MANUSCRIPTS IN THE LABADIE COLLECTION
The Joseph A. Labadie Collection, one of the oldest collections of radical history in the United States, documents a wide variety of social protest movements and organizations of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. While the printed materialssome 8,000 serials, 35,000 monographs, and 20,000 pamphletsare without doubt the major strengths of the Collection, the manuscript holdings provide added coverage of certain subjects and persons involved in radical movements.
The nucleus of the Collection, donated to The University of Michigan in 1911, consists of the personal papers and library of Charles Joseph Antoine Labadie (1850-1933), known familiarly as Jo Labadie, an important figure in the fledgling Michigan labor movement of the late nineteenth century, was born on a frontier farm near Paw Paw, Michigan, to parents of French and Indian descent. Learning the printer's trade in South Bend, Indiana, he joined the International Typographical Union in his teens and after a few years of wandering about the country, settled in Detroit in 1872.
In 1878, Labadie organized the first Michigan branch of the Knights of Labor, disguising it as the Washington Literary Society, and in the same year amassed several hundred votes as candidate for mayor of Detroit on the Greenback-Labor Party ticket. In 1880, he helped organize the Detroit Council of Trades and Labor Unions and served as its first president. Attracted by the Socialist Labor Party, he furthered its views by editing several of the earliest labor papers in Michigan, such as the Detroit Socialist, Three Stars, and Advance and Labor Leaf. Labadie's interest in the labor movement continued, and nine years later he was instrumental in the founding of the Michigan Federation of Labor, again serving as first president.
He did not, however, adhere to the dominant Republican and Democratic parties but remained radical in his social views. Fearing the concentration of power in a centralized government, he became wary of the future of socialism and found the doctrines of individualist anarchism, as promulgated by Benjamin Tucker, more congenial to his aspirations. His subsequent activism, writings, and demeanor won him the appelation "the gentle anarchist." His life was not without drama, however. Labadie had been employed by the Detroit Water Board since 1893 but was suddenly dismissed in 1908 because of his anarchist convictions. Vehement public outcry resulted in his quick reinstatement and brought him many new friends.
In 1912 Labadie retired to a farm near Wixom, Michigan (now in Kensington Park, where the ruins may be viewed), spending the next twenty years writing, printing, and distributing anarchist materials. Before moving to "Bubbling Waters," he donated his books, pamphlets, journals, personal papers, and ephemera to The University of Michigan.
One of Labadie's friends in later years was Agnes Ann Inglis (1870-1952). The daughter of a prominent and wealthy Detroit family, Inglis led a confined life for her first thirty years, nursing her invalid sister and mother. After their deaths she volunteered for settlement work at Hull House in Chicago and Franklin House in Detroit. In 1905 she moved to Ann Arbor where her interests broadened to include such issues as labor unions, prostitution, venereal disease, and birth control. Alth ough she briefly joined the Socialist Party, her friendship with Emma Goldman led her to anarchism. Over the next two decades, she zealously supported Goldman's causes, opposed U.S. involvement in World War I, and protested the trials and imprisonments of anarchists and Industrial Workers of the World members.
In 1924 Inglis tried to consult the Labadie Collection for her research but found it had remained boxed and untouched. Since the materials were too disorganized for use, she began what was to become her life-long work: the arrangement and custodianship of Jo Labadie's donation. Because Inglis was without archival or library training, her methods of organizing the material were personal and somewhat idiosyncratic. Nonetheless, she enriched the collection enormously by acquiring books, serials, pamphlets, letters, and other records of persons involved in radical movements. Moreover, Inglis corresponded extensively with her network of friends, soliciting their memoirs and documentation of significant events and persons. During the period Inglis served as curator (1924-1952), the Labadie Collection grew perhaps by twenty-fold.
In 1960 Edward C. Weber became Head of the Labadie Collection. Following Miss Inglis's earlier example, Mr. Weber initiated extensive correspondence with individuals, groups, and organizations active in publishing or disseminating radical literature. He is largely responsible for the collection's substantial holdings in the areas of civil rights, the student protests and anti-war movements of the tumultuous sixties, modern anarchist and Trotskyist literature, as well as materials on gay liberation, radical feminism, and pacifism, amnesty, and anti-nuclear movements.
The approximately 225 linear feet of Labadie manuscript holdings are strongest in the area of anarchism. Such figures as Emma Goldman, Josiah Warren, and Benjamin Tucker appear prominently along with the anarchist tenets of free thought , communal living, sexual freedom, and libertarian opposition to government. Early labor history, especially Michigan labor movements, are illumined by the papers of Jo Labadie, Henry Bool, David Boyd, and Judson Grenell. Many collections document the act ivities of the Industrial Workers of the World and its members.
The Labadie Collection has relatively little manuscript material on older democratic socialist parties and the numerous parties aligned with the Fourth International although there is a great wealth of printed material. Communism is represented more by groups defending alleged members in legal cases, such as the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, or the papers of William A. Reuben, the journalist who investigated the Hiss, Rosenberg, Sobell, and Soblen cases, than by the official American Communist Party.
Women's organizations have few records in the Collection, but women active in protest movements not nominally related to women's rights, such as anarchism, socialism, and labor, are better represented. Carol Jacobsens Porn Imagery Co llection, documenting her controversial art exhibit on prostitution and pornography, was censored by the Universitys Law School Students. Utopian and cooperative living experiments, such as Sunrise Co-operative Farm Community and Commonwealth College and Colony, and the free school movement also form a small part of the manuscript collections. Contemporary topics include prison reform, world government, pacifism, environmental concerns, and the counterculture.
In 1964 the Labadie Collection became part of The Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, The University Library, The University of Michigan. The deparments name was subsequently changed to Special Collections Library. Use of the Labadie Collection is open to all researchers, although special conditions govern the use of manuscript materials and researchers are urged to write or call ahead. Photoduplication services are available, subject to the condition of the material and copyright or donor restrictions. Questions about regulations governing collection use and the scope of the collection should be directed to the Labadie Collection, Special Collections Library, 711 Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1205, telephone (734)764-9377. The Department is open from 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday, and 10:00 a.m. to noon Saturday.
Edward C. Weber, Curator Emeritus
Adler was an educator and writer whose application to become licensed as chairman of an English department in a New York City high school was rejected in 1952 because of her alleged Communist Party membership. The collection includes photocopies of correspondence, memoranda, applications, recommendation forms, reports of classroom observations, and transcripts of interviews concerning the rejection of her licensing application by the Board of Examiners of the New York City Board of Education and her subsequent efforts to have the "unsatisfactory" rating expunged from her file. Correspondents and examiners include Anthony J. Alvarado, Jay Elihu Greene, Isaac Hersh, Gertrude Martha Kufahl, Alexander S. Massell, Saul Moskoff, and Harold Siegel. The original papers are in the possession of the Board of Examiners, Board of Education of the City of New York, and the Teachers College Archives, Columbia University.
American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born.
Arcos, Federico, collector, 1920-
Photocopies of papers that were in Emma Goldman's apartment at the time of her death; the originals are in the possession of Mr. Arcos, a Spanish anarchist who fought in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), and who has been a Canadian resident since 1940. The collection contains correspondence, essays, circular letters, newspaper clippings, and photos dealing primarily with Goldman's activities on behalf of anarchists in Spain during the Civil War and on behalf of four men, including Arthur Bortolotti and Marcus Joachim, arrested in Toronto for anti-Fascist agitation. Principal correspondents include Dorothy Rogers, Goldman's secretary (1939-40); Stella Ballantine, Goldman's niece; Malcolm Cowley, Nick Di Domenico, Mary Eleanor Fitzgerald , James Heney, Anna and Maximilian Olay, John C. Powys, Milly and Rudolf Rocker, and Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin . Requests for photocopies and permission to quote must be referred to the donor. The papers are in English, Italian, and Spanish.
The collection includes zine page proofs, printing receipts, financial records, and original artwork for five of the original six issues of Babyfish... lost its momma, a Detroit anarchist journal published between 1988 and 1994, which addressed themes relating to local and national sexual, social, political, and economic issues through poetry, art and essays. Also included are other publications by the same editor, Sunfrog (Andy Smith, b. 1968).
Barnhill, John Basil, 1864-1929.
Libertarian writer, lecturer, debater, and editor of various journals, among them The Eagle and Serpent (under the pseudonym John Erwin McCall), Nationalist, American Anti-Socialist, and Humanity First. The papers include correspondence; articles, essays, and speeches, some fragmentary or in draft form; requests for Barnhill's anti-socialist literature; and two scrapbooks of newspaper clippings. Among the correspondents are Jonathan Burwell Frost, Edward H. Fulton, Henry C. Rawie, and Henry Replogle. One of Barnhill's essays gives an account of the Civil War battle at Kennesaw Mountain, Tennessee, June 27, 1864, in which Lt. Col. R. S. Barnhill was killed. The essay is accompanied by documents, including lists of captured goods.
Beffel, John Nicholas, 1887-1973.
Radical journalist who wrote on labor topics for Industrial Worker. The collection consists of correspondence; articles, including obituaries for Joseph J. Ettor and Pat Quinlan; plans for an unpublished(?) magazine called Land of the Free; and a newspaper clipping.
Blanc, Louis, 1811-1882.
French socialist, politician, and journalist, whose attacks on the government caused agitation among workers and forced him into exile in London from 1848 until 1871. The papers consist of five manuscripts and 59 letters, most addressed to Escudier, the publisher of his works, and to his friend Noel Parfait (1813-1898).
