Mormon Novels

IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY those who wrote western adventure stories could write about miners, Indians, ranchers, or Mormons, but when they wrote about settling the West, about bringing civilization to the West, they wrote about the pioneers, and by far the largest single group of pioneers, as well as the most famous, were those Mormons who followed Brigham Young from Illinois to Utah, the geographical center of the West. The Mormons–members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints–and their history are characteristic of the West in many ways, as are the novels written about them.

The western part of the United States, the "frontier" of a hundred years ago, has changed rapidly; there is still a lot of open country in the West, but there is no isolation. The individual westerner–Mormons included–now encounters the same anxieties and pleasures that the individual easterner experiences. Likewise the novels written about Mormons have changed from the melodramatic or the sensational kind to the more universal experiences of individual Mormons.

The survey which follows does not pretend to be exhaustive; its intent is to acquaint students of western American literature with some of the names and titles frequently mentioned in discussions of Mormon novels and to place them in sequence as an aid to seeing the changes that have occurred.

Mormonism was becoming a controversial movement even before its formal organization as a church in 1830, and by 1843, when Captain Frederick Marryat published his three-volume Monsieur Violet, that controversy was an established one. Of course at that date detailed knowledge of Mormonism was limited and the small part of Marryat's work which touches on Mormonism is restricted to the Mormon activities in the eastern states. However, the disclosure that the Mormons practiced polygamy aroused general concern about the Mormon "menace," and Edward Bulwer-Lytton took advantage of that concern in his 1851 potboiler Alice; or, The Mysteries. Other anti-polygamy, Mormon-menace novels soon followed with titles similar to the suggestive headlines of a modern tabloid, establishing a pattern of sensationalism which became characteristic of the early Mormon novels: Orvilla S. Belisle, The Prophets; or, Mormonism Unveiled (1855), Maria Ward, Female Life Among the Mormons (1855), W. J. Conybeare, Perversion; or, The Causes and Consequences of Infidelity, a Tale of the Times (1856), and Metta Victoria Fuller, Mormon Wives (1856, retitled Lives of Female Mormons in 1860).

In 1861 Captain Mayne Reid followed the pattern with his three-volume The Wild Huntress and Theodore Winthrop tried his hand with John Brent. The sensational aspects of Mormonism–golden plates, polygamy, and secret police–were becoming legend by 1870, and the idiosyncrasies of the Mormons became popular fare for the humorists and local colorists. Artemus Ward and Mark Twain commented in individual essays and stories, but others treated the Mormons at length: Langdon E. Mitchell in Two Mormons from Muddlety: Love in the Backwoods (1876), Charles Bertrand Lewis in Bessie Bane; or, The Mormon's Victim (1880), and G. A. Meears in The Geese of Ganderica, Their History, Their Sense, and Nonsense, by a Utah Goose (1882). Still, the majority of the novels continued to be anti-Mormon sensationalism such as John Hansen Beadle's Life in Utah; or, The Mysteries and Crimes of Mormonism (1870), and Cornelia Paddock's In the Toils (1879) and The Fate of Madame La Tour (1881). Serving as editor of the Salt Lake Reporter, Beadle was well acquainted with the geography of the city and the daily routines of his Mormon neighbors. His assertions about the Mormons, while obviously biased, were closer to reality than were those of many other nineteenth-century novelists who relied on convenient errors of fact, such as locating the Mormon Temple on the shore of the Great Salt Lake so that a captive maiden could escape from a forced marriage to a hoary elder by jumping from the temple into the lake.

Even the respected Arthur Conan Doyle relied on the sensational when he wrote his first Sherlock Holmes novel, A Study in Scarlet (1887). This is the story of how Jefferson Hope pursued and killed the Mormons Drebber and Strangerson because they had murdered John Ferrier and abducted his daughter, who died of a broken heart after a forced marriage to Drebber. In 1924 Doyle admitted in Our Second American Adventure that in writing A Study in Scarlet he had used ". . . a rather sensational and overcoloured picture of the Danite episodes which formed a passing stain in the early history of Utah" (p. 87). But the nineteenth-century pattern for Mormon novels had been firmly set, and novels by Marie A. Walsh, Max Adeler, Joaquin Miller, A. Jennie Bartlett, Jeannette Ritchie H. Walworth, Albion W. Tourgee, Mary W. Hudson, Alvah Milton Kerr, and Grace Wilbur Trout did not alter the pattern.

