the result of mid-19th century improvement. Laid out in the 1830s, each house had an allocated strip of cultivable land to front and rear, beyond which lay common grazing. Distinctive drystone storage structures, known as cleitan, are scattered throughout the landscape. These would have stored seabirds, crops and fishing gear. There are over 1,400 cleitan known throughout the St Kilda archipelago, but they are concentrated in the area around the village.

The population of St Kilda declined throughout the later 19th and early 20th centuries. The conditions on the island were harsh and as the inhabitants came into contact with the mainland, they relied more on imports of food, fuel and building materials. The final 36 inhabitants were evacuated to the mainland on 29 August 1930. There is now a small military base and seasonal occupation by National Trust for Scotland staff, volunteers and other visitors.

RCAHMS is currently working on a three-year partnership project with the National Trust for Scotland to map the archaeology of St Kilda in detail and to make the results available through the RCAHMS website.

Find out more about St Kilda on our searchable database Canmore, the RCAHMS Newsletter and the National Trust for Scotland website.

 
 
  SC 458742 - aerial view of the construction of the Churchill Barrier, Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, 1942. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS [RAF World War II Aerial Photograph Collection]. 16th January 2008 : Churchill Barrier, Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands

In the First and Second World Wars, Scapa Flow was a major strategic base for the Royal Navy. In the First World War, blockships were sunk across several of the approaches to the Flow and these defences were strengthened during the Second World War following the torpedoing of HMS Royal Oak in October 1939. In 1940-2, following a directive from Winston Churchill, four causeways, built of concrete blocks, were constructed by a workforce of up to 1720 men, 1200 of whom were Italian prisoners-of-war. The causeways subsequently became known as the Churchill Barriers.

This aerial photograph was taken by the Royal Air Force in 1942 and shows Kirk Sound with the initial construction phase of Churchill Barrier No 1. On the right of the image is the earlier line of blockships which U47 penetrated to sink HMS Royal Oak in 1939.

RCAHMS holds the national collection of aerial photography for Scotland. It contains over 1.5 million aerial photographs covering the whole of the Scottish landscape and ranges in date from the 1940s to the present day. This includes material taken by the RAF and Luftwaffe during wartime as well as photography by the Ordnance Survey dating from 1955 to 2001. Find out more on our Aerial Photography page.

 
 
  SC 786043 - Engraving of the Bell Rock Lighthouse, Angus, Tayside. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS 9th January 2008 : Bell Rock Lighthouse, Angus, Tayside

The Bell Rock lighthouse, which is situated in the North Sea some twelve miles to the south-east of Arbroath, is the oldest surviving rock-built lighthouse in Britain. First lit on 1st February 1811, it was designed by Robert Stevenson and is capped by an octagonal lantern. The construction of the lighthouse proved a great challenge, as the rock on which it is built is only exposed at low tide. The lighthouse has been unmanned since October 1988, and is now served by an automatic light and foghorn.

A model of the lighthouse, carved from a solid piece of red sandstone from the Bell Rock, will be on permanent display at the Signal Tower Museum in Arbroath from summer 2008. The model was originally a present from the engineer to his daughter, and had been in the Stevenson family since 1811.

This engraving is titled 'State of the Works in August 1809' and is taken from Robert Stevenson's 'An account of the Bell Rock light-house including the details of the erection and peculiar structure of that edifice, to which is prefixed a historical view of the institution and progress of the Northern Light-houses,' published in 1824.

RCAHMS holds over 200 items on the Bell Rock Lighthouse, including over 70 original drawings which form part of the Northern Lighthouse Board Collection - find out more on our searchable database Canmore.

External websites:

 
 
  SC 369973 - The Royal Warrant which established the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS 2nd January 2008 : RCAHMS celebrates its centenary

The results of 100 years of surveying, recording, and collecting provide a vivid and fascinating picture of human influence on the ever-changing landscape of Scotland from the earliest times to the present day. This information, which includes 4.5 million items of archive, is made widely available to the public through publications, exhibitions and access both online and in the search room. Our work underpins the understanding of Scotland's unique cultural identity and provides a world-class account of Scotland's built environment to local, national and international audiences.

In August 1908 our first Secretary Alexander Ormiston Curle began surveying and recording in Berwickshire. He records in his 'Private Journal of a Wandering Antiquary':

"I strapped on my surveyors rods to the top of my bicycle and with my canvas bag containing note books, clinometer, tape-line and map took the road to Coldingham…".

Our survey methods have developed greatly since then, but our purpose continues unabated.

As part of the Centenary celebrations, RCAHMS will be hosting a series of workshops, open days and exhibitions, as well as producing several new publications. Keep up to date with our celebrations on our Latest News page.

 
 
  SC 949575 - Drummond Castle and its formal gardens in snow, Perth and Kinross. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS 26th December 2007 : Drummond Castle, Perth and Kinross

The tower of Drummond Castle was built c.1490 by John, 1st Lord Drummond. The 2nd Earl, a Privy Councillor to James VI and Charles I, succeeded in 1612 and is credited with transforming both the gardens and the castle. The country house was begun in 1689 and underwent considerable changes in the 18th and 19th centuries, with extensive additions and remodelling in 1878 by the Crieff architect G.T. Ewing.

Its formal gardens, considered to be among the finest in Europe, were possibly laid out by Charles Barry and Lewis Kennedy in 1832 on the site of an older garden. Phylis Astor replanted the gardens in the early 1950s.

Find out more about Drummond Castle and view further images on our searchable database Canmore.

 
 
  SC 677288 - Woden Law fort in the Scottish Borders, bathed in winter sun. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS 19th December 2007 : Woden Law fort, Scottish Borders

On top of Woden Law in the Scottish Borders there is a notable group of remains comprising an Iron Age fort with multiple ramparts, earthworks, and a small enclosure.

The ramparts that enclose the summit of Woden Law belong to at least three phases of construction, and the innermost rampart surrounds the remains of a number of timber round-houses. Linear earthworks on the lower slopes of the hill probably formed parts of Iron Age field-systems, which were in use sometime during the occupation of the fort. Further evidence for prehistoric farming on the flank of the hill is provided by extensive swathes of cord rig (narrow cultivation ridges), some of which overlie the banks of the field-system.

Find out more about Woden Law and view further images on our searchable database Canmore.

 
 
  GV 004379 - Copyright RCAHMS 12th December 2007 : Lady Victoria Colliery, Newtongrange, Midlothian

September 2007 saw the official launch of RCAHMS' centenary project, Treasured Places, with an online vote to find the nation's favourite image from our unique national collection. A longlist of 100 images was initially selected, with the public enthusiastically voting in their thousands to decide their top ten.

Over the last few weeks these top ten sites have competed to be named the nation's most treasured place. The winning image is this survey drawing of Lady Victoria Colliery in Newtongrange, prepared by RCAHMS in 1999. Dating from the 19th century, Lady Victoria Colliery ceased production in 1981 and is now the home of the Scottish Mining Museum. The colliery was named in honour of the wife of the Marquis of Lothian, who also built the neighbouring village of Newtongrange to house the miners from the pit.

The top 10 images are now available to view in rank order on the Treasured Places website, and will feature in a major centenary exhibition at the Edinburgh City Art Centre in 2008. The winning image will be celebrated by a poem written by Valerie Gillies.

 
 
  SC 774875 - Copyright RCAHMS 5th December 2007 : Longcroft fort and settlement, Scottish Borders

Aerial survey provides a unique opportunity to record traces of Scotland's past. As well as investigative flights looking for traces of archaeological sites, flying is undertaken in support of RCAHMS's archaeological and architectural projects. Low sunlight and faint coverings of snow can reveal structures barely visible on the ground, and during the summer months the differential growth patterns of arable crops (cropmarks) can reveal buried features. For architectural and industrial subjects, the aerial view offers an unrivalled vantage point, allowing individual buildings and townscapes to be seen in their context.

Aerial photography for archaeological projects concentrates on summer crop marks, hill forts, field systems, townships and changes in land use, while that for architectural projects includes hospitals, castles and country houses, churches, farms, gardens, industrial and military sites. We also photograph high profile new buildings in the course of construction, including the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh and the Glasgow Science Centre.