Bluestein, Abe, 1909-1997.
Unpublished finding aid available in the repository.
Correspondence of Bool, a businessman and anarchist, chiefly concerns financial support of anarchists and their publications, particularly Benjamin R. Tucker and his journal Liberty and Moses Harman and Lucifer, the Light-bearer; distribution of Bool's pamphlet "Liberty Luminants" and other literature; the philosophy and activities of anarchist friends and acquaintances, especially John William Lloyd; and personal and business affairs. Correspondents include John Basil Barnhill, Steven T. Byington, Emmet Densmore, James B. Elliott, Edward H. Fulton, William W. Gordak, Lillian Harman, Lizzie M. Holmes, Joseph Labadie, John William Lloyd, George E. Priest, Georgia Replogle, Nathaniel Schmidt, Horace Traubel, B. R. Tucker, and Alfred Westrup.
Boyd, David Armitage, 1868-1939.
Machinist, printer, union organizer and officer, and member of the Knights of Labor, Michigan Federation of Labor, and International Association of Machinists. The collection contains correspondence, financial records, biographical information, personal documents, and union records relating to his work as a labor leader and organizer; an essay, "The Labor Movement of Detroit"; and Minutes Report Book for the Detroit Assembly of the Knights of Labor (1878), which was called the Washington Literary Society to conceal its identity. Correspondents include Samuel Gompers, Patrick J. McCormick, Paul Marrin, Frank Morrison, Hazen S. Pingree, and Michigan labor leaders.
Boyle (1902-1992), poet, novelist, award winning short story writer, and correspondent for The New Yorker, took a trip to Cambodia in 1966 with six other U.S. citizens sponsored by Americans Want to Know. The purpose was a fact-finding mission to investigate the U.S. Goverments assertion that, among other things, Cambodia was being used a s a sanctuary for the Vietcong. Her findings were reported in the November 1966 issue of The Progressive. The collection consists of typed drafts of The Progressive article, photographs of the delegation as well as of war damage in the Cambodian countryside, a few letters from friends, including one from Joan Baez.
Bray, John Francis, 1809-1897.
Bray, a socialist, writer, printer, and daguerreotype artist, emigrated from the United States to England in 1822 and became a member of the Leeds Workingmen's Association. While there, he wrote Labour's Wrongs and Labour's Remedy; or, The Age of Might and the Age of Right (1839). He returned to the United States in 1842 and eventually settled in Pontiac, Michigan. His papers include correspondence with James Callahan, editor of The Labor Enquirer, Elihu Finnie of the Leeds Liberal Association, Samuel Gompers, Judson Grenell, Burnette Haskell, Joseph Labadie, Alcander Longley, Dyer Lum, and others; articles and essays, primarily on socialism and labor, but also on aerial navigation, perpetual motion, and farmers; accounts; receipts; a Knights of Labor dues book; an announcement of an Anti-Monopoly Convention; newspaper clippings; photos; and memorabilia. Also included are notes by Agnes Inglis about Bray and his parents, who were actors in the eastern United States; printed biographical articles about Bray; and a photocopy of part of his utopian tract, the original of which is held by the British Library of Political and Economic Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London. A photocopy of his diary is also contained in the collection; the original was donated to Edwin R. A. Seligman in 1939 and is now in the Seligman Collection, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York. A list of books and printed material from Bray's library, now shelved with the Labadie Collection's printed works, is available.
California Labor School, San Francisco.
Formerly the Tom Mooney Labor School, the records consist of correspondence, minutes of faculty meetings, faculty committee reports, financial records and fundraising materials, promotional flyers and press releases, student publications, course outlines and course announcement flyers, school term schedules from 1950 to 1955, and a transcript of the proceedings of a forum, "Industry and Labor in the Postwar World," held on July 26, 1944. Included are letters to Yehudi Menuhin and Isaac Stern concerning support of a music department at CLS. The school was investigated in 1946 by the Tenney Committee, the California legislature's Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, on the charge that an institute jointly held by CLS and the University of California was Communist-sponsored. However, the only indication of this fact in the records is brief mention in the faculty meeting minutes.
Carey, George V.
Carey was a freethinker, socialist, and secretary of the Industrial Workers of the World's Toledo Recruiting Union, ca. 1917; chairman of the IWW's Chicago Recruiting Union, ca. 1919; and chairman, beginning about 1932, of the IWW's Kentucky Miners' Defense and Relief Committee. His papers include correspondence with IWW and Socialist Party officials, other workers' organizations and unions, imprisoned Kentucky miners and IWW members, and with Mrs. Rena Mooney regarding misuse of Tom Mooney defense funds; leaflets; financial records; letters to editors; writings and reports, including a history of the IWW and a description of an attempt to disrupt a Newark, New Jersey, IWW meeting; a circular concerning the scattering of Joe Hill's ashes; and other material relating to the IWW. Among the correspondents are John Beffel, Dave Dellinger, William D. Haywood, Herbert Mahler, Tom Mooney, Norman Thomas, and Andrew P. Wittel.
Consist primarily of writings by Jay Chaapel (1829-1902)freethinker, spiritualist, lecturer, and editoron a variety of topics: Shaker communities in New England, including a biographical essay on Ann Lee; descriptions of places in Maine, ca. 1898; the death of John Brown as remembered by Elizabeth Richards Tilton, whose husband Theodore Tilton had assisted with the burial; and thoughts on spiritualism, love and marriage, women's rights, people, and events. There are holograph copies of writings by others, including extracts from 16 letters, 1793-95, of Mary Wollstonecraft to Gilbert Imlay, accompanied by extensive biographical notes on Wollstonecraft. Correspondence includes an 1879 letter from an elderly Shaker sister criticizing the celibate life, three letters from Jay Chaapel to his first wife, Calphurnia Crofut, a few letters of other family members, including his children (Harry, Ralph, and Belle Chaapel), and one letter from Jacob Sechler Coxey to Belle Chaapel concerning the death of John Basil Barnhill.
Chaplin, Ralph, 1887-1961.
Publicist for the Industrial Workers of the World; labor activist, poet, artist, and editor of Solidarity (1917), Industrial Worker (1932-36), Voice of the Federation (1937), and Labor Advocate (1941-45). The collection includes correspondence, some addressed to his wife, Edith, and his son, Ivan; his autograph album containing an IWW prison song and autographs of fellow prisoners in Cook County Jail, 1917; notes on the 1918 Chicago IWW trial; drafts of poems written while imprisoned at Leavenworth Penitentiary, 1918-23; an open letter to President Harding from 52 IWW members in Leavenworth who refused to apply for individual clemency, 1922; a photostat of Digest of California criminal syndicalism cases, written by the California branch of the IWW's General Defense Committee, 1926; and a report by A. W. Curtis on the Centralia, Washington, trial of IWW lumbermen. The papers also concern the publication of his pamphlets and books, and the organization, activities, and publications of Technocracy, Inc., a group promoting the technocracy movement, 1933-34. Among the correspondents are Roger N. Baldwin, Eugene Debs, John Dos Passos, Enrique Flores Magon, William D. Haywood, Ammon Hennacy, William Knight, and Upton Sinclair.
Citizens Committee for Constitutional Liberties.
Established to work for repeal of the McCarran Act and other legislation authorizing surveillance of political activities. Files of executive secretary Miriam Friedlander, including correspondence with Committee members, other civil liberties organizations, and members of Congress, and drafts of publications, press releases, and speeches. Correspondents include Lee H. Ball, Carl Braden, Gus Hall, Linus Pauling, Norman Thomas, and Willis Uphaus.
Cohen, Joseph Jacob, 1878-1953.
Founder and secretary, 1933-1936, of Sunrise Co-operative Farm Community, a libertarian collectivist colony established in Alicia, Michigan, 1933-1938, and reestablished in Samos, Virginia, 1938-1940. Personal and official correspondence of Cohen and his successor as secretary, Philip Trupin, concerning efforts to obtain assistance for the struggling community, sale of the farm to the government, a suit by dissatisfied members, and reorganizing the community in Virginia; reports; proposals; court proceedings; and a manuscript of Cohen's book about the community, In Quest of Heaven. Correspondents include Zenas C. Dickinson, William Haber, Glenn S. Kies, Martin H. Sharrer, and Merton L. Wright. The principal collection of Sunrise records is located in the Michigan Historical Collections, The University of Michigan.
Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell
Circular letters, appeals for support, article reprints, pamphlets, brochures, correspondence handwritten notes of Douglas Gordon, head of the Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell.
Cook, Cassius V., 1879-1950.
Anarchist, writer, publisher, and businessman. The collection includes an autobiographical essay, correspondence, essays, articles, clippings, and ephemeral literature relating to Cook's involvement in libertarian, rationalist, labor, and cooperative organizations; his business dealings; his work as publicist for Tom Mooney and the Industrial Workers Defense League; a Canadian miners' strike; unorthodox medical treatments; and unsuccessful attempts by the [Rudolf] Rocker Publications Committee to publish Thomas Bell's book Oscar Wilde without Whitewash. Also included is a lengthy, handwritten "Notice to the Wage Workers of Canada" by Robert Gosden announcing the dissolution of the Miners' Liberation League in 1914. Correspondence to Cook and to his wife, Sadie, is from Margaret C. Anderson, Theodore Debs, Henry Olerich, Lucy Parsons, Ben Reitman, Milly and Rudolf Rocker, Parker Sercombe, and others, including Clyde Cook while living in St. Petersburg, Russia, from May 1914 to September 1915.