The pro-Mormon response was slow to come, but in 1898 Nephi Anderson published Added Upon, the first of nine novels written to explain the major beliefs of the Mormons. Anderson's novels are intended for Mormon readers, or for those who may be sympathetic to the theology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, explaining that theology, usually in a very broad way, and attempting to demonstrate that those who rigidly follow it, despite the hardships, will receive the greatest of blessings. And Mormon readers have continued to keep Added Upon in print; in 1979 it was in its forty-fourth printing.

While Anderson was heavy on doctrine and light on development of character and plot, other pro-Mormon writers were equally didactic. Most of the early pro-Mormon fiction was short fiction, published for young Mormons in Mormon periodicals such as the Young Women's Journal and The Improvement Era, but occasionally one of the short story writers produced a novel. Susa Young Gates published John Steven's Courtship in 1909, but this novel about the Utah-U.S.A. war is directed toward young readers and most adult readers are not excited by it.

With the exception of the introduction of pro-Mormon novels, the novels written during the first twenty years of the twentieth century followed the tradition of sensationalism that had been established half a century earlier. Alfred H. Henry defended the anti-Mormon bias of his By Order of the Prophet (1902), declaring that he was attempting to show that the Mormons' theology was faulty and not that he was simply vilifying the Mormons. But Henry's novel is merely an imitation of its predecessors: main characters stereotyped, minor characters undeveloped, geography and climate adjusted to fit the plot.

Harry Leon Wilson used the historical approach to Mormonism as the framework for The Lions of the Lord (1903), taking his protagonist from the persecutions in Illinois, across the plains with the handcart companies, through the Utah-U.S.A. war, and to the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Wilson developed his protagonist, Joel Rae, fairly well, showing his struggle to maintain his moral integrity and remain a faithful member of the church, doing whatever he was "called,' to do without question. It is Joel Rae's religious struggle that carries the reader through The Lions of the Lord, nothing else. The other characters are paper figures found in almost every other Mormon novel, and the historical framework is standard. In Ezra the Mormon (1907) Winifred Graham magnified the rumors of Mormon wickedness that circulated throughout the world. But this English novel was reprinted three times during its first two years, attesting to the international popularity of the Mormon subject matter in fiction. Naturally, that popularity was strengthened when "recognized" authors, such as Zane Grey and Jack London, also wrote about the Mormons. Grey wrote two novels that are primarily about Mormons: The Heritage of the Desert (1910) and Riders of the Purple Sage (1912). In the first, Grey presented the Mormons as hardworking, honest ranchers–except for one rebellious son–who have trouble with outlaws; in the latter, Grey reversed the situation, making a rebellious Mormon woman the victim and the Mormon elders the villains. In both novels the hero is an outsider who saves the innocent from the wicked. And Jack London used the Mountain Meadows Massacre as the historical basis for the longest of the reincarnation stories in his novel The Star Rover (1915). Although London did nothing new in his treatment of the Mormons, his use of Mormon subject matter being the traditional use, his description of the Mormon attack upon the Fancher train at Mountain Meadows is one of the most powerfully and convincingly related versions of that event.

Following World War I, Mormon novels began to move away from the heavy-handed sensationalism of the past and to focus on real people in realistic surroundings. Some authors even wrote Mormon novels without mentioning polygamy. Bernard DeVoto did that in The Crooked Mile (1924). This novel is not only representative of DeVoto's contribution to the "new" American fiction which characterized the 1920s but it also manages to be a Mormon novel without having Mormons or Mormonism as central subject matter. The protagonist in this novel is Gordon Abbey, a young man whose background and temperament are almost the same as DeVoto's, and the setting is a western town named Windsor, which is a reconstruction of DeVoto's home town, Ogden, Utah. While the story is about Gordon Abbey's struggle to find his place in modern society, specifically the conflict concerns his inability to come to terms with the local society of Windsor. DeVoto uses the subject of Mormonism as a part of the background of Gordon Abbey, but while Mormons and their influence are present in the novel, the focus is upon the individual–Gordon Abbey–rather than upon a particular group or set of beliefs. The Crooked Mile represents a natural change in western novels, particularly those dealing with Mormonism. There had been so much stereotyped nonsense about the West and Mormonism that many Americans did not realize that both were changing and maturing. Gordon Abbey's story is an exposition of that change and his reaction to it. If DeVoto had looked a little closer at Mormon culture, however, his emphasis upon the change might have been different. Because his protagonist is not a Mormon, DeVoto does not show, except incidentally, that there are personal conflicts among individual Mormons similar to those of Gordon Abbey. Had he chosen to make Gordon a Mormon, DeVoto could have told almost the same story.

