Growing Process of Tropical Trees-(Compiled Version)

Compilation published 1997

Growing Process of Tropical Trees(Compiled Version)-Seed germination and growth August,1997

Published by Overseas Coorperation Division, FTBC

Adress:3809-1 Kakozawa, Ishi, Juo, Taga, Ibaraki-pref 319-1301
Tel:0293-32-7000 Fax:0293-32-7306
Bibiliography
1) Shunkichi Iwasa, Youji Kikata, Jisuke Kitano, Shouyuu Sasaki, Kenkei Suzuki, Keizou Hara
(Tropical Trees Research Section Edition): Handbook of Tropical Plants and Trees, Youkendo publishers 1984
2) Mitsuru Hotta, Takeshi Ogata, Aya Nitta, Kiyochika Hoshikawa, Munetami Yanagi, Kouu Yamazaki.
Useful Plants of The World, Heibonsya 1989
3) Sumihiko Asakawa:Tropical Tree-planting Tequnices. International Forestry Promotion Center 1992
4) Von Carlowitz, P.G.:Multipurpose Tree and Shurb Seed Dictionary, ICRAF, Nairobi,1986

Due to the large amount of pictures on this page, it may take some time to load.

Please pay careful attention to the follwing points.

1) Trees shown in this collection of photographs have grown slowly compared to trees in their native tropical regions, as these trees were grown FTBC's greenhouse.
2) Some of the picutres here are photoes of adult trees in their growing regions.
3) The data of the germination test is quoted from Von Carlowitz(1986) about Eucalyptus. All other data is collected in FTBC.
4) The Japanese names of seeds are in their most commonly used forms.

Table of Tree Species

Genus Taxonomy(Scientific Name) Common Name
Pinaceae Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis
Pinus caribaea var. caribaea. Caribbean pine
Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis
Pinus elliottii Slash pine
Pinus kesiya kesiya pine
Pinus oocarpa Pino
Pinus patula Mexican weeping pine
Pinus roxburghii Chir pine
Pinus wallichiana Blue pine
Araucariaceae Araucaria angustifolia Pinheiro do parana
Cupressaceae Cupressus lusitanica Cipres de mexico
Annonaceae Annona cherimola Cherimoya
Leguminosae Acacia aulacocarpa Brown salwood
Acacia auriculiformis Acacia auriculiformis
Acacia catechu Black cutch
Acacia crassicarpa Northern wattle
Acacia decurrens Green wattle
Acacia holosericea Candelabra wattle
Acacia hybrid
Acacia leptocarpa
Acacia maidenii Maidens wattle
Acacia mangium Mangium
Acacia mearnsii Black wattle
Acacia melanoxylon Blackwood
Acacia neriifolia Oleander wattle
Acacia silvestris Red wattle
Afzelia xylocarpa
Albizia lebbeck Siristree
Paraserianthes falcataria Molucca silk tree
Baikiaea plurijuga Rhodesian-teak
Cassia fistula Indian-laburnum
Cassia grandis Horse cassia
Cassia siamea Bombay black wood
Centrolobium robustum Zebrawood
Dalbergia cochinchinensis Siam rose wood
Delonix regia Flamboyant
Leucaena leucocephala Leucaena
Petrophorum dasyrachis
Petrophorum pterocapum Yellow flame
Ptrerocarpus macrocarpus Burma chinese quince
Sindora siamensis Septir
Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola Star fruit
Meliaceae Cedrela odorata Spanish-cedar
Swietenia macrophylla Big leef mahogany
Anacardiaceae Astronium graveolens Glassywood
Schinopsis lorentzii Quebracho colorado
Bombacaceae Adansonia digitata Baobab tree
Ceiba pentandra Kapoktree
Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis Passion fruit
Lecythiodaceae Cariniana legais Jequitiba
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus camaldulensis River red gum
Eucalyptus citriodora Lemon-scented gum
Eucalyptus deglupta Mindanao gum
Eucalyptus globulus Blue gum
Eucalyptus grandis Rose gum
Eucalyptus maculata Spotted Gum
Eucalyptus punctata Gray gum
Eucalyptus saligna Sydney blue gum
Eucalyptus tereticornis Forest red gum
Eucalyptus urophylla Timor white gum
Feijoa sellowiana Feijoa
Psidium guajava Guava
Verbenaceae Gmelina arborea Kidachiyoraku
Tectona grandis Teak