Crew, Louie, 1936-
Gay activist, poet, and teacher of English. The papers consist of correspondence, writings, subject files, miscellaneous printed matter, photos, books, and journals documenting Crew's professional activities as a professor of English composition and author of scholarly articles and poetry. The central focus is Crew's gay activism, especially in the context of the Episcopal Church and the academic community. Organizations well represented in the collection include the Gay Academic Union, Black and White Men Together, the Gay People's Union of the University of Wisconsin, and the National Council of Teachers of English. A good deal of the correspondence and subject files relate to his involvement with Integrity, an Episcopal forum for gay rights which Crew founded, and whose journal, Integrity, he edited. Crew's activism extended to work for the equal rights of blacks and women as well as for better treatment of gays in prison. The correspondence includes letters with inmates, particularly John L. Natkie. Other subjects include Crew's discrimination suit against American University and the pervasive discrimination he faced in housing and employment. Additions to the collection are anticipated.
Student activist at The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Cushway's papers consist of correspondence, notes, and research material regarding the local People's Bicentennial Commission, the Indochina Peace Campaign, and various radical movements at the University.
Michigan-born anarchist, poet, lecturer, writer, and teacher. The collection contains correspondence, poems, essays, photos, biographical information, her obituary, commentaries on subjects in the news, and newspaper accounts of a speech she gave in 1908 to unemployed Italians, Jews, and blacks in Philadelphia and the ensuing riot. Correspondents include her mother Harriet E. DeClaire, Sister Mary Imelda, members of the Livshis family, Dyer Lum, Hugh Pentecost, Adelaide Thayer, and Lemuel Washburn.
Correspondence of Professor William Denton (1823-1883) of Wellesley, Massachusetts, his wife Elizabeth M. Foote Denton, other family members, and Josephine Tilton; photos; and a memorandum by Dr. Bertha Johnson identifying Denton family members. The collection also includes Josephine Tilton's autograph album, which contains inscriptions by authors, reformers, and anarchists; two copies of The Word; and correspondence, obituaries, and newspaper clippings relating to the anarchist Ezra Heywood, a free speech and free press advocate who was imprisoned in the 1870s for sending "obscene" material through the mail. Among the correspondents are Theodore Debs, Moses Harman, Angela Heywood, Dyer Lum, Archibald H. Simpson, and Edwin C. Walker.
Doree, E.F., 1889-1927
General Secretary of the Textile Workers Union of the Industrial Workers of the World, sentenced to ten years at Leavenworth Prison for violation of the war time Espionage Act; pardoned by Warren G. Harding in 1922. The collection contains corresponde nce, depositions, newspaper clippings, Dorees original pardon document signed by Warren G. Harding, bond receipts, one issue of the Leavenworth Bulletin (8/18/22), lists of arrestees, some printed materials, and 16 original photographs. There are 247 letters from Doree to his wife, Chiky (Ida), during his imprisonment, and 17 letters from others relating to his case and the case of Walter Nef, Dorees brother-in-law, who was convicted of the same charges and sentenced to twenty years. There are also le tters from Frank OHare and Kate Richards OHare.
Secretary of the Thomas Paine Memorial Association. The collection consists of letters from Voltairine De Cleyre, Alden Freeman, Emma Goldman, William Van der Weyde, and others, covering a variety of topics, but including De Cleyre's speaking engagements in Massachusetts in 1894 and Goldman's plans for a week in Philadelphia in 1901 and her availability as a speaker.
Engdahl, J. Louis
Correspondence, writings, photographs, personal papers, clippings, artwork, print material, flyers, leaflets, one poster, and other documents, relating to the life and work of journalist J. Louie Engdahl, editor of the Chicago Daily Socialist, the American Socialist, and the Daily World. Also included are documents relating to the Chicago Socialist trial of 1918, in which Engdahl and others were convicted of violation of the Espionage Act of 1917, including five volumes of typed transcripts of the original trial, a bound version of the brief for an appeal, and photocopies of subsequent accounts of the case. Also included are clippings, photographs, correspondence, and writings, relating to Engdahl's work and travels on behalf of the Scottsboro defense effort.
Fabijanovic, Stephanus, 1868-1933.
Slavic immigrant baker, hobo, and writer. Correspondence of Fabijanovic and his wife, writings, photos, newspaper clippings, and an obituary of Fabijanovic from Freedom relate to his philosophical and anarchist thought, a bakery and confectionery workers' union, the publication and distribution of his papers, his travels, and personal matters. Among the correspondents are Louis Adamic, John B. Barnhill, Norman Beard, natural pathologist Otto Brunner, Karl Dopf, Enrique Flores Magon, Wilhelm Fox, Charlotte Francke-Pellon, Emma Goldman, Rudolf Grossman, Max Metzkow, Max Nettlau, Carl Nold, Nicholas Petanovic, Charles L. Robinson, Rudolf Rocker, Stefan Zweig, and family members. The papers are in English, French, German, Hungarian, and Serbo-Croatian.
Fellowship of Freedom.
Loosely-organized freethinker and libertarian group that promoted the interchange of ideas about issues such as the single tax and anarchism, and listed among its thirteen members at the time of formal organization in 1912 Herman Kuehn, Joseph Labadie, W. P. "Bil" Tubbs, Al G. Wagner, and Austin W. Wright. The collection contains correspondence, notes, and writings of members; circular letters; a list of members; newspaper clippings; and a copy of the Egoist. The group's two publications, Fellowship Clearing House and Instead of a Magazine, dating from 1915 and 1916, are located with the Labadie Collections printed works.
Feminist Federal Credit Union
Articles, notes, correspondence, brochures, histories, position papers, relating to the Feminist Federal Credit Union, Feminist Economic Network, Detroit Women’s City Club, and the Feminist Women’s Health Center, of Detroit.
Fifth Estate. Detroit.
Among the first of the underground newspapers, the Fifth Estate began publishing in Detroit in 1965 focusing on topics such as youth culture and rebellion, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War, music, sex, the riots of 1967, police abuse, and Black activism in Detroit. The paper continued to evolve, devoting issues to feminism and gay lifestyles as the women's and gay rights movements gained momentum. Coverage of labor issues in the early 1970s was especially noteworthy. By 1980, it focused on a critique of modern industrial society, and began devoting extensive coverage to the radical environmental movement, anti-technology, anti-civilization, and anarcho-primitivism. In the fall of 2002, the Fifth Estate’s operations moved to Pumpkin Hollow, a rural commune near Nashville, Tennessee, with editorial offices and a new Fifth Estate bookstore. The Detroit staff continue to contribute articles, and oversee the business operations of the paper. The records date primarily from the mid-1980s to the late 1990s and include correspondence, publishing material, business and office records, topical files, photographs, and miscellaneous anarchist and social protest material.
Freie Arbeiter Stimme, New York.
Drafts of articles submitted for publication in this New York-based Yiddish anarchist journal, including one each by Thomas Bell, Harry Kelly, Anatol' Konse, Max Nomad, and Rudolf Rocker; four by Augustin Souchy; nine by Max Nettlau; and seven articles and 37 "Lettres de France" by Christian Cornelissen.
Papers of Gaede, a Unitarian minister, include correspondence with Helen Sobell and others, speeches, notes, reports of tours, poems by Helen Sobell, and photos relating to Gaede's efforts on behalf of Morton Sobell, who was convicted of espionage in 1951 along with Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
Gold, Mike, 1893-1967/Mike Folsom, 1938-1990.
Mike Gold (Irwin Granich) was a Communist writer, novelist, playwright, critic, and editor of the New Masses. The collection consists of correspondence, writings, biographical materials, notes, journals, photographs, and other materials relating to the life and work of Mike Gold. Folsom was an English professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who worked very closely with Gold during the last years of Gold's life and afterwards to produce Mike Gold: a Literary Anthology in 1972, and a number of other works in the field of proletarian literature and literary criticism. The papers of both men were originally interspersed upon arrival to the Special Collections Library. Although some efforts have been made to separate and identify the works and papers of the two men within the collection, the various materials of each man became enmeshed during their collaborative efforts in ways that have been preserved through the processing effort in order to fully convey the meaning of the work and exchanges which took place between them.
Goldman, Emma, 1869-1940.
Anarchist lecturer and writer, birth control advocate, and founder and editor of Mother Earth. The collection contains photocopies of correspondence, 1913-1932, between Goldman and Agnes Inglis, the originals of which are at the International Institute for Social History in Amsterdam; correspondence with Roger Baldwin, Harry Kelly, Eugene Lyons, Max Nettlau, Kate R. O'Hare, Ben Reitman, Bertrand Russell, Augustin Souchy, and others; essays by and about Goldman, including her recollections of Voltairine De Cleyre; reviews and other materials concerning her autobiography, Living My Life; circular letters distributed by Mother Earth; and newspaper clippings. The papers chiefly concern lecture tours, activities in support of anarchists and revolutionaries, particularly in Russia, England, and Spain, her response to reviews of Living My Life, the illness and death of Alexander Berkman, and mutual friends and acquaintances. The papers are in English, German, and Spanish.
Goldman, Emma (1869-1940)/Virginia Hersch (1896-?)