A major problem associated with bringing about a change from the traditional concerns in Mormon novels is to be found in the subject matter itself. The glamour of Mormonism as a subject for fiction lies to a great extent in the history of the Mormons. The nineteenth-century Mormons were colorful people whose adventures were remarkable and whose influence upon the West is obvious. Any novelist who decides to write about Mormons must be tempted to write about their past, since their history is easily researched and their former practice of polygamy is a familiar subject for eager readers, one that provides abundant possibilities for rising conflict in the plot. On the other hand, if the novelist does not want to write a historical novel, he must give up easily acquired material, and he must give up the general subject of Mormonism in favor of the much more restricted but challenging subject of the individual Mormon. Frank Chester Robertson in The Mormon Trail (1931), The Rocky Road to Jericho (1935), and Red Legion (1936) was not willing to move away from the established tradition. But Norton S. Parker, Susan Ertz, Dane Coolidge, Sidney Bell, Lee Neville, and George D. Snell did make an attempt. While these authors did not emphasize sensationalism in their 1930s novels, neither did they move completely away from tradition. Rather, their novels serve as examples of the gradual change toward emphasis upon individual Mormons and their problems.

Paul Dayton Bailey's novels are further examples of that transition. Type-High (1937), his first novel, follows tradition and is Bailey's least successful work. For This My Glory (1940), a historical novel which relates the adventures of a Mormon pioneer, is fairly well written, but it was published a year after Vardis Fisher's Children of God, the definitive historical novel of the Mormons, and For This My Glory could not compete. Bailey's The Gay Saint (1944) admits that some Mormons–Samuel Brannon in this case– have placed worldly affairs above those of the spirit. His Song Everlasting (1946) is a sequel to For This My Glory, focusing on the modern problems of a fourth-generation Mormon. For Time and All Eternity (1964) is Bailey's attempt to blend modern realism and the traditional story of early Utah and polygamy. His characters in this novel are not the sheep that can be found in the traditional Mormon novels. These characters are real enough to be headstrong and rebellious yet they remain true to the fundamental beliefs of their religion. They are, in other words, more accurately representative of late nineteenth-century Mormons than were their counterparts in nineteenth-century Mormon fiction. It is unfortunate that Bailey's thirdperson narration is marred by an abundance of his would-be objective yet more often omniscient, frequently redundant, and generally patronizing explanations and descriptive comments, because the characters in this novel are the most real, most convincingly human Mormons he has created.

Vardis Fisher's Harper Prize novel, Children of God (1939), has most effectively shown the relationship between the colorful history of the Mormons and the problems facing individual Mormons. However, Fisher did not write about twentieth-century Mormons in the novel, but chose to stop with the birth of modern Mormonism: the 1890 Manifesto from Mormon President Wilford Woodruff officially stopping the practice of polygamy. Fisher viewed Mormonism as a nineteenth-century phenomenon, a temporary religious-social movement reflecting nineteenth-century American culture. The first part of Children of God, entitled "Morning," is about Joseph Smith and the religious enthusiasm which characterized the eastern United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. The second part, "Afternoon," follows Brigham Young across the plains to Utah and records the problems of establishing a permanent home in the Great Basin desert. Part Three, "Evening," describes the ideological conflict of a society that wants to preserve its heritage, its beliefs, yet also wants to be a recognized part of the United States. The Manifesto of 1890 was seen by Fisher–and others–as the end of Mormonism, and the titles Fisher gave to the three parts of Children of God effectively indicate his view: the day of the Mormons.

Vardis Fisher maintained that Children of God was his only Mormon novel; however, he wrote seven others that used the Mormons or their influence as background: Toilers of the Hills (1928), Dark Bridewell (1931), In Tragic Life (1932), Passions Spin the Plot (1934), We Are Betrayed (1935), No Villain Need Be (1936), and April: A Fable of Love (1937). Fisher's autobiographical tetralogy–In Tragic Life, Passions Spin the Plot, We Are Betrayed, and No Villain Need Be–was rewritten under the single title Orphans in Gethsemane (1960). The original novels tell the story of Vridar Hunter who, after struggling with his Mormon environment, sought the sophistication of New York only to discover that urban life was not the utopia he had expected it to be, and so returned to Idaho, confident that he could finally maintain his independence in that almost unchanged environment. When Fisher rewrote the Vridar Hunter tetralogy as Orphans in Gethsemane, he presented Vridar as an outsider not only in relation to his Mormon neighbors but also to the other organized religions of the world. Mormonism is used in this version, but it is used only as an example of how all religions in all ages have enslaved the individual.