This view of the fort and settlement at Longcroft in the Scottish Borders shows the dramatic effect that snow can have on the visibility of an archaeological site. Find out more about Longcroft on our searchable database Canmore.

 
 
  DP 022592 - Copyright RCAHMS 29th November 2007 : Covesea Skerries Lighthouse, Lossiemouth, Moray

Established in 1846 by the lighthouse engineer Alan Stevenson and contractor James Smith, Covesea Skerries Lighthouse was built in response to repeated demands from 1835 onwards.

The 7-storey lighthouse was automated in 1984 and is now in use as a holiday home. The original lamp is held at Lossiemouth Fisheries Museum.

RCAHMS holds over 70 items relating to this lighthouse, including the original drawings which form part of the Northern Lighthouse Board Collection - find out more on our searchable database Canmore.

 
      
  DP 026666 - Copyright RCAHMS 21st November 2007 : The University of Stirling

2007 marks the 40th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Stirling, widely regarded as one of Britain's finest modern campus universities. The university was first established in 1967 on the estate of the Robert Adam-designed Airthrey Castle, which has itself become an integral part of the university campus.

Robert Matthew, Johnson-Marshall & Partners (RMJM), a Scottish architectural practice, was responsible for the original design and layout of the university, completing that first phase in 1972. The student halls of residence in this photograph illustrate the low rise, highly functional modern style RMJM applied to the buildings in order to integrate them within the beautiful landscape surrounding the 18th century man-made Airthrey Loch.

A conference to celebrate the buildings, landscape and environment of the University of Stirling will take place in the Pathfoot Building on Saturday 24 November 2007. Alongside this event RCAHMS is presenting a photographic exhibition entitled 'Academic Architecture' which illustrates through carefully selected historic, contemporary and aerial photography, the breadth and variety of architectural styles and influences prevalent throughout Scotland's universities. The exhibition will be on display in The Crush Hall, Pathfoot Building, The University of Stirling, from Thursday 22 November to Wednesday 12 December 2007.

 
      
  DP 015650 - Copyright RCAHMS 14th November 2007 : Glasgow from the Air

In 2014 Glasgow will host the Commonwealth Games. The River Clyde has undergone a remarkable transformation in recent years, with major regeneration taking place north and south of the river.

This image was taken as part of RCAHMS's aerial survey programme in 2006 and clearly shows the changing landscape around the Clyde. Further information and images can be found on our searchable database Canmore.

This is just one of the stunning aerial views which RCAHMS has contributed to the publication 'Glasgow from the Air' by Carol Foreman, which can be purchased for £20 through Birlinn Limited.

 
      
  SC 872650 - Copyright RCAHMS 7th November 2007 : 7th November 2007 : New Publication - 'In The Shadow of Bennachie'

The craggy silhouette of the Mither Tap o' Bennachie in Aberdeenshire is not simply a landmark on a local skyline, but is one of the most spectacular forts in the area. Every generation has left its mark on this landscape: burial mounds and stone circles erected by farming communities in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age; Iron Age forts; Pictish symbol stones standing along the lower Don; medieval castles; and unassuming ruins of crofts and farms that were still occupied at the beginning of the 20th century.

In the Shadow of Bennachie - A Field Archaeology of Donside, Aberdeenshire is a centenary publication of RCAHMS in partnership with the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Richly illustrated with photographs, maps and drawn plans, this volume explores the field archaeology of thousands of years of human settlement in north-eastern Scotland, and examines archaeological and historical records tracing the evolution of the landscape from the era of the Picts to the present day.

To purchase a copy of this publication (price £30 + £6.20 UK postage and packing), contact RCAHMS at +44 (0)131 662 1456 or email info@rcahms.gov.uk. For a full list of RCAHMS publications visit the Publications List.

This striking image was taken as part of RCAHMS's aerial survey programme in 2003 and shows the Don leading to the familiar outline of the Mither Tap o' Bennachie. Further information and images can be found on our online database Canmore.

 
      
  SC 1021792 - Copyright RCAHMS 31st October 2007 : Our Lady of Good Counsel Roman Catholic Church, Glasgow - Gillespie, Kidd and Coia

Although formed in 1927, it was under the creative control of Andy MacMillan and Isi Metzstein in the period between 1956 and 1987 that the firm of Gillespie, Kidd and Coia produced their most innovative and well-known buildings. A part of the modern architectural movement associated with the socially inspired, urban renewal programmes of post-war Britain, the firm completed a large number of projects including housing, schools, hospitals and colleges.

However, it is for their churches and ecclesiastical buildings that Gillespie, Kidd and Coia are most famous, having enjoyed the loyal patronage of the Roman Catholic Church for over thirty years. This image of the Gillespie, Kidd and Coia designed church Our Lady of Good Counsel in Dennistoun, Glasgow was taken by RCAHMS in 1995. Restored by Page and Park Architects in 2005, Our Lady of Good Counsel remains in use as a parish church today.

The Gillespie, Kidd and Coia archive was gifted to Glasgow School of Art, an institution with which the firm had close connections, in 2001 and will be housed in the purpose-built facilities of the Mackintosh Research Centre for Archives and Collections from 2008. A major retrospective of the practice's work, staged by The Lighthouse, Scotland's Centre for Architecture, Design and the City, in partnership with The Glasgow School of Art and RCAHMS, is to open on November 3rd 2007. The exhibition runs until 10th February 2008 and will be accompanied by the publication of a book. More information can be found on The Lighthouse website.

 
      
  DP 010877 - Copyright RCAHMS 24th October 2007 : Scottish Industries Exhibition, Kelvin Hall, Glasgow

Basil Spence (1907-1976) was one of Britain's foremost modern architects. As well as major international commissions, he also designed many buildings in his native Scotland.

2007 marks the centenary of Sir Basil Spence's birth and to celebrate this, RCAHMS is working in partnership with the National Galleries of Scotland to host a major exhibition of his life and work. The exhibition entitled 'Back to the Future' is being held at the Dean Gallery in Edinburgh from 19th October 2007 - 10th February 2008. This image of a presentation drawing of the Wylie and Lochhead exhibition stand at the Scottish Industries Exhibition, Kelvin Hall, Glasgow, is one of many original drawings that feature in the exhibition.

The Sir Basil Spence Archive was presented to RCAHMS by the Spence family in 2003. The Archive comprises nearly 40,000 drawings, photographs, manuscripts and news cuttings. Find out more at www.basilspence.org.uk.

 
      
  SC 792276 - Copyright RCAHMS 17th October 2007 : Canongate Housing Development, Edinburgh

Basil Spence (1907-1976) was one of Britain's foremost modern architects. As well as major international commissions, he also designed many buildings in his native Scotland.

2007 marks the centenary of Sir Basil Spence's birth and to celebrate this, RCAHMS is working in partnership with the National Galleries of Scotland to host a major exhibition of his life and work. The exhibition entitled 'Back to the Future' will be held at the Dean Gallery in Edinburgh from 19th October 2007 - 10th February 2008. This image of a perspective drawing of the Canongate Housing Development, Edinburgh, is one of many original drawings that feature in the exhibition.

The Canongate Housing Development was designed by Sir Basil Spence, Glover and Ferguson, and completed in 1969. It consists of three blocks of one and two bedroom flats with two shops and a pub at street level. Throughout his career Spence was interested in blending modern styles and materials with traditional, indigenous elements and this is evident in the development's final design. Despite their clear modern style, the buildings' pitched roofs, harled walls and pend entrances help them to integrate well into this historic part of Edinburgh.

The Sir Basil Spence Archive was presented to RCAHMS by the Spence family in 2003. The Archive comprises nearly 40,000 drawings, photographs, manuscripts and news cuttings. Find out more at www.basilspence.org.uk.

 
      
  DP 027532 - Copyright RCAHMS 10th October 2007 : Todhead Lighthouse, Aberdeenshire

Todhead Lighthouse in Aberdeenshire was built in 1897 to a design by the engineer D A Stevenson. It was first lit in 1897, electrified in 1973 and became automated in 1986.