The collection includes letters from Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman to the Americans Virginia and Lee Hersch in Paris dating June 1930 to March 1934. All but one of the Goldman letters were written from "Bon Esprit" in St. Tropez (the last letter was written after Goldman moved to London). The Berkman letters were written from Nice, France. In addition, the collection holds a memo reviewing Goldman's Living My Life (undated), a limited edition of Voltairine de Cleyre inscribed by Emma Goldman for Virginia Hersch, and a 20-page booklet of letters of appreciation for Berkman's sixtieth birthday celebration in 1930.
Goodhue, F. M., 1870?
Goodhue was an early member of Commonwealth Colony in New Llano, Louisiana, and an official of Commonwealth College, a cooperative, democratic labor school in Mena, Arkansas, founded in 1923 by Kate Richards O'Hare and William E. Zeuch. The papers include correspondence, articles, newspaper clippings, and an extensive typescript by Goodhue on the history of the Colony and the College. They document the early years of the College, dissension among the faculty over the sexual conduct of students, a student strike, and dissolution and sale of the College in 1940-41.
Goodman, Judith (Singer), 1881-1943.
The papers consist of the correspondence of Goodman, a Russian immigrant anarchist, chiefly with her brother-in-law in Russia, I. Geitsman, regarding conditions while a prisoner in Vilna, Lithuania, around 1910, and family matters. Other correspondents include Goodman's husband, Sholom, and daughters, Liza and Sara, as well as Nikolai Chaikovskii, I. O. Kryshalovich, J. de Wit, and Sophie Kropotkin, the last discussing the collection of funds for the relief of imprisoned and deported Russian anarchists. Also included is her memoir of the anarchist movement in Russia, 1904-1907, a short biography of Goodman by her daughter, Sara, and six photos of Russian anarchists, most killed or deported during the Revolution of 1905 and the ensuing pogroms. The papers are in English, Russian, and Yiddish.
Graham, Marcus, pseud.
Marcus Graham was the pseudonym of Shmuel Marcus (1893-?), Rumanian-born editor of the anarchist journal Man!, which was published from 1933 to 1940. His papers include letters from Michael A. Cohen, Frederick J. Gould, Bolton Hall, and Henry J. Stuart, and two essays by Steven T. Byington, "Why is a War?" and "Benjamin Ricketson Tucker," all marked for apparent publication in Man!, a letter from Max Metzkow enclosing an anarchist leaflet about the Homestead Strike circulated shortly before the trial of Alexander Berkman, and a letter from D. Alonso concerning the Comite pro Libertad de Prensa Marcus Graham and translating a Graham pamphlet into Spanish.
Collection of materials on the Greek coup d'etat by military leaders in 1967 and the ensuing junta, which continued until 1974. Mostly concerned with the anti-junta struggle, but also present are some materials from the pro-junta viewpoint. Contains correspondence, reports, legislative materials, periodicals, transcripts, press releases, pamphlets, essays, clippings, programs and invitations, and biographical sketches. Primarily in English.
Grenell, Judson, 1847-1930.
Detroit socialist, labor activist, and newspaperman. Grenell's papers consist of letters from Joseph Labadie regarding his family history, health, printing shop, and daily activities; correspondence with Detroit city attorney John B. Corliss, John M. McGregor, William Ziegenfuss, and others; articles; essays; biographical notes; circulars for the Michigan Site-Value-Tax League; and a copy of and statements in support of the 1882 platform of the Detroit Council of Trades and Labor Unions . The papers chiefly concern Grenell's activities with the labor movement, especially in Detroit, his interests in agriculture, economics, and taxation, and his studies of leaders in these fields, including Henry George, Joseph A. Labadie, John M. McGregor, and Roy W. Sellars.
An anarchist poet, author, and prison activist, Harp was also a founder of Anarchist Black Dragon Collective, an underground prison political group, and Men Against Sexism, which was organized to protect homosexual prisoners. The letters, written by Harp while incarcerated in San Quentin and in Washington State Prison, concern appeals of his conviction, political ideas, his efforts to improve prison conditions, and prison events. Also included are letters by a prison official and others, an explanatory memo by Allen, and a flyer protesting Harp's murder in prison.
Copies of documents from the National Archives and the Library of Congress documenting the business relationship between W. Averell Harriman, George Herbert Walker, and Prescott Bush, who served as U.S. partners of, and private bankers for, Nazi industrialist Fritz Thyssen, the financial architect of The Third Reich.
Heikkila, William, Case Records
Born in 1906 in Finland, William Kaino Heikkila was raised in the U.S. He was active in labor unions and joined the Communist Party USA in the early 1930s. Although he left the Party in 1939, he remained an active member of the Northern California Committee for Protection of Foreign Born (q.v.). In 1958 he was arrested and deported without a hearing under the McCarran-Walter Act. He was returned and released shortly afterwards, however, the ensuing trials continued for the rest of his life. The collection includes correspondence, legal proceedings, publicity, and other materials relating to William Heikkila, who was deported under the McCarran-Walter Act, and his subsequent return to the United States. Heikkila was aided in his defense by the Northern California Committee for Protection of Foreign Born.
Heinzen, Karl Peter, 1809-1880.
Heinzen, a German refugee of 1848-49, was a radical author and lecturer and, from 1854 to 1879, editor of Der Pionier. Correspondence relating to Der Pionier, his efforts to prevent confirmation of Col. Ludwig Blenker as brigadier general in the United States Army, and other matters; manuscripts of his poems, lectures, articles, and other works, including Gedichte and Erlebtes; and family papers of his father, Joseph Heinzen, and his wife, Henriette Schiller Heinzen (Schiller and Moras families). Correspondents include Louis Bamberger, Heinrich von Ende, Hugo Erichsen, Ferdinand Freiligrath, Clara Neymann, Karl Roser, Julia A. Sprague, Mathilde F. Wendt, and Franz Zitz. The papers are in German, French, and English, chiefly in old-style German cursive. Many letters are accompanied by transcriptions, translations, or summaries in English.
Hennacy, Ammon (1893-1970)
These papers are particularly significant in their documentation of Hennacy's early years of study, his prison experiences, and his relationships with his family and various close friends, including Dorothy Day. Hennacy's notes and manuscripts document his attentive reading and study habits, while his handwritten "Gospel in Brief" includes his own cross-references (including to Tolstoy) and interpretations of the New Testament (a second volume of this project may be found in the University of Wyoming's American Heritage Center). Hennacy's letters are filled with political and social arguments; they document his constant effort to convince other people of his views. In his personal papers, the notes on travels with Selma Melms in 1921-1925 are rich in detailed descriptions of places visited, people met, and miles traveled. Some of these latter notes appear to be written by Melms.
Holt, Frederick Holford, 1867-1929.
Correspondence, photos, and other material of Detroit businessman Frederick Holt relating to his activities as a member of the Ford Peace Expedition in 1915, as the personal representative of Henry Ford and business manager for the Neut ral Conference for Continuous Mediation in 1916, and with the War Department Commission on Training Camp Activities, 1917, and the Playground and Recreation Association of America, 1917. Papers of his wife, Lilian (Silk) Holt (1869-1949), a women's suffragist and philanthropist, include a speech and correspondence, primarily about the Woman's Peace Party, 1915-1916. Among the correspondents are Henry Ford and Hungarian writer and feminist Rosika Schwimmer.
The letters, all in Russian and addressed to Holtz in Los Angeles, are from seven Russian political dissidents who had received money and the promise of reading material from Holtz. The letters give brief descriptions of the authors' desolation and great financial need, and illness among the children. The writers are L. L. Blomets, Andrei N. Kalachev, V. Khudolei, A. A. Kolemasov, Anatol' Konse, Raia V. Shul'man, and Nikolai Tushanov. Accompanied by partial translations.
Professor Paul Ilie’s collection of newspaper clippings from American, Spanish and French newspapers during the years 1960-1975. Also included is a manuscript written by Ilie and submitted to Praeger Publishers. The clippings cover all aspects of Spanish political life including labor unrest, political organizations, the Basque separatist trial, Franco’s politics, and related issues in Spain and internationally.
Inglis, Agnes, 1870-1952.
Inglis, an anarchist, settlement worker, and friend of Joseph Labadie, was the first curator of the Labadie Collection, 1924-1952. Correspondence, memoirs, diaries, research notes, articles, essays, and administrative files reflect Inglis's friendships with other anarchists, labor leaders, and radicals; her efforts to obtain papers, records, and information for the Labadie Collection; her dealings with researchers and writers; and other work related to the Labadie Collection. Her extensive research notes and papers on Josiah Warren and John Bray are included. Among the correspondents are Irving Abrams, Emile Armand, Roger Baldwin, John Beffel, David A. Boyd, Ralph Chaplin, John Cherney, Henry Cohen, Joseph J. Cohen, Cassius Cook, Harry De Cleyre, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Emma Goldman, Marcus Graham, Judson Grenell, Ammon Hennacy, Joseph Ishill, Bertha Johnson, Thomas Keell, Harry Kelly, Leon Kramer, Li Fei-kan , Max Metzkow, Carl Nold, Siegfried Rolland, Joseph Slight, Wallace Stegner, P earl Johnson Tucker, Warren Starr Van Valkenburgh, and Victor S. Yarros. There is also extensive correspondence with Joseph Labadie and his son Laurance.
International Furniture Workers Union of America, Local No. 7, New York.