Many readers of Mormon novels regard the 1939 publication of Fisher's Children of God as an appropriate date to mark the literary birth of Mormon novels. It was followed in 1940 by Bailey's For This My Glory and Jean Woodman's Glory Spent. In 1941. three novels represent the range of quality: Hoffman Birney's Ann Carmeny is a traditional Mormon-villains type; Lorene Pearson's The Harvest Waits is a sympathetic but heavy-handed exposition of the short-lived Mormon attempt at communal living–The United Order; and Maurine Whipple's The Giant Joshua, considered by some to be one of the best-written Mormon novels, is the story of Mormon life in southern Utah from 1860 to 1886. Its coverage of that part of Mormon history is excellent, but the strength of The Giant Joshua lies in Whipple's protagonist, Clorinda (Clory) McIntyre, a girl who was intelligent enough to know what was wrong in her life but who was helpless to change anything. Clory is a victim of both heritage and environment, born a Mormon, married in polygamy, and trapped in the isolated area of southern Utah.

In 1942 Virginia Sorensen published A Little Lower Than the Angels, her first Mormon novel. She then continued with On This Star (1946), The Neighbors (1947), The Evening and the Morning (1949), Many Heavens (1954), and Kingdom Come (1960). Sorensen succeeded in telling two stories when she wrote A Little Lower Than the Angels, the story of Mercy Baker and the story of the Mormons in Nauvoo. Mercy's story is the more interesting; it is the story of an individual's failure to find either happiness or significance in life. The story of the Mormons in Nauvoo is well told, but it does not involve the reader as does Mercy Baker's story. With A Little Lower Than the Angels Virginia Sorensen examined the major problems that confront Mormons, and On This Star, The Neighbors, The Evening and the Morning, and Many Heavens reexamine those problems. They are all based upon the rebellion–and the problems which arise as a result of the rebellion–of the second, third, and even fourth-generation Mormons. Kingdom Come is different; it is a historical novel about Mormonism in Denmark during the middle of the nineteenth century. Although the novels which she wrote after A Little Lower Than the Angels are not as successful as her first one, each of Virginia Sorensen's Mormon novels is significantly better than those that followed the formulas of the nineteenth-century Mormon novels.

Elinor Pryor's And Never Yield (1942) and Jonreed Lauritzen's Arrows into the Sun (1943) represent the continued use of Mormon subject matter according to the nineteenth-century formulas. But Richard Scowcroft's Children of the Covenant (1945) is a Mormon novel written from the point of view of one who knows the Mormons and their customs intimately. Burton Curtis is the returned missionary protagonist of Children of the Covenant who wants to be different but can not break away from the ties of church and family. Both Burton's inner conflicts and the routine activities of modern Mormons are presented expertly but with heavy satire. Children of the Covenant is a novel that angers most devout Mormons because of its satire; it amuses the less devout because they can see the validity of the satire; but it is not a novel for non-Mormons because its readers must have the same intimate knowledge of Mormons and Mormonism that its author has.

Two Mormon novels that combine Mormon history and family memoirs were published in 1946: The Mountains Are Mine by Helen Hinckley and Sweet Love Remembered by Helen Cortez Stafford. Then in 1948 Blanche Cannon's Nothing Ever Happens Sunday Morning and Samuel W. Taylor's Heaven Knows Why appeared. The Cannon novel is a sober, almost stark account of conflicting personalities in a small Utah town, but Taylor's novel is unique. Heaven Knows Why is a comic novel, one that is filled with the kind of characters that Mormons have long made fun of: the Bishop's curious wife who listens through the thin walls to the confidential discussions her husband has with the members of his ward, local girls who get married only when they have no other choice, coffee drinkers and smokers who try to keep the Bishop from finding out about them, and good members who would rather swindle their neighbors than love them. While Mormons fully enjoy comic situations, comedy is not common in Mormon novels; some have a few amusing scenes, but Taylor's Heaven Knows Why is the first one to be completely directed to humor. Taylor also wrote a biography of his Mormon father, Family Kingdom (1951), and a Mormon history, Nightfall at Nauvoo (1971), both of which read like novels, but the historical material in these works dominates.