RCAHMS surveyed this lighthouse in June 2007 after being notified by the Northern Lighthouse Board that the lighthouse and adjacent buildings are to be sold. The equipment is significantly as fitted in 1897, but the optic system, including the clockwork mechanism and lens, is to be removed prior to the sale and re-assembled in a suitable location, perhaps a museum.

RCAHMS holds further images and information on Todhead Lighthouse, as well as 18 drawings which are part of the Northern Lighthouse Board Collection - find out more on our searchable database Canmore.


 
      
  DP 029421 - Copyright RCAHMS 3rd October 2007 : Lochaline silica sand mine, Highland

As part of our industrial survey programme, RCAHMS recently recorded the Lochaline silica sand mine in Lochaber. Operated by Tarmac Ltd., the mine is the only underground silica sand mine in Britain and is viable due to the exceptionally high quality of the deposit.

The mine employs 12 people and currently produces around 100,000 tonnes of silica sand, approximately one fifth of all Scottish production. Silica sand is used for various industrial applications but primarily for the glass-making industry.

Further images and information about the mine can be found on our searchable database Canmore.


 
  SC 712490 - Copyright RCAHMS 26th September 2007 : Hi-Spy photography at RCAHMS

Hi-Spy photography is one of several methods used by RCAHMS to record Scotland's sites and monuments. The Hi-Spy comprises a camera mounted on the end of a mast which can be extended upwards to a maximum height of some 15m. The camera is operated remotely from the ground. In some instances, Hi-Spy photography is the only way to photograph an entire monument and is particularly useful to illustrate souterrains, cairns, stone circles, and excavated sites, as well as sculptured features high on exterior walls of monuments.

This view shows a recumbent stone circle at Easter Aquhorthies in Aberdeenshire, photographed in 2002. Further images and information about Easter Aquhorthies can be found on our searchable database Canmore.

RCAHMS is participating in Scottish Archaeology Month 2007. For further details about the events taking place in your area visit the official website: http://www.scottisharchaeology.org.uk/projects/sam/.


 
  DP 008681 - Copyright RCAHMS 5th September 2007 : Sculpture at St Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh

St Andrew's House in Edinburgh is one of the main administrative bases for The Scottish Government. It was designed by the architect Thomas Smith Tait, drawing freely on modern Beaux-Arts, American, and Dutch sources, and opened in 1939. The Royal opening was postponed until 1940 owing to the outbreak of war.

A variety of architects, artists and sculptors worked on the decoration of the building: stonework detailing by Esmé Gordon; allegorical sculpted figures by Sir William Reid Dick; the Royal Coat of Arms by Alexander Carrick; bronze doors with themes from the life of St Andrew by Walter Gilbert; and ironwork by Thomas Hadden.

Subsidiary entrance sculptures of a unicorn and lion, which support the Royal Coat of Arms, were designed by Phyllis Bone. She was renowned for her sculptures of animals, and also worked on the Scottish National War Memorial at Edinburgh Castle. This image shows John Marshall (1888-1952) sculpting the unicorn.

RCAHMS holds over 200 archive items on St Andrew's House, many of which can be seen on our searchable database Canmore. Further information about St Andrew's House and Thomas Smith Tait can be found on the Dictionary of Scottish Architects website.


 
  SC 793841 - Copyright RCAHMS 29th August 2007 : Arnol township, Lewis, Western Isles

The crofting township of Arnol is famous for its 'black houses'. Over 40 of these traditional dwellings remain in existence today, with one, No 45, open to the public as a museum. Black houses were the traditional homes of the islanders, and were built of stone and thatch.

Arnol is situated on the West coast of Lewis. In 1844 Sir James Matheson (1796-1878) bought Lewis, and under his direction the land was surveyed and lotted out to tenants between 1849 and 1851. This is when most of the crofts on the island came into being. The houses which had to be built on the lotted land were often built as part of the dykes that divided the arable land from the common pasture.

Lewis and Harris are both parts of the same island, collectively known as 'the Long Island', which is the most northerly in the Outer Hebrides. Together they are about 95km in length and around 32km at the widest point. Most of Lewis is quite low-lying, whereas Harris is mountainous.

 
      
      
  SC 756372 - Copyright RCAHMS 22nd August 2007 : Cumbernauld Town Centre, North Lanarkshire

Cumbernauld New Town is celebrating its 50th anniversary. Cumbernauld Town Centre was built between 1963 and 1972 as the world's first multi-level town centre. It was designed by Cumbernauld Development Corporation to house local amenities in one large complex, including shops, offices, community facilities and administrative buildings with underground parking and pedestrian access via a series of ramps and walkways.

This image shows M. Evans' presentation drawing of Phase 1 of the Town Centre, based on designs by the architect Geoffrey Copcutt. On the right, a concrete water tank on a column base is raised high above the area known as the south terrace or 'civic podium'. This area on top of the Town Centre complex had benches and provided views over the surrounding area from an elevated position.

The 'civic podium' was intended by its architects to be used as a gathering place for community events and announcements, very much in the manner of a town square. The Town Centre was renovated and significantly altered from 1983 to 1985, and this area has since been demolished.

Find out more on the Cumbernauld 50th Anniversary website. Diane Watters of RCAHMS and Miles Glendinning (formerly of RCAHMS) will be giving a lecture on Cumbernauld at Cumbernauld Technical College on 12th September 2007 at 7pm. For more information contact the archivist at North Lanarkshire Council.

 
      
  DP 014934 - Copyright RCAHMS 15th August 2007 : 250th Anniversary of the Birth of Thomas Telford

The 9th August 2007 marked the 250th anniversary of the birth of Thomas Telford, one of Britain's most celebrated engineers; builder of roads, bridges and canals throughout almost every corner of Scotland, England and Wales, his built legacy is still very much apparent. 2007 is also Scotland's Year of Highland Culture, a year-long event to which RCAHMS is contributing.

Inspired by the concurrent celebrations, the strong links between Telford and the Highlands, and also the collection material that RCAHMS holds (most notably the 1838 Atlas to the life of Thomas Telford, Engineer, as well as extensive and ongoing survey work), the Telford in the Highlands Project, funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund and Highland 2007, is engaging young people in four areas of the Scottish Highlands in exploring and celebrating their local built heritage, and in sharing their knowledge with each other and their local communities.

View further images illustrating some of Thomas Telford's projects in Scotland.

 
      
  SC 793567 - Copyright RCAHMS 8th August 2007 : Titan Crane, Clydebank, West Dunbartonshire

The Titan Crane was constructed in 1907 by Sir William Arrol and Company Ltd and was the company's first giant steel cantilever crane. It stands on the site of the former Clydebank Shipbuilding Yard which was founded in 1870 by J and G Thomson, and finally demolished in 2003.

The crane cost £25,300 to build and weighed 150 tonnes until it was uprated to 200 tonnes in 1937. 40 of the 42 cranes of this type constructed around the world were by Sir William Arrol, with 27 located in Britain.

Born in Houston in Renfrewshire in 1839, Sir William Arrol worked as a contractor on other major engineering feats such as the Forth Rail Bridge in Edinburgh and the replacement Tay Bridge in Dundee.

RCAHMS holds over 8,800 archive items in the Sir William Arrol Collection - more details can be found on our online database Canmore, and in our publications on the company's Scottish and International work.

The Titan Crane opened as a visitor attraction on 3rd August 2007 - visit the official website: www.titanclydebank.com.

 
      
  SC 357588 - Copyright RCAHMS 1st August 2007 : The Kildalton Cross, Islay, Argyll and Bute

The cross at Kildalton Chapel on Islay is one of the finest Early Christian crosses in Britain. It is closely related to the group of major crosses, St Oran's, St John's and St Martin's at lona, and like them it probably dates from the second half of the 8th century.