Bound volumes of Protokoll der Versammlung, International Mobel-Arbeiter Union, containing minutes, union literature, and newspaper clippings. This local remained aloof from the 1895 amalgamation of the Furniture Workers Union and the Machine Wood Workers International Union into the Amalgamated Wood Workers International Union of America. The local joined the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners in 1900. Prominent subjects in the minutes are this merger and a jurisdictional con flict between the Amalgamated Wood Workers and the United Brotherhood.
Johnson, Oakley, 1890-1976.
Professor of English at The University of Michigan, Long Island University, City College of New York, New York Workers School, and elsewhere. The collection contains correspondence, reminiscences, campus publications, photos, and notes concerning the Negro-Caucasian Club at The University of Michigan, of which Johnson was faculty advisor in the 1920s; papers and a tape recording of the Club's 1969 reunion; correspondence, pamphlets, statements, reports, and student publications relating to the Liberal Club of the City College of New York, 1930-1932, Johnson's dismissal from the College, in part because he was faculty advisor of the Club, and the ensuing protests. Biographical material, a manuscript on Nazism, and research materials are also among the papers.
The papers include Kaczynski's correspondence from over 400 people since his arrest in April 1996, some of his carbon-copied replies as well as some legal documents, publications, and clippings. The collection is expected to grow. The names of most correspondents will be kept sealed until 2049.
Kramer, Aaron, 1921-1997.
Poet, translator, and teacher, who pursued both personal and political themes in his writing, including racism, war, imperialism, and economic inequality, Kramer engaged in correspondence with many other writers, and was intrigued by Yiddish working class poets, translating many of their works into English. He also wrote or translated the lyrics, which composers put to music. He was one of the early practitioners of poetry therapy, which used poetry to heal physical and psychological ailments. The papers consist of extensive (mainly incoming) correspondence from artists, editors, publishers, and scholars, notes, collaborations, works, biographical materials for a number of writers and composers, and audio/visual materials.
Kuehn, Herman, 1853-1918.
Freethinker, writer, orator, and businessman; editor of Fellowship Clearing House, Instead of a Magazine, and The Great Adventure. Consists chiefly of letters to Fay Lewis, a businessman in Rockford, Ill., but also include s correspondence with Bolton Hall, Henry Cohen, Louis F. Post, George A. Schilling, John Shillady, Clarence L. Swartz, Austin W. Wright, and others. The letters deal largely with definitions of terms used in their writings, e.g., freedom, duty, anarchism, ownership, liberty, etc., as well as discussions of social and political events, Kuehn's publication of Instead of a Magazine, and business affairs. Mentioned are Benjamin Tucker, Moses Harman, and Jo Labadie. Also included is an essay by Kuehn on the concept of natural rights.
A Michigan anarchist, labor leader, printer, editor, poet, and writer on social and economic reform, Labadie organized the first Michigan branch of the Knights of Labor (also known as the Washington Literary Society) and helped found the Michigan Federation of Labor, of which he became the first president. The collection contains correspondence with state and national labor leaders and with publishers and writers for anarchist, socialist, and labor journals; manuscripts of his articles, speeches, and poems; family papers; photos; circulars; print shop materials; and autobiographical notes. Also included are Agnes Inglis's biographical notes on Joseph and Sophie Labadie and autobiographical writings solicited by Labadie from various anarchists. Among the many correspondents are Henry Carter Adams Emile Armand, Charles E. Barnes, Thomas B. Barry, Alexander Berkman, Henry Bool, Steven T. Byington, Henry Cohen, Eugene V. Debs, Voltairine De Cleyre, Henry George, Emma Goldman, Samuel Gompers , William C. Green, Judson Grenell, Edgar Albert Guest, Moses Harman, Hippolyte Havel, Elizabeth S. Hitchcock, Agnes Inglis, Herman Kuehn, Thomas Lacey, J. William Lloyd, Dyer Lum, Carl Nold, Terence V. Powderly, Henry P. Replogle, Benjamin Tucker, Ross Winn, and Victor Yarros.
Labadie, Laurance, 1898-1975.
Labadie was an anarchist writer and theorist and the son of Joseph Labadie. His papers consist of correspondence on philosophical and personal matters; essays and notes on economic theory and the philosophy of anarchism; a journal he edited called Discussion; notebooks; family papers; sound recordings; photos; and anarchist and libertarian pamphlets, newsletters, and writings. Also included are letters, articles, and publications reflecting Labadie's association with the School of Living, in Suffern, New York, a decentralist organization that promoted homesteading and adult education, and its Brookville, Ohio, branch called Lane's End, which was run by Mildred and John Loomis. Among the correspondents are Steven Byington, Henry Cohen, Marcus Graham, Agnes Inglis, John William Lloyd, Mildred and John Loomis, Herbert Roseman, Theodore Schroeder, John Scott, Benjamin Tucker, and Don Werkheiser.
Langbord, Eva, 1910?-1999.
The eldest daughter of Morris Langbord, a Toronto-based Jewish anarchist, Eva was a child when she met Emma Goldman. The collection consists mainly of documents belonging to and relating to Emma Goldman. Included are identification papers (Goldman's Russian passport, her U.S. citizenship document, and various other identification cards from France, Germany, and England), publishing contracts, legal documents, and some letters. Additional material includes clippings saved by Eva Langbord, correspondence, and photographs. Also contains two affidavits signed by the Rabbi who performed the marriage ceremony between Goldman and Jacob Kerschner in February 1887, as well as affidavits signed by Helene Hochstein and Sam Cominsky, who witnessed the marriage. The publishing contracts for Emma Goldman include those for The Autobiography of Emma Goldman, My Disillusionment in Russia, and The Voyage of the Buford. The collection also includes materials of Alexander Berkman, including his handwritten last will, signed 11/22/35, and three portraits of Goldman, including one taken by Eugene Hutchinson (Chicago) and one signed by S. Flechine (Paris). The third portrait is signed by Goldman.
Langbord, Morris, 1880-1964.
Jewish anarchist born in Disna, Russia, in 1880. Immigrated to London in 1900, where he met Rudolf Rocker and became a member of the Anarchist Group. Immigrated to Toronto in 1903 and joined the Anarchist Group in Toronto, as well as supporting the Freie Arbeter Shtimme. The Langbord family hosted many visitors, including Rocker and Emma Goldman. One of the founders of the Hod Carriers Union in Toronto, Langbord later went into the wrecking and lumber businesses. The bulk of the collection is in Yiddish and consists of correspondence and publications of the Workmens Circle, Jewish Labor Committee, Canadian Jewish Congress, Rocker Publications Committee and others.
The Leaping Lesbian collective was formed in Ann Arbor in 1976 by four women and funded by the UM Student Government, out of a "need for the original writings of local lesbians to be made generally available to the lesbian community." Their first newsletter was published in 1977, and continued until 1980, when its circulation reached 300 subscribers throughout the U.S.. The Leaping Lesbian published poetry, articles, essays and letters on political, social, legal and sexual issues. The records consist of the contributed writings, press releases, lay-outs, photographs, correspondence, meeting agendas and minutes, and financial and legal materials of the collective.
Lloyd, John William, 1857-1940.
Lloyd, a poet, writer, doctor, and editor of Free Comrade, was known as the "drugless physician." The collection contains typed manuscripts of his unpublished writings, including Harold Brey, a Romance of Sincerity (1931); The Island of Delgar, an Iridescent Mystery [n.d.]; "A Brief Definition of the Larger Love" (1929); "Woman and the Larger Love" (1933); and "New Ideals in Love" (1926), a lecture delivered before the Workers' Forum of Los Angeles, California. Also included is Chatting with J. William Lloyd, a 1934 biography by Robert P. Beck that discusses Lloyd's medical work, writings, association with a spiritualist commune in Florida, and friends and acquaintances. It also contains photos and a bibliography of Lloyd's writings.
Lum, Dyer Daniel, 1840?-1893.
Poet, writer, and, after the imprisonment of Albert Parsons, editor of The Alarm, an anarchist paper published in Chicago. The collection consists of poems by Lum, his essay, "Evolutional Ethics: a Critical Inquiry Concerning the Basis of Morals," and a newspaper clipping about an address on anarchism that he gave in Chicago in 1890. Also included are two letters and a poem by Adolph Fischer. The letters (one in German) were both written from Cook County Jail where Fischer was im prisoned following the Haymarket Square riot of 1886.
The collection contains primarily administrative materials surrounding the daily business of the Mattachine Society's Regional Council of Detroit, founded in 1957, which sought to actively organize Michigan homosexuals. Includes budget information, meeting minutes, membership information, workshop materials, notes, correspondence, articles, flyers, newsletters, typescripts, and press releases.
Menz, Hermann, 1829?-1919.
Detroit stonecutter. The scrapbook, entitled "Menzes Teufel," contains newspaper clippings about a replica of a gargoyle Menz erected at his home, letters from James B. Elliott and others in the United States and abroad who believed tha t the gargoyle was a monument to the devil, and a play entitled Vindication that was written by John Henry Greaves after hearing the story. Also in the scrapbook are newspaper clippings and other papers concerning Menz's unsuccessful campaign for a lderman from Detroit's Tenth Ward and a copy of a constitution and bylaws of the Society of Journeymen Stonecutters of Detroit, 1887.
Metzkow, Max, 1854-1945.