In 1949 Ardyth Kennelly united several short sketches into the novel The Peaceable Kingdom. This work and its 1955 sequel, Up Home, relate the rather traditional activities of a woman living in Utah as a plural wife. Ezra J. Poulsen wrote in Birthright (1950) about the hardships and the good times of the Mormons of the Paris, Idaho, Second Ward; and in Wilderness Passage (1953) Forrester Blake used the Zane Grey formula for a potboiler. The family memoir novels of John D. Fitzgerald, Papa Married a Mormon (1956) and Mamma's Boarding House (1958), are about life in a Utah mining town, the first being more tightly controlled, less rambling, than the second. The Fancher Train (1958) by Amelia Bean is focused on a more specific historical event: the Mountain Meadows Massacre. The Fancher Train is generally accurate in its historical facts and the subject is one with a builtin interest for most readers, but the romanticized treatment of the protagonists, Jed and Melissa, does not match the harsh reality of the history that is presented.

In the 1950s several novels were written which touch on the Mormons but are not, in the strict sense, Mormon novels. Wallace Stegner's The Preacher and the Slave (1950) is one. This work is about Joe Hill, the IWW activist who was tried and executed in Utah. The general antilabor attitude of the Mormons is presented but only as one aspect of the situation. The book is about Joe Hill, not the Mormons. Another casual use of Mormon material is that of Allen Drury in Advise and Consent (1959) in which one of the major characters, Senator Brigham Anderson, is a Mormon. Drury might have been able to make the senator a more significant character had he examined the strong religious pressures upon a Mormon who was respected enough to be elected a senator but who was also a homosexual, but Advise and Consent is about Washington, not Salt Lake City. Mark Harris also used Mormonism in Wake Up, Stupid (1959). Lee Youngdahl, the protagonist of this Harris novel, is an excommunicated Mormon, but the novel is about Youngdahl's adventures, not about Mormons or Mormonism. Novels such as these by Stegner, Drury, and Harris represent a general integration of the Mormons as part of modern society, indicating that the treatment of Mormons as an isolated cult or novelty is out of date.

Nevertheless, there are many modern authors who have chosen to continue the established patterns. Richard W. Wormser wrote Battalion of Saints (1961) about the Mormon Battalion; Irving Wallace kept the sensation of polygamy alive with The Twenty-Seventh Wife (1961); J. C. Furnas caricatured historical Mormon leaders and wrote about the paranoia of Joseph Smith in his anti-Mormon The Devil's Rainbow (1962); Jonreed Lauritzen wrote another historical novel, The Everlasting Fire (1962), which parallels Fisher's Children of God but does not replace it; and Rodello Hunter's A House of Many Rooms (1965) is a continuation of the family-memoir novel.

As long as there are Mormon readers who are willing to buy standard, pro-Mormon romances, such works as Hunter's will continue. The novels of Blaine M. Yorgason, Susan Evans McCloud, David E. Richardson, Herbert Harker, and Jack Weyland are examples. Most of these are written for juvenile readers and repeat the historical themes of earlier novels–persecutions, pioneering, polygamy–but some use twentieth-century Mormons, placing their work closer to the lives of modern Mormons. And occasionally a well-written, traditional novel appears, such as Marilyn Brown's The Earthkeepers (1979), a historical novel about the settlement of Provo, Utah.

In the nineteenth century the pattern was set for Mormon fiction: either it was abusive or it was defensive, and the subject was nearly always polygamy. This pattern was so strong that it became traditional. But Mormons have taken pride in being progressive and the general trend in Mormon novels has followed that progress. The modern Mormon novels may mention polygamy in showing relationships of characters, or they may touch upon the "good old days" of the authoritarian church when men did what they were "called,' to do and did not question their leaders, but such traditional subjects are now being placed in their proper perspectives as background for more contemporary subjects. The better novelists who write about modern Mormons have begun to emancipate themselves from the traditions that have bound western writers in general. Furthermore, readers seem willing to accept the change. Instead of Mormonism's being described as an isolated curiosity in the West, it is described as a part of the whole. There are still traditional, romantic, sensational Mormon novels being published, but there are also modern, realistic ones–just as there are westerners who cherish the traditions of the frontier but live with all the conveniences of modern society. Indeed, the changes which have taken place in the West since 1850 are reflected in and paralleled by similar changes in Mormon novels.