Standing 2.65m in height by 1.32m across the arms, the cross is carved from a single block of local blue-stone. It is elaborately decorated with intricate carved reliefs of interlacing spiral-work and zoomorphs, such as fierce serpents, lions and birds. Several biblical scenes are depicted on the reverse: these include the Virgin and Child with angels, Cain murdering his brother Abel, Abraham preparing to sacrifice Isaac, and David killing the Lion.

Other carved stones on the Kildalton Chapel site cover the period from the 10th to the18th centuries and include one which is sometimes referred to as "The Thief's Cross".

RCAHMS holds over 200 archive items on the Kildalton Chapel and Cross, many of which can be seen on our searchable database Canmore. The Kildalton Cross is under the Guardianship of Historic Scotland.

 
      
  SC1030751 - Copyright RCAHMS (Sir Basil Spence Archive) 25th July 2007 : Harbour Housing at Dunbar, East Lothian

In 1948 Dunbar Town Council decided to regenerate the town’s Victoria harbour front for the fishing industry by providing housing to accommodate fishermen and their families, and to attract newcomers to the area. Basil Spence & Partners were awarded the commission. The first phase was completed in 1952 and consisted of 20 houses, irregularly distributed over four separate sites, all grouped amongst existing properties. This scheme was awarded a Saltire Society Award for good design in 1951.

The buildings are a combination of two and three storey blocks, mostly arranged around courtyards where fishermen could hang their nets. The walls were finished with colour wash, and the doors, windows and ironwork were all painted in bright colours. The red sandstone used in the cladding of the lower storeys came from the local area, some of it having been reclaimed from the old harbour wall.

This image is taken from the Sir Basil Spence Archive and was catalogued as part of a three-year project that started in April 2005. The aims of the project are to catalogue, conserve and promote the archive of the architect Sir Basil Spence (1907-1976). In order to make this huge wealth of material accessible to the public, RCAHMS is working in partnership with the National Galleries of Scotland (NGS) and The Lighthouse, Scotland’s Centre for Architecture, Design and the City, on a series of educational workshops and exhibitions. The Project is funded by a grant of £975,000 from the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF), and £200,000 from the Scottish Government.

 
       
  SC 814132 copyright RCAHMS 18th July 2007: Carnoustie Golf Course, Angus

According to the archives of The Royal Burgess Golfing Society, the first ever game of golf was played at Bruntsfield Links in Edinburgh in 1456.

This year the Open Championship is being held at Carnoustie Golf Course in Angus from 19-22 July 2007. More details can be found on their official website: http://www.opengolf.com.

This striking image of Carnoustie Golf Course was taken as part of RCAHMS's aerial survey programme in 2003. Visible in the background is Barry Buddon military training camp with an airfield, assault courses and shooting ranges. This camp can also be seen in RAF WWII oblique aerial photographs and postwar vertical air photographs which RCAHMS holds as part of the National Air Photographs Collection.

 
       
  SC 1023422 copyright RCAHMS 11th July 2007: Standing Stones, Calanais (Callanish), Lewis

Calanais in the Western Isles is one of the most substantial yet enigmatic of the prehistoric monuments which can be found surviving across Scotland. The site was first mentioned by Martin Martin in his travels of the Outer Hebrides in the 17th century, at which time the site was largely covered by peat. Since then, Calanais has provided a subject for constant debate and scholarly enquiry.

Excavations at the site in the 1980s revealed a complex sequence of use with surviving evidence giving an insight into its construction, use and the surrounding landscape around the late 4th and early 3rd millennium BC. The cruciform shape of Calanais is unique for this period but evidence from the excavations has revealed parallels with contemporary monuments from northern Scotland and Ireland.

This image was taken during a programme of aerial photography undertaken by RCAHMS in the Western Isles during 2004, providing a unique perspective of this fascinating monument. It is one of over 200 collection items on Calanais which are currently held by RCAHMS.

The standing stones are under the Guardianship of Historic Scotland while the visitor centre at Calanais is managed by the Urras nan Tursachan: http://www.calanaisvisitorcentre.co.uk.

 
       
  DP 025788 copyright RCAHMS 4th July 2007: Caledonian Canal, Highlands

The construction of the Caledonian Canal, engineered by Thomas Telford and William Jessop, started in 1804 following an Act of Parliament of 1803. The canal was to be a total of 60 miles long connecting the Beauly Firth on the East Coast with Loch Linnhe on the West. Projected costs were estimated at £474,500, but by the time it was completed in 1822 the final cost was £912,000.

The canal locks and basin at Corpach were constructed between 1808 and 1812. The contractors for this section were Simpson and Wilson overseen by the resident engineer John Telford (a kinsman of Thomas), later succeeded by Alexander Easton. The basin was cut out of rock and the locks are provided in groups. The work between Corpach and Loch Lochy was complicated by the need to control the water from mountain streams making the provision of culverts and aqueducts essential.

The Corpach basin and locks were extended and modernized in 1964 after agreement with the owners of the Paper and Pulp Mill at Corpach to allow the basin to receive larger ships.

RCAHMS holds over 300 items on The Caledonian Canal including a copy of the 1838 Atlas to the Life of Thomas Telford, Engineer. Digital copies of plates from this book, and other items including oblique aerial photography can be seen on our searchable database Canmore.

 
       
  SC 676298 copyright RCAHMS 27th June 2007 : The Forth Bridge

The Forth Bridge ranks as one of the most iconic structures in Scotland, and demonstrates the pioneering achievements of British engineering of the time.

Constructed between 1883-1890, the bridge connects North and South Queensferry across the Firth of Forth. It was designed by Sir John Fowler with the help of Sir Benjamin Baker, and Sir William Arrol was the contractor. It cost over £3,000,000 to build, used 54,160 tonnes of steel, over 21,000 tonnes of cement, and 6,500,000 rivets weighing a total of 4,200 tonnes. Around 5,000 men worked on the construction and it is thought that up to 98 workers lost their lives.

The Prince of Wales officially declared the bridge open on 4th March 1890. The Forth Bridge finally lost its status as the world's largest cantilever bridge with the opening of the Quebec Bridge (over the St Lawrence River in Canada) in December 1917.

RCAHMS holds over 900 items on The Forth Bridge including many unique photographs of the bridge under construction, many of which can be seen on our searchable database Canmore.

 
       
  SC 371620 copyright RCAHMS 20th June 2007 : Royal Highland Showground, Ingliston, Edinburgh

This year marks the 167th Royal Highland Show, an annual agricultural event held at Ingliston in Edinburgh and run by The Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, founded in 1784 to encourage the regeneration of rural Scotland. The show promotes Scottish agricultural production and machinery, crafts, a flower show and holds the largest exhibition of Scottish food and drink in the world.

At the centre of the showground stands Ingliston House designed in 1846 by Brown and Wardrop for William Mitchell Innes of Parson's Green and Bangour. Ingliston Estate was acquired by the Society in 1958 as a permanent venue for the show, which had previously rotated between various towns and cities around Scotland.

The Royal Highland Show runs from Thursday 21st to Sunday 24th June 2007 and further details can be found on their website: http://www.royalhighlandshow.org/

This image is taken from an aerial photographic survey of Ingliston carried out by RCAHMS in 1994 and further details can be found on our searchable database Canmore.

 
       
  DP 010503 copyright RCAHMS 13th June 2007 : The Pineapple, Dunmore Park, Airth, Falkirk

The Pineapple is a truly unique building, instantly recognisable by its exotic shape. The building was designed for the Earl of Dunmore in 1761, but didn't receive its pineapple crown until around 1771 which marked the Earl's return from service as Governor of Virginia to resume his occupancy of the estate. The architect of The Pineapple remains a mystery.

Set within a large walled garden on the Dunmore Estate, The Pineapple is close to the now-ruined Dunmore Park and Elphinstone Tower. Its restoration by Stewart Tod & Partners in 1972-9 won the Saltire Society Award in 1980. The building is now let as a holiday house by the Landmark Trust and owned by the National Trust for Scotland.

This image is taken from a photographic survey of The Pineapple carried out by RCAHMS in 2006 and further images can be seen on our searchable database Canmore.