German immigrant typesetter and anarchist. The papers consist of correspondence, some in old-style German cursive (many with translations), and notebooks and "Prison Memories" (in shorthand) written while Metzkow was imprisoned in Germany for provoking disobedience in the military. Correspondents include Henry Bauer, Thomas Keell, and Claus Timmerman, who enclosed copies of letters by Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman.
This is a group of collectionsmost of which are unprocessedconsisting of only a single item or a few items. The correspondence, articles, essays, plays, and other materials that make up this group cover a wide variety of topics, but the subjects best represented are labor, anarchism, and the Spanish Civil War. The following description highlights a few of the more significant papers and records; it is by no means exhaustive.
Several items relate to the Industrial Workers of the World, including letters written by imprisoned IWW members to Mary Gallagher and others in the early 1920s; a 1914 speech by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn about the strike in Paterson, New Jersey; a 1917 letter about an IWW raid in Detroit; an issue of the Can Opener, which was put out by IWW prisoners in Cook County Jail, Chicago, in 1917; and minutes of IWW locals representing metal and machinery workers, 1910s and 1920s.
Among other materials on the subject of labor are financial records and newspaper clippings describing meetings of the Detroit Council of Trades and Labor Unions, 1880s and 1890s; a brief history of the International Working People's Association and the 1883 Pittsburgh Congress at which it was founded; one letter regarding the Trade Union Educational League, 1922, and two regarding the Unemployed Association, 1934; typescripts on strikes and union activities by Harlan County, Kentucky, miners in the 1920s and 1930s; and letters by Eugene Debs, Theodore Debs, Terence Powderly, and Rose Pastor Stokes. Of particular interest is correspondence of industrial espionage agencies in the 1910s and 1920s and related correspondence between Agnes Inglis and the National Labor Relations Board concerning an investigation in the 1930s of spies hired by employers to disrupt union organizing efforts.
Papers relating to anarchism include a 1921 report to the Anarchist Burial Commission; a 1919 issue of the Ellis Island Anarchist Weekly, put out by someone awaiting deportation because of anarchist activities; a Rose Pesotta typescript on Sacco and Vanzetti; and letters by Alexander Berkman, Lucy Parsons, Ben Reitman, and Bartolomeo Vanzetti.
There is also a fair amount of material on the Spanish Civil War, including correspondence of Maximilian Olay and the Spanish Labor Press Bureau and of Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista. There are a few items on women's reform activism, including a biographical sketch and a 1901 essay by feminist Kate Austin; a 1920 letter by Alice Stone Blackwell; a typescript by Elizabeth S. Hitchcock on the women's movement and the Ford Peace Expedition, ca. 1915; and Rosika Schwimmer's 1927 pet ition for naturalization. Finally, there is considerable correspondence between Labadie staff and donors; scattered items on the Ku Klux Klan; a letter written by John A. Hoxie from Brook Farm; and material on many other people and subjects reflecting the scope of the Labadie's collecting policy.
Morris, James Oliver, 1923-
Professor of labor relations, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University. The collection consists of correspondence with John N. Beffel, Ralph Chaplin, Wallace Stegner, and others regarding Morris's research on IWW member Joe Hill, and two versions of Morris's manuscript, The Joe Hill Case.
Mrachnyi, a Russian immigrant anarchist, who at various times went by the surnames Clevans, Klavansky, and Mratchny, was editor of Freie Arbeiter Stimme in the 1930s. The papers consist of correspondence relating to personal matters and editorial work, three radiograms reporting on the Spanish Civil War, some miscellaneous documents, and six circulars and one manifesto of the Association Internationale des Travailleurs. Correspondents include Petr Arshinov, Roger Baldwin, Alexander Berkman, Pierre Besnard, Abe Bluestein, Christian Cornelissen, Grigorii Maksimov, Max Nettlau, Rudolf Rocker, Helmut Rudiger, Alexander Schapiro, Augustin Souchy, and Boris Yelensky. Also in the collection are 40 letters by Emma Goldman, including open letters to Freie Arbeiter Stimme concerning the campaign to save Arthur Bortolotti from deportation and a statement regarding funds collected for Spanish refugees. The papers are in English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish, and Yiddish, with the Russian and Yiddish items accompanied by translahons.
Greg Mutz – Phoenix Program.
Letters, photographs, reports, diaries, memos, maps, and charts pertaining to Mutz’s activities as a U.S. Army soldier in the Phoenix Program in Vietnam from November 1968-November 1969. In Vietnamese and English.
National Transgender Library & Archive.
Papers of this German immigrant anarchist include correspondence, an essay entitled "Six Pathfinders," and court documents for indictments of Henry Bauer and Carl Nold by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the 1892 cases resulting from the attempted assassination of Henry C. Frick by Alexander Berkman. Among the correspondents are Hippolyte Havel, A. Isaac, Harry M. Kelly, Kate Rotchek, as well as Lucy Parsons, whose letters concern anarchists, the International Labor Defense, and criticism of Emma Goldman's autobiography. Also included are poems and an essay by Robert Reitzel, a photo, and a scrapbook about Reitzel's death. The papers are in English and German.
Northern California Committee for Protection of Foreign Born (NCCPFB)
The Northern California Committee for Protection of Foreign Born (NCCPFB), formed in 1940 and headquartered in San Francisco, was a regional branch organization of the ACPFB. It carried out its activities on a local and regional scale, focusing mainly on the cases of foreign-born individuals residing in the area, but also lending attention and support to the activities and causes of the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born (q.v.) itself, including conferences, cases, and publications. The collection contains correspondence, publicity, legal proceedings, financial documents, cases, memorandum, minutes, conference programs and proceedings, petitions, news clippings, various publications, speeches, articles, legal documents, legislative materials, etc. relating to the NCCPFB and its activities.
Poet and writer, farmer in Macon County, N.C. The letters, all to Louis Prang (1824-1909) except two which are to Karl F. Heinzen, Prang's son-in-law, concern the publication of his articles in Radical Review, The North American, and other journals, the preparation of writings on materialism vs. spiritualism and on the dangers of Catholicism, especially plots directed from Rome, the importance of secular public education, the possibilities of the lecture circuit, farming, and kindnesses extended to O'Byrne by benefactors, including Prang.
Orbach, Harold L.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, anti-war and civil rights activist, and later, professor of sociology at Kansas State University. The papers contain correspondence and print and near-print material in English and French dealing chiefly with anti-Vietnam War activities, particularly arrangements for the International Conference on Alternative Perspectives on Vietnam (1965: Ann Arbor, Mich.), and efforts of the Voters' Voice for Peace, an organization concerned with civil rights in Ann Arbor. Also include subject files on the University of Puerto Rico student strikes of 1948, and the second annual congress of the U. S. National Student Association (1949: Urbana, Ill.). Correspondents include Ruth Lassoff, Ajit Singh, and Peter Townsend.
Orr, Lois (Curter), 1917-
American journalists and translators who worked in Barcelona, Spain, during the Spanish Civil War (Sept. 1936 - July 1937), Lois in a propaganda office and Charles issuing English language bulletins and translating articles from La Batalla, newspaper of the socialist group Partido Obrero de Unificacion Marxista. After being arrested and imprisoned, they fled to Paris, returning to the U.S. around 1939. The papers consist of correspondence with family and friends concerning experiences and acquaintances in Spain, and articles reviewing political and military conditions, many intended for publication in the Socialist Call. Also included are four versions of L. Orr's unpublished memoir, Spain 1936-1937: A Short History of the Spanish Revolution, a taped interview with L. Orr made by Paul Garon in 1983, and printed flyers, pamphlets, and clippings, most dating from 1936-39. Correspondents include Russell Blackwell, Clarence Senior, Gus Tyler, and others. The papers are in English, Spanish, German, and French.
Phillips was an American reformer, a prominent abolitionist (from 1837), and president of Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society (1865-70), as well as an author. The collection includes 98 letters (four signed by Ann Phillips) 10 autographed sentiments signed, four sepia-toned albumen photographs and one engraved portrait of Phillips. There is correspondence with many famous abolitionists, including Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Ellis Gray Loring, Samuel J May, James Redpath, F.B. Sanborn, John Wingate Thornton, and Theodore Tilton. The content of the letters covers both business (as it related to Phillips law practice, his lecture circuit, and the Anti-Slavery Society), and personal matters. In addition there are 5 photograph and print portraits of Phillips, all in good condition.
Pioneer Aid and Support Association, Chicago.
Minutes of this organization which was particularly concerned with the Haymarket Square riot (1886) and the memory of the anarchists convicted and sentenced to death for their association with that event. Included are lists of names and court actions related to unions, treasurer's reports, and newspaper clippings. The records are written in old-style German cursive until 1943.
Pokorny, John E.
Assistant to Harry Bennett in personnel and security for Ford Motor Company and active in the National Sojourners and other patriotic and veterans organizations in the 1930s. His papers include minutes of meetings of allegedly communist organizations in the Detroit area and of the Civil Rights League, which Pokorny infiltrated; lists of "known communists" in the Detroit area in 1932 compiled by the U.S. Department of Labor; a report, "Radicalism in the University of Michigan" (ca. 1939) ; and notes and correspondence regarding his investigation for Ford of communist infiltration of labor unions and his cooperation with congressional committees investigating subversive activities.
Porn Imagery. Carol Jacobsen.