KENNETH B. HUNSAKER, Utah State University

Selected Bibliography

Adeler, Max. The Tragedy of Thompson Dunbar. Philadelphia: J. M. Stoddart, 1879.

Anderson, Nephi. Added Upon. Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1898.

. The Boys of Springtown. Independence, Mo.: Press of Zions Printing & Publishing, 1920.

. The Castle Builder. Salt Lake City: Improvement Era, 1902.

. A Daughter of the North. Salt Lake City: De Utah-Nederlander, 1915.

. Dorian. Salt Lake City: Bikuben Publishing, 1921.

. John St. John. Independence, Mo.: Zions Printing & Publishing, 1917.

. Marcus King, Mormon. Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1908.

. Piney Ridge Cottage. Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1912.

. Romance of a Missionary. Independence, Mo.: Zions Printing & Publishing, 1919.

. The Story of Chester Lawrence. Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1913.

Bailey, Paul Dayton. For This My Glory. Los Angeles: Lyman House, 1940.

. For Time and All Eternity. New York: Doubleday, 1964.

. The Gay Saint. Hollywood, Calif.: Murray & Gee, 1944.

. Song Everlasting. Los Angeles: Westemlore Press, 1946.

. Type-High. New York: Sutton House, 1937.

Bartlett, A. Jennie (Switzer). Elder Northfield's Home; or, Sacrificed on the Mormon Altar. New York: J. Howard Brown, 1882.

Beadle, J[ohn] H[ansen]. Life in Utah. Philadelphia: National Publishing, 1870.

Bean, Amelia. The Fancher Train. New York: Ace Books, 1958.

Belisle, Orvilla S. The Prophets; or, Mormonism Unveiled. Philadelphia: W. W. Smith, 1855.

Bell, Sidney (Clarence R. Decker). Wives of the Prophet. New York: Macaulay, 1935.

Birney, Hoffman. Ann Carmeny. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1941.

Blake, Forrester. Wilderness Passage. New York: Random House, 1958.

Brown, Marilyn. The Earthkeeeers. Provo, Utah: Art Publishers, 1979.

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward. Alice; or, The Mysteries. New York: Harper's, 1851.

Cannon, Blanche. Nothing Ever Happens Sunday Morning. New York: Putnam, 1948.

Conybeare, W. J. Perversion; or, The Causes and Consequences of Infidelity. New York: Garland Publishing, 1856.

Coolidge, Dane. The Fighting Danites. New York: Dutton, 1934.

DeVoto, Bernard. The Crooked Mile. New York: Minton, Balch, 1924.

Doyle, Arthur Conan. A Study in Scarlet. London: Ward, Lock, 1887; New York: American Publishing Corp., 1890.

. Our Second American Adventure. Boston: Little, Brown, 1924.

Drury, Allen. Advise and Consent. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1959.

Ertz, Susan. The Proselyte. New York: Appleton-Century, 1933.

Fisher, Vardis. April: A Fable of Love. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1937.

. Children of God. New York: Vanguard Press, 1939.

. Dark Bridwell. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931.

. In Tragic Life. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1932.

. No Villain Need Be. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1936.

. Orphans in Gethsemane. Denver: Alan Swallow, 1960.

. Passions Spin the Plot. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1934.

. Toilers of the Hills. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1928.

. We Are Betrayed. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1935.

Fitzgerald, John Dennis. Mamma's Boarding House. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1958.

. Papa Married a Mormon. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1956.

Fuller, Metta Victoria. Lives of Female Mormons. Philadelphia: G. G. Evans, 1860.

Furnas, J. C. The Devil's Rainbow. New York: Harper, 1962.

Gates, Susa Young. John Steven's Courtship. Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1909.

Graham, Winifred (Cory). Ezra the Mormon. London: Everett, 1907.

Grey, Zane. The Heritage of the Desert. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1910.

. Riders of the Purple Sage. New York: Harper &. Brothers, 1912.

Harker, Herbert. Turn Again Home. Toronto: New American Library, 1979.

Harris, Mark. Wake Up, Stupid. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1959.

Henry, Alfred H. By Order of the Prophet. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1902.

Hinckley, Helen. The Mountains Are Mine. New York: Vanguard Press, 1946.