 
       
  SC 940894 copyright RCAHMS 6th June 2007 : Tomb to Alexander Macleod, St Clement's Church, Rodel, Harris (Tur Chliamainn)

St. Clement's is considered to be the most outstanding church building in the Hebrides, the earliest section dating from the 13th century. The church is remarkable for possessing one of the most ambitious and richly-carved tombs of the period in Scotland, that of Alexander Macleod (known in Gaelic as Alasdair Crotach) said to have been the church's founder.

By choosing to be buried in Harris, Alexander Macleod was breaking with tradition as the previous chiefs of his clan had until then been buried in Iona. The tomb is dated 1528 and its high-quality carved mural panels depict biblical stories, a stylised castle, a hunting scene and a Highland galley.

This image from the 1930s shows the galley carving intact, although it was subsequently damaged in the mid-20th century. The church is now under the Guardianship of Historic Scotland.

 
       
  SC 562758 copyright RCAHMS 30th May 2007 : Crathes Castle, Aberdeenshire

Crathes Castle is one of the best preserved castles in Scotland, the earliest part dating from 1553. It has been occupied by the Burnetts of Leys for over 350 years, receiving the charter for the land from Robert the Bruce in 1323.

In addition to the profusion of external ornament, including heraldic decoration and gargoyles, the interior is famed for its magnificent Jacobean painted oak ceilings which were only uncovered in 1877. These can be seen in the Chamber of the Muses (pictured), the Chamber of Nine Worthies and the Green Lady's Room.

Since 1951 Crathes Castle has been owned and managed by the National Trust for Scotland and is open to visitors - find out more: http://www.nts.org.uk/Property/20/WhatToSee/.

RCAHMS holds information and over 200 collection items on Crathes Castle which can be accessed through our database Canmore.

 
       
  SC 979636 copyright RCAHMS 23rd May 2007 : Eilean Munde, St Mund's Chapel, Highlands

The McKenzie slab is an early 19th century stone commemorating the battle of Prestonpans in 1745. The inscription reads 'The fate of an English dragoon who attacked Duncan McKenzie at the battle of Prestonpans where he fought under Prince Charles Stuart'. The Highland army, under command of Prince Charles Stuart, supported the Jacobite cause and fought against the troops of King George II. Prince Charles Stuart's troops won the battle at Prestonpans and he controlled most of Scotland afterwards.

The McKenzie slab is located on Eilean Munde on Loch Leven, Glencoe. The island is named after St Fintan Mundus who is believed to have been an Irish disciple of St Columba and founder of a church on the island in the 7th century. The Camerons of Callhart, the Stewarts of Ballachulish and Ardsheal, and the MacDonalds of Glencoe shared the burial ground on the island. Myth says that Alasdair MacDonald, the clan's chief at the time of the infamous Glencoe massacre, was laid to rest here in peace.

Today visitors can discover the ruins of a church, which was in use until c.1653, and inspect the numerous, some well preserved, gravestones.

 
       
  SC 756771 copyright RCAHMS 16th May 2007: Scott Morton Collection

Scott Morton and Company Ltd was an architectural woodwork firm founded in 1870 by brothers William and John Scott Morton. The company first specialised in furniture production and then diversified into interior decoration. In 1881 they invented the successful 'Tynecastle Tapestry', a luxurious looking wall covering formed from embossed canvas; several examples are held at RCAHMS.

Their projects included the sumptuous interior decoration at 25 Learmonth Terrace, Edinburgh (currently the property of the Royal Auxiliary Air Force) in 1893, and the Queen Mary Cunard-White Star ocean liner, launched in 1936.

The firm produced many of the carvings for Sir Robert Lorimer's commissions and worked with other notable Scottish architects including Reginald Fairlie & Partners. This image shows carvings of a bear/wolf, unicorn, tiger/panther/lion and stag created c.1912 for the oak staircase at Kinfauns Castle in Perth and Kinross.

RCAHMS holds 4,680 drawings, photographs and trade literature in the Scott Morton Collection.

 
       
  SC 749603 copyright RCAHMS 9th May 2007: Upper Mill, Barry, Angus

This water-powered grain mill is located next to the Barry Burn in Angus, to the north of Dundee. The current building was constructed after a fire in 1814, although the site is documented as a mill stance from as early as 1539. Mills such as this were once a common and vital part of Scottish rural life, but today, only a few intact examples survive.

The stone-built mill building comprises two main storeys and an attic. The ground floor contains a gear cupboard which transmits power from the waterwheel via line-shafts and gears to the two pairs of millstones on the first floor, and to other machinery such as sieves and bucket elevators within the mill. The attic floor provides space for storing oats, which were transferred via chutes and hoppers to the millstones. The first pair of millstones removed the husks, the second then grinding the shelled oats to the grade of meal required.

In Scotland, most mills of this type have rectangular-plan drying kilns, so Upper Mill is unusual because its kiln is semi-circular in shape. Kilns were necessary because the grain must be dry before the milling process can begin, and freshly harvested grain was often damp. The kiln, which is also built from local stone, is attached to the end of the mill, and comprises a funnel or 'invert' at the bottom of which there is a grate or 'firebox'. The grain is spread on a perforated floor, the heat from the fire rising through the invert and driving off the moisture, the latter passing through a revolving ventilator in the roof.

Upper Mill, also know as Barry Mill, is owned and managed by the National Trust for Scotland, and is open to visitors (31 March to 31 Oct, Thur-Mon [closed Tue and Wed], 12-5, Sun 1-5 , see http://www.nts.org.uk/Property/10/WhatToSee/). Milling demonstrations normally take place on Sunday afternoons, and for pre-booked groups.

 
       
  SC 1056455 copyright RCAHMS 2nd May 2007: Barra Head Lighthouse, Berneray, Highland

This lighthouse stands on the southern-most tip of the southern-most island of the Outer Hebrides. Its lights illuminate the forceful Atlantic waves for as far as 21 miles from a vantage point of 580 ft above sea level.

Barra Head Lighthouse was designed by Robert Stevenson, built between 1830 and 1833, and automated in 1980. The Northern Lighthouse Board employed Robert Stevenson as senior engineer. Stevenson's greatest achievement was the construction of the lighthouse on Bell Rock in the North Sea off the coast of Dundee.

Robert Stevenson's three sons all followed in his footsteps and were involved in the design and building of lighthouses. One of his grandsons made his name in the literary world; Robert Louis Stevenson, author of The strange case of Mr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde, Kidnapped and Treasure Island.

Although Robert Louis Stevenson had to fight hard to be allowed to express his literary talent instead of following in the footsteps of his grandfather, uncles and father, he appreciated their achievements. In 1880 he wrote:

'Whenever I smell salt water, I know that I am not far from one of the works of my ancestors. The Bell Rock stands monument for my grandfather, the Skerry Vore for my Uncle Alan and when the lights come out at sundown along the shores of Scotland, I am proud to think they burn brightly for the genius of my father.'

Today Berneray is owned by the National Trust for Scotland alongside Mingulay and Pabbay islands. The lighthouse is owned and operated by the Northern Lighthouse Board.

 
       
  SC 746281 copyright RCAHMS 25th April 2007 : Hay barn in Kilmallie, Lochaber, Highlands

Erskine Beveridge (1851-1920) travelled extensively in Scotland and through his photography illustrated places and landscapes from 1880 onwards.

Beveridge was a man with many interests. He was an enthusiastic photographer, antiquarian and local historian, publishing a number of volumes, including The Churchyard Memorials of Crail (1893), Coll and Tiree (1903), and North Uist (1911). He was Vice-President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland from 1915 to 1918 and received an honorary degree from St Andrew’s University in recognition of his research and publications.

Beveridge was the owner of Erskine Beveridge and Co. Ltd., the largest linen manufacturer in Dunfermline, founded by his father in 1832. Committed to quality and care of the work force, the company was very successful, particularly in sales of fine linen to America.

Although based in Dunfermline, Beveridge also purchased an estate on the island of Vallay, North Uist, where he undertook a number of archaeological excavations and bred Highland ponies.

RCAHMS holds the collection of around 500 original glass plate negatives by Erskine Beveridge.