Correspondence, press clippings, published materials, conference files, 35 photographs, protest and reinstallation materials, and 12 videotapes documenting the "Porn Imagery: Picturing Prostitutes" exhibit, curated by Carol Jacobsen at the University of Michigan Law School in October, 1992. The exhibit addressed issues of prostitution, pornography, and sex work and was mounted at the invitation of the Michigan Journal of Gender and Law in conjunction with a conference also hosted by the journal called, "Prostitution: from Academia to Activism." A controversy surrounding the exhibit resulted in its being censored by student organizers of the conference, and after much negotiating, the exhibit was finally reinstalled in the Law School in 1993. The bulk of correspondence deals with the controversy and reinstallation negotiations, including several letters between American Civil Liberties Union attorney, Marjorie Heins and University of Michigan Law School Dean, Lee C. Bollinger.
Power, Eugene B., 1905-
Founder and executive of University Microfilms, which merged with Xerox Corporation in 1962; director of Xerox Corporation, 1962-68; and regent of The University of Michigan, 1956-66. The collection consists entirely of photocopies of letters written to Power and other executives at Xerox protesting the corporation's sponsorship of a series of television programs about the United Nations. Many letters cite two books, None Dare Call It Treason by John A. Stormer, and The Fearful Master: A Second Look at the United Nations by G. Edward Griffin, as proof that the U. N. was a Communist-run organization and therefore the programs should not be supported by advertising money from Xerox. The papers suggest that the John Birch Society was instrumental in this letter-writing campaign. The principal collection of Power's papers is located at the Michigan Historical Collections, The University of Michigan.
Detroit anarchist Russian-language journal, which united with Delo Truda in 1940 to become Delo Truda - Probuzhdenie. Articles by Christian Cornelissen, Harry M. Kelly, Errico Malatesta, Max Nettlau, Frida Tcherkesoff, and Jean Grave; a special memorial issue of Probuzhdenie (no. 15, February 1931) dedicated to Russian anarchist Petr Kropotkin; and correspondence of Kelly, Grave, Nettlau, and Joseph Ishill with editor John Cherney and other staff members. In English , French, and German.
Proletarian Party of America
Founded in Wayne, Michigan, in 1920, the Proletarian Party of America (the Party) was a pro-Bolshevik political organization which aspired to rally workers to revolution through Marxist education. It was founded after the state sections expulsion from the Communist Party. In 1925, after the Party moved to Chicago, founder and author John Keracher purchased controlling shares in the socialist publishing house, the Charles H. Kerr Company. The years from 1953, when Al Wysocki succeeded Keracher as national secretary at the Chicago headquarters, to 1968 saw a decline. By 1964, only two locals existed: Flint and Chicago. The Party was dissolved in 1971. The collection includes correspondence of Al Wysocki, receipts, draft articles, notes for lectures, lecture announcements, Kerr Company inventories and advertisements. The bulk of the materials cover the later years of the Partys existence (1953-1965), with members resignation letters and documents outlining the Partys views on the Hungarian Revolution, the Soviet Union, and the assassination of John F. Kennedy. When the Party disbanded, many of the records were torn into quarters or halves, thus a large portion of the collection consists of reconstructed leaves and some partially legible fragments.
This collection, acquired after the Proletarian Party records above, is far wider-ranging, major collection of materials relating to this organization of American Marxists. It contains correspondence, manuscripts, essays, lecture notes, party newspapers, clippings, leaflets, notebooks, flyers, manifestoes, programs, constitutions, photographs, national headquarters records, subscription records, personal documents, ledgers, financial and legal documents, linocuts, and original artwork. It documents the workings of not only the national office in Chicago, but also many of the activities of the 38 locals, including Detroit, Flint, New York, Boston, San Francisco, Buffalo, Rochester, Cleveland, Des Moines, and Grand Rapids. The collection records not only the origins, politics, organizational structure, membership fluctuations, and finances of the Party, but also day-to-day activities of its individual members-a hardworking group of dissident American workers.
A free-lance writer and investigative journalist known for his involvement in civil liberties and espionage cases, Reuben was the author of The Atom Spy Hoax (1955) and The Honorable Mr. Nixon (1956). The collection contains notes, drafts of writings, correspondence, newsletters, reviews, and newspaper clippings relating to cases he covered, in particular the Trenton Six (six young black men wrongly convicted in 1948 of murdering a Trenton, New Jersey, junk-shop dealer); Ethel and Julius Rosenberg and their co-defendant Morton Sobell; Alger Hiss; and Dr. Robert Soblen, charged in 1960 with conspiracy to commit espionage, along with Reuben's unpublished manuscript "The Crime of Dr. Soblen." Also included are some records of the Civil Rights Congress, which was active in defending the Trenton Six, and the Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, which Reuben helped organize. Research materials related to the Mark Fein case, Reuben's investigation of the Lexington Female High Security Unit, the Roy Cohn disbarment case, and the Philby, Burgess, and MacLean Spy case are also included, in addition to documents relation to Reuben's personal professional life.
Roberts, John M.
Papers of Roberts, a student activist, include correspondence, reports, statements, platforms, mailing lists, and financial records concerning his involvement in the Voice Political Party and the National Student Association while at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and the Heights Freedom Movement and Students for a Democratic Society while at New York University. Much of the NSA material concerns activities of the Michigan Region, particularly the disaffiliation in 1962 of the chapter at Central Michigan University. A principal concern of the Voice Party was the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and campaigns on campuses to abolish it. Some correspondence is with persons active in the national organizations of Students for a Democratic Society and the National Student Association, including Edward R. Garvey, Todd Gitlin, Robert A. Haber, Neal Johnston, Donald McKelvey, John Monsonis, and Paul Potter.
Rolland, Hugo, 1895-
Italian anarchist. Copies of correspondence and writings, transcripts of interviews conducted by Robert D'Attilio in 1972 and 1974, a bibliography of Rolland's writings, and a photo of Anthony Caparo, a New York Call reporter, along with his account of his kidnapping and torture during the Lawrence, Massachusetts, textile strike of 1919. Correspondents include Errico Malatesta, Umberto Marzocchi, and Giuseppe Rose. Also included is a finding aid for Rolland's papers at the International Institute for Social History in Amsterdam. The papers are in Italian and English.
Socialist and trade unionist. The collection is comprised of letters from John H. Mackay and Victor S. Yarros; an article by Schilling, "My Immigrant Mother"; and copies of correspondence in the Illinois State Historical Library concern ing Schilling's involvement in the Socialist Labor Party and his support of the Haymarket Square anarchists and the eight-hour movement. Correspondents include Paul T. Bowen, Victor Drury, Peter J. McGuire, Lucy Parsons, James E. Quinn, Melville E. Stone, John Swinton, and S. Philip Van Patten.
Detroit businessman and member of the executive committee of Der Pionier. His papers consist of correspondence with Karl P. Heinzen and Janus Westney and an article written on the occasion of the Freidenker-Kongress in Naples, It aly, 1871. The letters concern Heinzen's writings, the Radikal Verein, the troubled finances of the Milwaukee Freidenker and Der Pionier and finally their merger, and the situation of social democrats in Prussia in 1890. They are written in old-style German cursive, accompanied in part by typed transcriptions.
Schumm, George, 1856-1941.
Radical writer, translator, and editor of Radical Review and other journals. Include correspondence with John Henry Mackay regarding his visit to the United States, settling in Berlin, and sale of his library, and with John B. Barnhill, Henry Bool, Steven Byington, Henry Cohen, Karl P. Heinzen, Ezra H. Heywood, John William Lloyd, Dyer D. Lum, Robert Reitzel, John B. Robinson, Karl Schmemann, Archibald H. Simpson, Julia A. Sprague, Benjamin Tucker, Charles E. S. Wood, Victor Yarros, and others concerning personal affairs and those of friends and relatives; political, social, and philosophical views of events such as World War I and the abdication of the Kaiser [i.e., Wilhelm II] in 1918; writing, translating, and publishing activities of several authors, including J. H. Mackay and Benjamin R. Tucker; and writings for and criticisms of articles in publications such as The Alarm, Der Arme Teufel, Liberty, Radical Review, and The Word. Also include the "Reminiscences of George and Emma Schumm," 1940, which reviews his work with several radical German-language journals, especially his association with Karl Heinzen's Der Pionier. The papers are in English and German, some accompanied by transcriptions or translations.
Slight, Joseph, 1871-
Glassworker and officer of the National Window Glass Workers Association of America and the Knights of Labor, Local 300. His papers consist of correspondence, minutes of annual reunions of the National Association of Ex-Window Glass Workers, and his recollections and notes about fellow workers, processes, events, and union activities in the hand-blown window glass trade. Among the correspondents are Charles Bartram, Robert Davids, Marie Leslie, Emile Mayer, Dana Reynolds, Gaspart Richards, John A. Schwalm, the Liverton Tom Unks family, and the Aladdin Temple Shrine Band. Many of the items, including his correspondence with Agnes Inglis, are photocopies of papers held by the Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio.
Smith, Russell Daniel, 1950-
Smith, a former juvenile and adult offender, became an activist for prisoners' rights, especially those of gay inmates, while incarcerated in federal penitentiaries across the country in the late 1970s. As a victim himself he was particularly interested in the problem of prison rape. After his release in 1980, he continued to advocate prison reform through POSRIP (People Organized to Stop Rape of Imprisoned Persons). The papers include an autobiography/chronology of Smith's experiences in and out of juvenile detention centers and prisons; extensive correspondence with friends in the International Committee to Free Russell Smith (ICFRS) concerning prison conditions, his personal safety, his transfers from prison to prison, his efforts to provide legal assistance to other inmates, and his plans for post-release activities; records of legal suits and complaints filed by Smith; and formal reports about Smith filed by prison officials. Copies of the POSRIP Newsletter (1980-1981) can be found with the Labadie's serial holdings.