Partially available to the public


Leguminosae


Acacia auricuriformis


Acacia auricuriformis

種子の写真

Distribution Australia, Papua New Guinea, surrounding regions.
Uses Young trees are widely adaptable to arid and infertile regions.
The wood ranges from light to golden in color . Characterized by dark stripes and high durability. Most commonly used in flooring, shipbuilding, firewood, logging, and pulpe.

軟x線.の写真

発芽の写真

1ヶ月後の写真

2ヶ月後の写真

3ヶ月後の写真

X-ray photo of internal structure

Germination

1 month after germination

2 months after germination

3 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Malaisia
Number of Seeds kg 47,000grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
lIllumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Soaking the seeds into water for 24hrs, after in hot water for 2 min.
Germination rate 77%
Duration for germination 3-14 days after sowing
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Leguminosae

Paraserianthes falcataria

Molucca Silk Tree

種子の写真

Origin Molucca island-New Guinea
Uses Widespread in several varieties throughout tropical regions.
Primarly used for furniture, boards, pulp.

軟X線写真

発芽の写真

1.5ヶ月後の写真

3ヶ月後の写真

X-ray photo of internal structure

Germination

1.5 months after germination

3 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Indonesia
Number of Seeds 43,000grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination None-treatment Soaking the seeds into water Soaking the seeds into water for 24hrs after in 80 C hot water for3min. Partly peeling of the seed skin
Germination rate 5% 8% 58% 85%
Duration for germination 1-10days after sowing
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Pinaceae


Pinus caribaea
var. caribaea


Caribbean pine

種子の写真

Origin Central America
Distribution Cuba
Uses Wood is light brown to brown in color with a specific gravity of 0.75. It is stong, with moderate durability.
Building, box, shipbuilding, signes, pulp, and engineering work.

軟X線写真

発芽の写真

1ヶ月後の写真

7ヶ月後の写真

成木の写真

X-ray photo of internal structure

Germination

1 month after germination

7 months after germination

Adult tree(Northern Thailand)

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Cuba
Number of Seeds 79,000grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Treatment with Gibberellin Treatment of Sterilization Soaking the seeds in 70 C hot water for 1 min. Soaking the seeds in 70 C hot water for 3 min. Non-treatment
Germination rate 32% 18% 24% 38% 36%
Duration for germination 6-52days after sowing
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Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus grandis

Rose gum

Origin Australia
Distribution Australia, New South Wales and southern Queensland
Uses Wood is reddish, lighter and softer to tear than other Eucalyptuses varieties. Used for light construction, packing boxes, pulp.

SEM photo of internal structure

Germination

3 months after germination 6 months after germination Adult tree(after 6 years of growth in Uruguay)
<< Germination test >>
Seed source Uruguay
Number of Seeds 200,000-3,000,000grains/kg(Von Carlowitz,1986)
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment
Germination rate 83%
Duration for germination 4-8 days after sowing
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Verbenaceae


Tectona grandis

Teak
Origin India, Mynmar, Thailand
Distribution India, Mynmar, Thailand, Indochina
Uses Sapwood is yellowish white and oily, core is golden-brown with dark brown stripes. Specific gravity ranges from 0.55 to 0.77. Wood surface is waxy and fragrant,and can produce a good finish. Both strong and durable, with high-resistance to insects. Typically used in high class furniture cabinets, interior timber, decoration and carving. Outer root and young leaves are yellow in color and seeds are often used medicine.