 
       
  SC 371660 copyright RCAHMS 18th April 2007 : Taymouth Castle, Perthshire

This delicately decorated ceiling can be found in the small drawing room on the first floor of Taymouth Castle. The Italian craftsman Francis Bernasconi (c.1762-1841) created the elaborate plasterwork between 1809 and 1811. Frederick Crace & Son of London added the painted decoration in 1842 in preparation for the visit of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in that year. The decorative scheme includes portrait busts and the coats of arms of Breadalbane and Baillie. The small drawing room is part of a great suite of magnificent reception rooms that encircle the great stair hall with its elaborate plasterwork including the magnificent fan-vaulted lantern by Bernasconi.

Taymouth Castle is at present being restored and transformed into a luxury hotel.

 
       
  DP015172 copyright RCAHMS 11th April 2007 : Thomas Telford, Caledonian Canal, Highland

This engraving shows a plan of the Clachnaharry Sea Lock at the Inverness end of the Caledonian Canal, designed by the famous engineer Thomas Telford (1757-1834). It has been copied from the Atlas to the Life of Thomas Telford, Engineer that was published in 1838 to celebrate his lifetime achievements.

The Caledonian Canal connects the North Sea with the Atlantic through the lochs of the Great Glen. Of the total length of 60 miles, 38 miles are navigated through natural lochs.

The building of the Caledonian Canal was predicted by the the Brahan Seer, or Coinneach Odhar, 150 years beforehand:

"Strange as it may seem to you this day, the time will come, and it is not far off, when full-rigged ships will be seen sailing eastward and westward by the back of Tomnahurich, near Inverness."

Considering that at the time ships sailed along the River Ness on the other side of Tomnahurich Hill, the idea of another navigable route did indeed seem illogical. Nevertheless that was to be the chosen route of the Canal.

2007 is the 250th anniversary of the birth of Thomas Telford. To mark this, and Scotland’s Year of Highland Culture, RCAHMS is running a year-long project, Telford in the Highlands, that will feature a touring exhibition and workshop programme for secondary school pupils in the Highlands.

 
       
  SC 576242 copyright RCAHMS 4th April 2007 : Phoebe Anna Traquair murals

Phoebe Anna Traquair (1852-1936) was the leading artist in the Arts and Crafts movement in Edinburgh. She was responsible for designing and painting three mural schemes in the city: the Mortuary of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, the Song School of St Mary's Episcopal Cathedral and the interior of the former Catholic Apostolic Church on East London Street.

The former Catholic Apostolic Church (now the Mansfield Traquair Centre) was designed by Robert Rowand Anderson and completed in 1885. Phoebe Anna Traquair enhanced the interior with a series of murals painted between 1893-1901 depicting Biblical subjects including the Worship of Heaven, Wise and Foolish Virgins and scenes from the Life of Christ.

This mural depicts three scenes from the Book of Genesis. From right to left: the Temptation of Adam and Eve, the Expulsion from Eden, and Cain and Abel. Traquair's use of vivid colour and texture has created an instantly recognisable style of figurative painting.

The Mansfield Traquair Trust was set up in 1993 to preserve the church and restore the murals. A multi-million pound renovation of the building was completed in 2002 and the restoration of the murals was completed in 2005.

This photograph was taken as part of RCAHMS survey and recording programme in February 2000.

 
      
  SC 336797 copyright RCAHMS 28th March 2007: Broch of Gurness, Aikerness, Orkney Islands

This dramatic aerial photograph shows the Broch of Gurness at Aikerness in the Orkney Islands. The site comprises a broch, at the centre, surrounded by a group of conjoined buildings, all enclosed by three ramparts and their accompanying ditches. The broch was probably built in the 1st century BC, and the buildings, which may have housed some 30 families, were occupied at the same time as the broch and may have remained in use into the Pictish period in the mid to late 1st millennium AD. The site was reused in the Viking period, with a female Viking burial being inserted into one of the ramparts.

Brochs are defensive Iron Age round-houses, which are mainly found in the north and west of Scotland. They have a tapering profile and thick dry-stone walls that contain galleries, cells and a stairway, with guard cells protecting the entrance.

The Broch of Gurness stands 3m in height and measures 19m in diameter within walls over 4m in thickness. A series of excavations since 1929 have revealed a host of Iron Age and Viking relics, many of which are on display in Tankerness House Museum, Kirkwall. The site is now under the guardianship of Historic Scotland.

This image is part of the John Dewar Collection, held at RCAHMS, which contains over 600 aerial views taken between 1965-1974 of Scheduled and Guardianship sites around Scotland.

 
      
  SC 466228 copyright RCAHMS 21st March 2007: Tha National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh

This photograph, taken in 1890, is a stereographic image of the National Gallery building on the Mound with the New Town of Edinburgh in the background. Stereographic photography was very popular during the Victorian period; the first stereo camera was invented by Scotsman Sir David Brewster in the early 19th century. The technique allows two photographs to be taken from eye distance apart; when seen through a special viewer, these combine to create the impression of the image in three-dimensions.

The National Gallery building (shown on the left) was designed by William Henry Playfair (1790-1857). The Prince Consort laid the foundation stone to the building in 1850, and it was the last building Playfair designed before his death. Playfair used classical Greek style design expressed by twin Ionic porticos at each end of the building, reflecting the original double use of the building - as both venue for the National Gallery and the Royal Scottish Academy. The Royal Scottish Academy subsequently moved to the former Royal Institution building (on the right in the photograph),also designed by Playfair, which had been built in the Greek Doric style in the 1820s.

Playfair also designed several other significant buildings in Edinburgh. At the start of his eminent career, he was appointed to complete Robert Adam's unfinished design for the University's Old College building on South Bridge. He would then go on to be responsible for the City Observatory on Calton Hill (also assisting on the design of the adjacent National Monument), Surgeon's Hall, Donaldson's Hospital, and the University of Edinburgh's New College which overlooks the Gallery.

 
      
  SC 1061416 copyright RCAHMS 14th March 2007: St Mary’s Roman Catholic Church, Greenock

This beautiful stained glass window shows St Patrick, patron saint of Ireland who was supposedly born near Dumbarton in Scotland. The concentration of churches and wells dedicated to St Patrick in the south west of Scotland may be a result of this.

St Mary's Roman Catholic Church is located on Patrick Street in Greenock and was designed by George Goldie between 1861 and 1862. Goldie designed or extended around twenty Roman Catholic churches throughout Scotland between 1856 -1878. This large body of work for Goldie has been linked to a renaissance of the Roman Catholic Church during this time created by the large migration of Irish workers to Scotland.

Yorkshire born Goldie had a long standing relationship with the Roman Catholic Church having been educated at St Cuthberts College in Ushaw, a school primarily concerned with educating students for the priesthood. After graduating, however, Goldie, did not go on to become a priest, choosing instead to join the architects practice of Weightman and Hadfield in Sheffield. Having become a partner, Goldie left Weightman and Hadfield to open his own practice and then into partnership with G.E. Child in 1867.

 
      
  SC 337150 copyright RCAHMS 7th March 2007: Aberlemno No.1, Angus

This symbol stone, known as Aberlemno No.1, stands beside the road from Forfar to Brechin in Aberlemno, Angus. It was probably carved in the 6th or 7th century and it displays a serpent, double-disc with Z-rod, and a mirror and comb.

Pictish symbol stones are divided into two main categories, Class I and Class II stones. Aberlemno No.1 is a good example of a Class I stone. Class I stones are probably the earlier of the two categories, bearing symbols incised on undressed stone blocks.

Close to this stone several other Pictish stones can be found, enabling contrasts and comparisons. One of these stones stands in the churchyard of Aberlemno and is a good example of a Class II stone. It is known as Aberlemno No. 2 and is much more elaborately decorated, including a detailed battle scene carved in relief rather than incision.

To read more about Pictish stones see the Big Picture for the 3rd January 2007 on the Eassie Stone.