Very little is known about Francis Steiner, born in 1895, the son of German immigrants living in New Jersey. Steiner, a conscientious objector, was drafted into the army during WWI and imprisoned for refusing military orders. The collection consists of 68 letters from Steiner, mainly to his two sisters, Anna and Aloisia, between May 1918 and November 1920, from five different prison camps, while he served a 15-year sentence. The letters include descriptions of prison life, the political views of Steiner, the treatment he and his fellow conscientious objectors received at the command of various officers in charge, and the food they were served.
Street vs. New York.
This collection chronicles the case of Sidney Street, who burned a U.S. flag in Brooklyn, New York in 1966, after hearing about the shooting of James Meredith in Mississippi. The collection consists of arrest papers, trial transcripts, correspondence to the prosecutor, Harry Brodbar, news clippings, and photographs relating to the case. Also included are the remains of the burned flag used in evidence against Street.
Swift, Morrison Isaac, 1856-
Socialist, reformer, and pamphleteer. The collection contains his letters to George S. Amsden, which tell of his activities in organizing reform groups, editing the Public Ownership Review, and living cooperatively on a California ranch. He urges Amsden to join in a plan for spreading reform ideas by writing pamphlets and articles, making speeches, and organizing local clubs. Also included are a manuscript of an untitled novel and other manuscripts and fragments.
Socialist and pacifist active in labor, civil rights, cooperative, and world government movements. The papers comprise scattered meeting minutes of various organizations, notes (some very detailed) on speeches and other social functions attended by Tekla in the Cleveland area in the 1930s, carbon copies of outgoing correspondence, and a collection of mailing lists. There is a considerable amount of print and nearprint materialsingle issues of labor periodicals, newspaper clippings, for m letters, flyers, etc. The papers reflect to varying extents Tekla's activities in North Dakota as an organizer for the Civilian Public Service Union, a national organization of conscientious objectors performing alternative service during World War II; his efforts to recruit Cleveland auto workers for the Socialist Party in the late 1930s; and his membership on the national executive committee of the Socialist Party, the executive committee of the War Resisters League, the policy committee of Democracy Unlimited (ca. 1952-56), the Cleveland Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and the Committee for a Socialist Program and Action (ca. 1959-64). Tekla was heavily involved in the cooperative movement in Cleveland and to a lesser extent in the Saskatchewan Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in the mid-1940s.
Tufts, Colonel Henry.
An anarchist and editor of Road to Freedom, Van Valkenburgh assisted Emma Goldman in typing and distributing her writings and correspondence. The collection documents his activities in the Socialist Party in Schenectady, N.Y.; as secretary for the Sociology Club, a group in Schenectady organized to study and debate social problems; as editor of Road to Freedom and Spanish Revolution; and as supporter of anarchist causes, including the Sacco-Vanzetti Case and the Spanish Civil War.
There is a collection of articles by Van Valkenburgh and others, as well as correspondence with many radical leaders, including Leonard D. Abbott, Stella Ballantine, Gustav F. Beckh, Alexander Berkman, Karl Dannenburg, Hippolyte Havel, Herman Kuehn, Maximilian Olay, Upton Sinclair, and Carlo Tresca. Correspondence with Emma Goldman concerns her lecture tours, politics, his writing for Mother Earth, and her trial, imprisonment, and deportation in 1919. Also included are transcripts of debates, leaflets, and newspaper clippings.
Vicinus, Martha J.
English professor at the University of Indiana and The University of Michigan and founding member and officer of New University Conference, a radical organization concerned with overhauling American higher education by creating radical curriculum alternatives, abolishing course grades, and curtailing university involvement in military research. The collection includes correspondence, notes, reports, memoranda, and newspaper clippings relating to the organization and activities of NUC an d to a 1972 trip of NUC delegates to Cuba. Also included are papers documenting efforts to organize a radical caucus within the Modern Language Association.
Journalist, populist, socialist, and editor of radical periodicals. The papers include correspondence, largely from Eugene and Theodore Debs, but also from Grace D. Brewer and Walter Hurt, about the hardships of Eugene Debs's imprisonment and the death of Julius A. Wayland, owner of Appeal to Reason; a poem by W. Hurt laid into a copy of his Eugene V. Debs: An Introduction (1910); and two scrapbooks on Eugene Debs kept by Vincent's wife, Elizabeth, which include photos, drawings, and newspaper clippings.
Vogel, Virgil J., 1918.
Professor of history and social science, author of books on the American Indian, and member and officer of the Socialist Party. The letters chiefly concern the Socialist Party, activities of and relationships among officers, events (such as campaigns and conventions), and publication of various journals, including The Socialist Tribune, Hammer & Tongs, and Vogel's own bulletin, The Oar. The coverage is critical of the Party, containing frank remarks about individuals, e.g. , Frank P. Zeidler, national chairperson; Rick Kissell, national secretary; and David McReynolds, 1980 candidate for President of the United States. Some of the letters are written on the versos of other correspondence, including letters by Brahm Borsford , Toby Holonan, and Lee Hubert.
Warren, Josiah, 1798-1874.
Warren was a reformer, musician, inventor, and founder in America of philosophical anarchism. His papers contain correspondence with Ambrose Cuddon, William Hayward, Eugene Hutchinson, Charles Coffin Jewett, Isaac J. Philpott, DeWitt Upson, and others about his stereotype invention, the equity movement, the cooperative society he founded in Modern Times (now Brentwood), New York, his philosophy of land ownership, and his journal, The Periodical Letter. There are several letters f rom his wife, Caroline (Cutter) Warren, from the years 1855-56. Also included are lecture notes, an article, and printed pamphlets and leaflets.
Werkheiser, Don, 1915-1998.
Writer, teacher, social worker, and philosopher, Werkheiser sought to improve society through a multidisciplinary approach involving psychology, sociology, biology, politics, economics, and libertarian and anarchist principles. Heavily influenced by Theodore Schroeder, Werkheiser was also close to Laurance Labadie, Ralph Borsodi and Mildred Loomis, founders of the School of Living, which promoted decentralism, cooperative living, monetary reform, alternative education, and wilderness preservation. Most of Werkheiser’s writings center on the philosophy of Mutual Option Relationship, which he developed and promoted throughout his life. It is multidisciplinary in its nature but based mainly on principles of equal rights and freedom of the individual. The papers consist primarily of Werkheiser's writings (in the form of notes, drafts, and finished typescripts), correspondence with friends and colleagues, including Schroeder, Labadie, Loomis, Robert Anton Wilson, Ralph Templin, Mark Sullivan, Theo Megalli, Humbert Cofrances (regarding attempts to recover his property from among Shroeder’s effects), and others. A small number of photographs, materials documenting Werkheiser's interests and activities, and works by associates of Werkheiser are also present.
Wysocki, Sharon: Banned Books Exhibit.
Social worker, writer, artist, activist and Ann Arbor resident Wysocki (b.1955), selected book that had been banned and embellished them with artwork. Each piece was an oil and assemblage work that rested on an easel. The artwork illustrates the reason the book was banned. The exhibit consists of twelve books as art. Wysocki chose books that people would find in high school libraries, such as The Diary of Anne Frank and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The exhibit opoened on March 4, 1996 as Shaman Drum Bookshop in Ann Arbor, Michigan, before it embarked on a national tour. Materials in the collection reflect Wysockis views and those of various communities, on books and censorship. The collection consists of several types of media, including papers, books as art, book stands, video cassettes, photographs, and textile material.
Russian emigre anarchist. Chiefly concern the publication of his writings, the disposition of his papers and books, various anarchist friends and acquaintances, and the condition of the anarchist movement throughout the world. Comprise correspondence, largely from 1968-75, including one letter from Emma Goldman in 1939; essays, novels, and memoirs, including Prairie Queen by L. F. and R. G. Ruste (published: Millersburg, Mich. [Advance Print] 1943) and The Sunrise Cooperative Farm Community, 1933-1936 by J. B. Schmidt(never published?); end photos (19 of the Sunrise Community). The prose includes short essays and obituaries, particularly about other Russian anarchists; his novels Fatima and In the Shadow of Death , Love, and Life; and his memoirs of the Russian revolution, In the Social Storm. The papers are in English, French, Russian, Yiddish, and Hebrew.
Michigan Historical Collections
The University of Michigan
The Michigan Historical Collections contains a number of collections that complement the holdings of the Labadie Collection. The Michigan Historical Collections was established in 1935 to collect and make available for research material s that document the history of the people and institutions of the state of Michigan. Radical history topics best documented include the New Left and student activism of the 1960s and 1970s, the civil rights movement, twentieth-century pacifism, the radical right, and minority and women's rights. For a more complete description of the Library's holdings, researchers should consult the Guide to Manuscripts in the Bentley Historical Library (1976) by Thomas E. Powers and William H. McNitt; A Prelim inary Bibliography of Resources on the History of Pacifism and Conscientious Objection in the Michigan Historical Collections (1976, revised edition) compiled by William McNitt; and The Underground Press in Michigan: A Bibliography Based on the Resources of the Michigan Historical Collections, Bentley Historical Library (1982) compiled by Leonard A. Coombs.
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