1週間後の写真

3ヶ月後の写真

成木の写真

SEM photo of internal structure

Germination

1 week after germination

3 months after germination

Adult trees in greenhouse

<< Germination test >>
Seed source -
Number of Seeds 1,380grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
River sand
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination After 10min soaking in sulfuric acid, dry and soak once a day for 5 days
Germination rate 91%
Duration for germination 6-59days after sowing
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Pinaceae

Pinus elliottii

Slash pine

Origin Southeast Asia
Distribution Eastern North America
Uses Used for pulp and resin

Germination

1week after germination

1.5 months after germination

2 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source South Africa
Number of Seeds 29,000grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment
Germination rate 80%
Duration for germination 7-13days after sowing
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Pinaceae

Pinus patura

Mexican weeping pine

Origin Mexico
Distribution Mexico, America

Germination

2weeks after germination

2 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Tanzania
Number of Seeds 95,000grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment
Germination rate 70%
Duration for germination 9-17days after sowing
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Araucariaceae

Araucaria angustiforia

Pinheiro do parana

Origin South America
Distribution Southern Brazil, Argentina, Misiones province
Uses Wood is brown in color with specific gravity of 0.55. Easy to work with.
Typically used in furniture, boxes, match, plywood, boards. The seeds are edible.

3.5ヶ月後の写真

Germination

1.5 months after germination

3.5 months after germination


<< Germination test >>
Seed source Brazil
Number of Seeds 200grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
River sand a set temp.of 25 C
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment
Germination rate 42%
Duration for germination 12-26days after sowing
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Cupressaceae

Cupressus lnsitanica


Cipres de Mexico
種子の写真
Origin Mexico
Distribution Mexicona-Costa Rica
Uses Wood is characterized by yellow, light brown, and red bands.
Very soft. Fine grain. High durability and easy to work with.
Used for furniture and construction.

Germination

1.5 months after germination

2 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Kenya
Number of Seeds 194,600grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment
Germination rate 40%
Duration for germination 8-12days after sowing
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Annonaceae

Annona cherimola


Cherimoya
Origin Brazil
Distribution Tropical highlands
Uses Edible fruit. Fruit is white and sweetly acidic.
2週間後の写真

10 days after germination

2 weeks after germination

1 months after germination

1.5 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source New Zealand
Number of Seeds 7,000 grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment
Germination rate 60%
Duration for germination 15-39days after sowing
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Leguminosae

Acacia mangium


Mangium
Origin Australia
Uses Young trees are widely adaptable to semi-arid and barren land.
Typically used in pulp, furniture and rod side tree. Branches and the leaves are used for fdder.

Germination

1 month after germination

2.5 months after germination

Adult tree in greenhouse(3years)

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Malaysia
Number of Seeds 142,000grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Soaking the seeds into water for 24hrs, after in hot water for 5min.
Germination rate 71%
Duration for germination 3-10days after sowing
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Leguminosae


Pterocarpus macrocarpus


Burma chinese quince
Origin Thailand
Distribution Myanmar, Thailand, laos
Uses Used for furniture, cabinets, decoration.

Germination

1 week after germination

8 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Thailand
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Soaking the seeds with aril in water for 48hrs. Soaking the seeds with removal of aril in water for 48hrs. Peeling the part of seed coat after removal of aril.
Germination rate 0% 60% 32%
Duration for germination 6-15days after sowing
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Oxalidaceae


Averrhoa carambala

Star fruit
Origin Southeast Asia
Distribution Southeast Asia, American tropics, West Indies
Uses Fruit, long and narrow, Berry is oval shaped.
Fruit cross section is star shape and 10 cm in diameter.
Semitransparent and jucy. Strong, sweetly acidic taste.