 
      
  SC 436749 copyright RCAHMS 28th February 2007: Greyfriars Kirkyard, Edinburgh

Greyfriars Kirkyard was once the site of a church and monastery of the Franciscan Order. The monks wore brown habits and brown was considered a shade of grey in their time - hence the name grey friars.

Today quiet and picturesque grounds surround the Kirk of Greyfriars, located in the Old Town of Edinburgh. The church was the first one to be built after the Reformation in Scotland. In 1562 the town council was granted permission by Mary Queen of Scots to use the Kirkyard as a burial ground to relieve the overflowing grounds of St Giles on Edinburgh's High Street. Soon space was also at a premium in Greyfriars Kirkyard and graves were regularly reused to make way for new bodies. The burial ground was closed around the late 19th century, though on rare occasions burials still take place there today.

In the Kirkyard are burial sites of some influential Scots of the time, including John Watson, Mary Erskine and architect William Adam. It also features some interesting gravestones and monuments. The iron 'mortsafes' were meant to prevent freshly buried bodies being stolen for medical research purposes when bodies for teaching anatomy were in short supply. The mausoleum for the Little brothers is just one of the many interesting monuments in the Kirkyard. It features statues of the four virtues, now badly weathered, and a statue of William Little, who appears to be taking a nap.

 
      
  SC 979646 copyright RCAHMS 21st February 2007: St Fort Curling Club, Fife

This image of St Fort Curling Club is taken from a photograph album from the St Fort estate, which gives an impression of life on a landed estate in Fife in the late 19th century.

St Fort house was designed in 1829 by William Burn and was built for Captain Robert Stewart, who had purchased the estate about 1795 from the Nairnes of Sandfurd. Burn designed a large baronial mansion with every modern convenience. Unfortunately it shared the fate of many grand country houses during the 1950s and 60s and was demolished in 1953.

William Burn was born in Edinburgh in 1789 as a son of an architect and builder. At the tender age of 19 he went to train in London at Robert Smirke's practice where one of the projects he worked on was Covent Garden. He returned to Edinburgh in 1811 to set up his own practice and by 1812 he designed his first major public building - The Exchange Assembly Rooms in Greenock. This was followed by the design of a number of public buildings, including Edinburgh Academy and John Watson's Hospital, now the Gallery of Modern Art. Beginning in the 1820s Burn received more and more commissions to design country houses all over Scotland and later England. He was renowned and cherished for his economical and practical approach to buildings, always keeping the requirements of his patrons in mind.

RCAHMS holds the original St Fort photo album in its collections. The album is available to consult in our Search Room and a selection of images is available to view on-line through our database Canmore. RCAHMS also holds the original architectural plans for St Fort house in its archive.

 
      
  DP 008694 copyright RCAHMS 14th February 2007: Eilean Donan Castle, Highland

Eilean Donan Castle is situated close to Kyle of Lochalsh in the western Highlands. The Castle was destroyed during the Jacobite rising in 1719 and abandoned. Lieutenant Colonel John MacRae-Gilstrap purchased Eilean Donan in 1911. His great plans to re-create the Castle began in 1912 but took until 1932 to be completed - the building work beset with difficulty due to weather and labour problems.

The architect chosen for this ambitious project was George Mackie Watson from Edinburgh, who had started his career at Rowand Anderson's practice assisting on projects such as the Scottish National Portrait Gallery and Edinburgh University's McEwan Hall. Watson re-created the Castle combining the look and feel of a medieval fortification with the modern conveniences of electric light and central heating. He paid attention to detail and so Eilean Donan Castle features, for example, an elaborate gateway complete with a working portcullis. Inside the main tower, oak beamed ceilings and unplastered walls create a magnificent baronial idyll.

This image was taken as part of RCAHMS survey and recording programme in May 2006.

 
      
  DP 012099 copyright RCAHMS 7th February 2007: Rosehaugh boathouse, Black Isle

This Boathouse forms part of the Rosehaugh Estate on the Black Isle, Ross and Cromarty. It was designed around 1890 by William Flockhart and was converted in 2003. The lower floor of the Boathouse now provides extra accommodation with a new wing added to the east. The main room on the upper floor, opening up to the timber balcony, has been restored to its original form.

Flockhart was born in Glasgow in 1852 or 1853. After studying at Glasgow School of Art, in London and Paris, he worked for several architectural practices and then established his own practice in London around 1883. By 1900 Flockhart had become very fashionable and counted several artists and wealthy people amongst his clients. Sir Frederick J Mirrielees of Union Castle Mail Steamship Company was one of the clients for whom he designed the interiors of the steamship 'Balmoral Castle' in 1910.

The Boathouse was commissioned by James Douglas Fletcher as part of a major programme of architectural projects across the Rosehaugh Estate, which he had inherited from his father in 1885.

 
      
  SC 682252 copyright RCAHMS 31st January 2007: Stones of Stenness, Orkney

The Stones of Stenness are the remains of a Neolithic henge and stone circle, which was erected around 3000 BC. They are situated close to the shores of Stenness Loch and Harray Loch, Orkney. It is likely that there were originally twelve stones in the circle, but today only three and the stump of a fourth remain. The tallest of these is over 5.7m high, as shown by the relative scale of the man to the stone in the photograph.

Close to the Stones of Stenness another standing stone, the Watchstone, can be found, which may be an outlier of the circle. A short distance away, at the shore of Harray Loch there is the settlement of Barnhouse, a village contemporary with the Stones.

The close clustering of Neolithic settlements and monuments in Orkney led to the declaration of the area as a World Heritage Site 'The Heart of Neolithic Orkney' in 1999. This Site includes the Stones of Stenness, the nearby monuments of Maes Howe and the Ring of Brodgar and the Neolithic village of Skara Brae.

This photograph was taken by James Ritchie who photographed stone circles, standing stones and cup-marked stones in the North East of Scotland between 1901-17. RCAHMS now holds his collection of over one thousand photographs and glass negatives.

 
      
  DP 006988 copyright RCAHMS 24th January 2007: Robert Burns Monument, Alloway

This monument was one of the first to be erected in honour of Robert Burns, and stands in Burns' home town of Alloway in Ayrshire. It was designed by Thomas Hamilton (1784-1858), an Edinburgh architect, and completed in 1823, just 27 years after Burns death. Hamilton won the architecture competition for the monument in 1818, which turned out to be the first stepping stone of a successful career. He would later be responsible for several impressive buildings in Edinburgh, including the Royal High School (1825-9) on Calton Hill, the Royal College of Physicians in Queen Street (1843-5) and the Dean Orphanage (1833-6), now the Dean Gallery.

Robert Burns (1759-1796) is popularly regarded as 'Scotland's National Poet'. Born into a poor farming family, within the space of his short life he would eventually be welcomed into polite Edinburgh society and develop a successful career as a poet and songwriter. Despite writing chiefly in his native dialect, Burns' work has become appreciated by readers worldwide for its mixture of humour, satire, and passion, linked throughout by an essential humanity which sprang from the hardships of his own life and an early exposure to the republican ideals of the French Revolution. His birthdate on the 25th of January is celebrated throughout the world with the Burns supper tradition of music, toasts and poetry recitations.

 
      
  SC 10022433 copyright RCAHMS 17th January 2007: Fish traps, Benbecula

The fish trap in this image comprises stone walls linking the reefs of Eileanan Airde. The walls form an enclosure into which the fish swim during the high tide. As the tide falls the fish become trapped and are unable to leave the enclosure. At which time they can be caught using hand-nets or line fishing. The gaps in the walls allow the falling tidal waters to flow and are where nets are positioned to catch the exiting fish.

Fish traps can be found on coastlines, in rivers and estuaries around the country. They can be made from stone walls or lines of posts, across which nets can be strung. The stone fish-traps are difficult to date, whereas the timber posts can be dated through radiocarbon methods.

This striking image of fish traps off the coast of Benbecula, one of the Western Isles, forms part of a series of images recording the interplay between water and land at Scotland's shorelines. The images also shows the ways in which humans have altered the land (and sea-) scape to make it their own, and how therefore it has become an expression of our culture.

A selection of these breathtaking aerial photographs can be seen in the RCAHMS touring exhibition Life on the Edge.