Hudson, Mary W. Esther the Gentile. Topeka: G. W. Crane, 1888.

Hughes, Dean. As Wide us the River. Salt Lake City: Deseret Books, 1980.

. Under the Same Stars. Salt Lake City: Deseret Books, 1979.

Hunter, Rodello. A House of Many Rooms. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965.

Kennelly, Ardyth. The Peaceable Kingdom. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1949.

. Up Home. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1955.

Kerr, Alvah Milton. Trean, or the Mormon's Daughter. Chicago: Belford, Clarke, 1889.

Lauritzen, Jonreed. Arrows into the Sun. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1943.

. The Everlasting Fire. Garden City, N . Y. : Doubleday, 1962.

Lewis,Charles Bertrand. Bessie Baine; or, The Mormon's Victim. Chicago: M. A. Donahue, 1880.

London, Jack. The Star Rover. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1915.

Marryat, Captain Frederick. Monsieur Violet. London, J. M. Dent, 1843.

McCloud, Susan Evans. Where the Heart Leads. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1979.

Meears, G. A. The Geese of Ganderica, Their History, Their Sense, and Nonsense, by a Utah Goose. Salt Lake City: Salt Lake Herald Printings, 1882.

Miller, Joaquin. The Danites in the Sierras. Chicago: Jansen, McClurg, 1881. [Reissued as a four-act drama in 1882.]

Mitchell, Langdon E. Love in the Backwoods: Two Mormons from Muddlety. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1876.

Neville, Lee. Poplars Across the Moon. Boston: L. C. Page, 1936.

Paddock, Cornelia. The Fate of Madame La Tour: A Story of Great Salt Lake. New York: Fords, Howard & Hulbert, 1881.

. In the Toils; or, Martyrs of the Latter Days. Chicago: Dixon & Shepard, 1879.

Parker, Norton S. Hell and Hallelujah! New York: L. MacVeagh, 1931.

Pearson, Lorene. The Harvest Waits. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1941.

Poulsen, Ezra J. Birthright. Salt Lake City: Granite, 1950.

Pryor, Elinor. And Never Yield. New York: Macmillan, 1942.

Reid, Captain Mayne. The Wild Huntress. London: Richard Bentley, 1861.

Richardson, David E. These Were the Valiant. Salt Lake City: Cottonwood, 1979.

Robertson, Frank Chester. The Rocky Road to Jericho. New York: Hillman-Cure, 1935.

Scowcroft, Richard. Children of the Covenant. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1945.

Snell, George D. Root, Hog and Die. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1936.

Sorensen, Virginia. The Evening and the Morning. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1949.

. Kingdom Come. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1960.

. A Little Lower Than the Angels. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1942.

. Many Heavens. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1954.

. The Neighbors. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1947.

. On This Star. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1946.

Stafford, Helen Cortez. Sweet Love Remembered. Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1946.

Stegner, Wallace. The Preacher and the Slave. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1950.

Taylor, Samuel Woolley. Family Kingdom. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951.

. Heaven Knows Why. New York: A. A. Wyn, 1948.

. Nightfall at Nauvoo. New York: Macmillan, 1971.

Tourgée, Albion W. Button's Inn. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1886.

Trout, Grace Wilbur. A Mormon Wife. Chicago: Van-American Press, 1895.

Wallace, Irving. The Twenty-Seventh Wife. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1961.

Walsh, Marie A. My Queen. New York: G. W. Carleton, 1878.

Walworth, Mrs. Jeannette Ritchie H. The Bar Sinister. New York: Cassell, 1885.

Ward, Mrs. Maria. Female Life Among the Mormons. Hartford, Conn.: J. C. Derby, 1855.

Weyland, Jack. Charly. Salt Lake City: Deseret Books, 1980.

. Sam. Salt Lake City: Deseret Books, 1981.

Whipple, Maurine. The Giant Joshua. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1941.

Wilson, Harry Leon. The Lions of the Lord. Boston: Lothrop Publishing, 1903.

Winthrop, Theodore. John Brent. New York: J. W. Lovell, 1861.

Woodman, Jean. Glory Spent. New York: Carrick & Evans, 1940.

Wormser, Richard E. Battalion of Saints. New York: D. McKay, 1961.

Yorgason, Blaine M. Charlie's Monument. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1976.

. Massacre at Salt Creek. Garden City, N .Y. : Doubleday, 1979.

[Contents]    [Index]

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