3 days after germination

1 month after germination

6 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Ishigaki island, Okinawa
Number of Seeds 18,600grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Peeling the part of seed coat
Germination rate 67%
Duration for germination 9-25days after sowing
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Meliaceae


Swietenia macrophylla


Big Leaf Mahogany
Origin South central America
Distribution Mexico-Bolibia south central region
Uses Favorable to well-drained areas. The sapling favors side-shade underplanting is applicable.
Wood is used for furniture and building, and highly evaluated in the world.

Germination

3 months after germination

Greenhouse in boxes of peatmoss(3 years).

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Indonesia
Number of Seeds 1,900grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Soaking the seeds in water for 6hrs. Used peat moss, nursing box, inside the greenhouse.
Germination rate 22% 74%
Duration for germination 14-30days after soaking
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Anacardiaceae


Schinopsis lorentzii


Quebracho colorado
Origin South America Tropical regions
Distribution Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia are throughout Gran Chacio region
Uses Sapwood is light rose colored, heart wood is reddish brown.
Characteristically fragrant. Wood is heavy and stiff,with a specific gravity of 1.17.
Very difficult work with. Used to produce extraction of tannine, sleepers, small bridge, base of columns, poles.

10 days after germination

30 days after germination

6 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Argentina
Number of Seeds 6,600grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
River sand
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment
Germination rate 27%
Duration for germination 14-22days after sowing
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Bombacaceae


Adasonia digitata


Baobab Tree

Seed

Fruit and seed

Origin Africa
Uses One of the world big trees, the old trees grow 20m in height, and 5-7m in DBH.
Edible fruit. Bark used for fishing nets and in paper production.

Germination

3 days after germination

1 week after germination

2 weeks after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Zimbabwe
Number of Seeds 469grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination partly peeling of the seed coat
Germination rate -
Duration for germination 6-20days after sowing
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Passifloraceae


Passiflora edulis

Passion fruit

Fruit

Origin Brazil
Distribution Tropical, subtropical region
Uses Fruit is circular or slightly elliptic. Fruit is orange inside and slightly transparant,with a jellylike consistancy. Used in production of sweeteners, alcoholic spirits, and aromatic candies.

2 weeks after germination

3 weeks after germination

5 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Africa
Number of Seeds 48,000grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination partly peeling of the seed coat Non-treatment
Germination rate 69% 40%
Duration for germination 2-18days after sowing
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Lecythidaceae


Cariniana legais


Jequitiba
Origin Brazil
Distribution Brazil
Uses Wood is light and banded with red-brown stripes.
Dark brown spots also present. Specific gravity is 0.6. Stiff and durable. Generally used in building, flooring, furniture, plywood, and carving.

Germination

2 weeks after germination

6 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Brazil
Number of Seeds 23,000grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment
Germination rate 95%
Duration for germination 9-37days after sowing
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Myrtaceae


Eucalyptus citriodora


Lemon-scented gum
Origin Australia
Distribution Australia, Queensland
Uses Wood is light brown, heavy and hard, and durable. Typically used in a bridge supports, shipbuilding, sleepers, and pulpe.
Leaves have a lemony like fragrance, and are used in the refined oil of Cineole.

4 days after germination

1.5 months after germination

5 months after germination

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Brazil
Number of Seeds 168,100grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment
Germination rate 90%
Duration for germination 2-10days after sowing
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Verbenaceae


Gmelina arborea

Kidachiyoraku
Origin India to Indonesia, throughout tropical Asia
Uses Fast growing tree and favors the fertile soil.

Germination

8 days after germination

23 days after germination

Adult tree(Indonesia 3years)

<< Germination test >>
Seed source Indonesia
Number of Seeds 1,500-2,500grains/kg
Test conditions Inside incubator
Fixed temperature : 25 C
Illumination : 1000Lx
Irradiation : 8hrs
<< Test results >>
Pretreatment for germination Non-treatment partly peeling of the seed coat
Germination rate 18% 4%
Duration for germination 2-10days after sowing
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