 
      
  DP 010305 copyright RCAHMS 10th January 2007: Templeton's Factory

The Venetian façade of the former Templeton's Carpet Factory in Glasgow was designed in brick, sandstone and mosaic by William Leiper in 1888. The original carpet factory was established on this site in 1857 by James Templeton for the manufacture of spool Axminster carpets, the building being adapted from a cotton mill dating from some 30 years earlier.

As the business expanded, the site was gradually extended, with a new factory block being built in 1868, a group of weaving sheds in 1881 and finally the Leiper block with its spectacular Venetian facade in 1888. Work on this façade was almost complete when it partially collapsed, killing 29 women in the weaving sheds below. Restoration and rebuilding was eventually completed in 1892.

The carpet factory moved to new premises in 1978 and the factory building was converted and restored by architect James Anderson to form the Templeton Business Centre in 1984, winning the supreme award in the RIAS Regeneration of Scotland Design Awards in 1986.

The Leiper façade and the factory building were photographed as part of the RCAHMS survey and recording programme in 1988 and again in 2006.

 
      
  DP 008440 copyright RCAHMS 3rd January 2007: The Eassie Stone

The Eassie stone, a highly-decorated Pictish cross-slab found on the bank of a stream near Eassie old parish church in Angus around 1786, and moved to the churchyard where it stands to this day, set inside a protective enclosure.

The Picts, or 'Painted Ones' as they were termed by the Romans, were a confederation of indigenous tribes of Scotland who lived north of the Forth and Clyde estuaries. They first appear on record around the 3rd century: their culture spanned both the absorption of Christianity into Scotland and the emergence of the Scottish nation itself. No written record of Pictish culture survives, but their intricate craftmanship is displayed on nearly 300 symbol stones which have been discovered to date.

Pictish symbol stones are divided into two main categories. Class I stones are probably the earliest, and have symbols incised on undressed blocks of stone. Class II stones, such as the Eassie cross-slab, gradually came to replace these. They show a greater density of symbols carved in relief as well as by incision, and take the form of dressed slabs bearing the Christian symbol of the cross together with a range of Pictish symbols and designs.

Some fifty distinct Pictish symbols in association with other figurative carvings recur in differing combinations. The Eassie stone displays typical examples of these: its rear face (shown here) bears a 'beast', double-disc and Z-rod, and a tree in a pot, above three hooded figures in procession and three cows. Despite intensive research, the meaning of these symbols is still not fully understood.

 
      
  SC 800125 copyright RCAHMS 27th December 2006: Lochleven Castle

The remains of Lochleven Castle are situated on Castle Island on Loch Leven, East of Kinross. The present-day castle consists of a small 15th-century rectangular keep, rising to five storeys, which stands in the corner of a 14th-century courtyard. The castle buildings would have been much more extensive when Mary, Queen of Scots was held there in the 1500s and the grounds show evidence of a series of buildings and fortifications stretching back to the 12th century.

The castle's location on the present-day island is also misleading. The water level in the loch was lowered by over a metre in the 1830s and the original castle would have occupied virtually all of what was then a much smaller island.

The castle remains can be reached by a ferry operated by Historic Scotland from April to September.

 
       
  SC 357572 copyright RCAHMS 20th December 2006: Glenesk Maltings

This image shows the Drum Room at Glenesk Maltings in Montrose on the East coast of Scotland.

‘Malting’ is the first stage in the process of making whisky, and involves steeping barley in water, then spreading it on a malting floor to allow it to germinate. The grains of barley need to be turned regularly to prevent heat building up, a process which used to be done by hand, but has now been replaced in many areas by the type of mechanism shown here. The large drums are slowly turned to allow the barley to germinate evenly, and the grains are cooled by having air blown through the drums as they turn.

The original Glenesk distillery was established at Montrose in 1897 by James Isles, a Dundee wine merchant, and went through a succession of owners and names until it closed in 1985. The drums were installed in 1968, and the maltings were subsequently enlarged in 1973. Despite the closure of the distillery the Glenesk malting operation continues to this day as part of the Greencore Maltings group, supplying malted grain to a range of other distilleries.

The Glenesk Drum Room houses a series of 12 rim-gear-driven malting drums, made by Robert Boby Ltd of Bury St Edmonds (a Vickers Ltd company). The gearboxes visible in the foreground were made by Crofts Engineers of Bradford. The interior and exterior of Glenesk Distillery were recorded photographically by RCAHMS in 1996.

 
       
  SC 723357 copyright RCAHMS 13th December 2006: Cup-and-ring marked stone

This cup-and-ring marked stone can be found close to the north shore of Loch Tay, Perth and Kinross.

The simplest form of cupmarking is a small dish-shaped depression that has been carved into a rock surface. The more elaborate examples, such as in this picture, include concentric rings, gutters and other forms of patterning. It is generally believed that the marks were made by the carver pecking away at the rock surface with a hard, stone implement to form a circular cup-shaped depression.

The possible functions of prehistoric rock carvings have occupied the minds of archaeologists and others for many years but it is unlikely that we will ever fully understand their purpose within the system of beliefs and rituals of prehistoric man. Cupmarkings can be found across Europe, from the Iberian peninsular to Estonia and eastwards into Russia.

Dating individual cupmarkings is fraught with difficulty. It has not yet proved feasible to apply conventional direct archaeological dating techniques, such as radiocarbon testing, to the rock surfaces.

This site was identified during a recent archaeological landscape survey of the north side of Loch Tay.

 
       
  DP 013242 copyright RCAHMS 8th December 2006: Mary Queen of Scots' Birthday

This dramatic aerial view of Linlithgow shows Linlithgow Palace, St Michael's Parish Church and the High Street, set against the backdrop of Linlithgow Loch.

Linlithgow Palace was the birthplace of Mary Stuart, better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, who was born there on 7th or 8th December 1542. It was initially commissioned by James I and was built in four separate stages from 1424-1624. The building was always intended as a palace, rather than a castle. It acted as the focal point for the Court, and the High Street of the burgh which grew up around it became an important centre for trade and commerce. Although a shadow of what it once was, the Palace remains one of the most important ancient monuments of Scotland. It is one of Historic Scotland's properties and is open to visitors all year around.

St Michael's Parish Church, which lies in front of the Palace, was built principally during 1425-1532. The Church has also undergone a number of changes over time, the latest being in 1964 when a lightweight aluminum crown was installed on the tower, transforming it into a distinctive landmark which is clearly visible from the M9 motorway which passes nearby on the other side of the Loch.

Linlithgow High Street runs through the foreground of the picture and contains many noteworthy buildings, including The Vennel redevelopment, designed by Rowand Anderson, Kinnimonth & Paul, which can be seen in the left side of the picture. This features 90 houses, shops, a library, a health clinic and was awarded the Saltire Housing Award in 1969.

 
       
  SC 1043124 copyright RCAHMS 30th November 2006: St. Andrew's Day

This magnificent stained glass window shows St Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. It can be found next to the pulpit in Monimail church in Fife, and is the work of William Wilson (1905-1972) who was one of the foremost stained glass artists of his day, as well as being a fine watercolourist and printmaker. Other examples of Wilson's work can be found in St Salvator's chapel in St Andrews and in Holy Trinity Church, Dunfermline.

The main section of the window shows St Andrew with the diagonal cross that now bears his name and on which, according to several accounts, he was crucified. The botttom section of the window shows the famous encounter between Jesus and the two fisherman, Andrew and Peter, in which Jesus calls them to be his disciples, saying 'Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men'.

After his martyrdom, the remains of St Andrew were said to have been transported from Patras in Greece, via Constantinople, to Scotland, where they were stored at a Pictish settlement on the East coast. A cathedral (completed in 1318) was eventually built around this holy site, together with the town of St Andrews and its famous University (established in 1413). The Declaration of Arbroath of 1320, which declared Scotland's independence from England, refers to St Andrew as the person responsible for Scotland's conversion to Christianity, and this has led to the 30th of November being celebrated by Scots worldwide as 'Scotland's Day'.

 
       
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