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Cold Rolled Sheet

 
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U. S. Steel Cold Rolled Sheet Steel is produced to meet a wide variety of end-use applications. Production facilities for manufacturing cold rolled sheet are located

at our Gary Works (Gary, IN), Mon Valley Works (Dravosburg, PA), Fairfield Works (Fairfield, AL), and Fairless Works (Fairless Hills, PA) plants.  Each of these plants has one or more cold rolling mills, annealing facilities, and temper rolling mills.

Product can be purchased to either nominal decimal thickness or minimum decimal thickness to meet a customer’s requirement.  When ordered to nominal thickness, the product is 

plant map
manufactured to meet the ordered thickness.  Thickness tolerances vary above and below the exact ordered thickness. For example, an order for nominal 0.030-inch thick material is manufactured to the tolerance range +0.0015 to - 0.0015 inch. For customer orders that require us to meet a minimum thickness, the processing practices are modified so that all the thickness tolerance is above the minimum thickness ordered. The same 0.030-inch thick order is manufactured so that the tolerance is +0.003 inch.

For tolerances related to thickness, flatness, camber, and width, refer to the Tolerance section. These tolerances are referred to as standard tolerances. For applications that require more exacting dimensional tolerances, it is recommended that customers contact U. S. Steel Sales or Technical Service personnel to determine our capability to meet the more restrictive tolerance(s).

Product Designations
U.S. Steel manufactures a wide variety of Cold Rolled Sheet Steel products. They range from Commercial Steel (CS) to very highly formable Deep Drawing Steel (DDS) to High Strength Steel (HSS). These products are made to allow use for the manufacture of parts requiring only simple bends, parts requiring the steel to withstand deep draws, and parts that require a specific strength and ductility level so they can be designed for use in load-bearing parts.

The range of products that are available are best defined using the designation system that is used in the ASTM specifications related to these products. Not all products are covered by the designators in the ASTM specifications; they will be discussed separately.

  • ASTM Designations
    The following descriptive terms are taken from the ASTM Specification that cover Cold Rolled Steel Sheet products. The corresponding ASTM Specification is listed for each of the designators.

    Commercial Steel (CS) – Described in ASTM Specification A1008.

    • U. S. Steel provides CS Type B as the standard product for general applications of cold-rolled sheet product.

    Drawing Steel (DS) – Described in ASTM Specification A1008.

    • U. S. Steel provides DS Type B as the standard product for applications requiring drawing-steel characteristics.

    Deep Drawing Steel (DDS) – Described in ASTM Specification A1008.

    • U. S. Steel provides DDS as a low carbon steel grade to meet improved drawability compared with DS Type B. The usual metallurgical approach is to provide DDS as a low carbon/low manganese steel chemistry combined with low amounts of residual elements. It is not provided as a stabilized steel.

    Extra Deep Drawing Steel (EDDS) – Described in ASTM Specification A1008.

    • U. S. Steel provides EDDS as a vacuum degassed and chemically stabilized grade to meet the most demanding applications for drawability.

    High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) Steel Described in ASTM Specifications A606, or A1008.

    • U. S. Steel provides HSLA  steel as one of two types. If manufactured using carbon/manganese steels without microalloying with columbium, titanium, or vanadium, the product is labeled a Structural Steel (SS). If the product requires the use of microalloying with columbium or vanadium to achieve high strength and improved formability compared with SS grades, it is supplied as HSLA steel or HSLA-F steel (Inclusion Shape Control).

Ordering Practice Terminology
Cold rolled steel sheet products can be purchased from U.S. Steel using practices other than the ASTM specifications. Two ways are using the SAE designator system or ordering to specific chemistry. We have organized these products to meet the terminology of the ASTM designators as much as possible, i.e., CS, DS, DDS, etc. The specific grouping of all the possible types of metallurgical designations is included in the following table. As noted, most of the types of steel that can be ordered are grouped in one or another designator using the ASTM product designation system. The exceptions are products ordered to a “Specified Hardness” or another category not yet recognized by ASTM, Dent Resistant (Bake Hardenable) steels.

All orders, therefore, must comply with one of the following nine product designator terms.

  • Commercial Steel – CS Type B
    • CS Type B
    • ASTM A1008 CS Type B
    • ASTM A1008 CS Type B & SAE Grade 1006, 1008, 1009, 1010, or 1012
    • CS Type B (Must be within the following compositional limits: C - 0.02/0.15, Mn - 0.60 max., P - 0.030 max., S - 0.035 max.)

  • Commercial Steel – CS
    • ASTM A794 CS & SAE Grade 1015 through 1023
    • CS and SAE 1015 through 1023

  • Drawing Steel – DS Type B*
    • DS Type B
    • ASTM A1008 DS Type B
    • DS Type B (Must be within the following compositional limits:
            C - 0.02/0.08, Mn - 0.50 max., P - 0.020 max., and S - 0.030 max.)

  • Deep Drawing Steel – DDS*
    • ASTM A1008 DDS (Composition must be within the following limits:
           C - 0.06 max., Mn - 0.50 max., P - 0.020 max., and S - 0.025 max.)
    • DDS (Composition must be within the following limits:
           C - 0.06 max., Mn - 0.50 max., P - 0.020 max., S - 0.025 max.) 

    *U.S. Steel does not provide DDS as a degassed and chemically stabilized steel.
     
  • Extra Deep Drawing Steel – EDDS
    • ASTM A1008 EDDS (Must be vacuum degassed and chemically stabilized and meet the following limits: C - 0.02 max., Mn - 0.40 max., P - 0.020 max., and S - 0.020 max.) 
    • EDDS (Must be vacuum degassed and chemically stabilized and meet the following compositional limits: C - 0.02 max., Mn - 0.40 max., P - 0.020 max., and S - 0.020 max.) 
    •  
  • Structural Steel**
    • ASTM A1008 Structural Steel

    **Produced with carbon and manganese only. No microalloying elements added.
     
  • High Strength Low Alloy Steel – HSLA Steel***
    • ASTM A606, or A1008 HSLA steel or HSLA-F steel
    • No ASTM specification and ordered to meet a minimum or range in yield strength and/or tensile strength

    ***Produced using microalloying technology to meet the strength and formability requirements.
     
  • Specified Hardness
    • This product term is not listed in the ASTM specifications. It requires only that the cold rolled product meet a minimum hardness value or a specified hardness range.

  • Dent Resistant (Bake Hardenable)****
    • BH 29
    • BH 33
    • BH 36
    • BH 40
    • BH180
    • BH210
    • BH240
    • BH270

    ****These very specialized steels are manufactured to possess a behavior in which they "age harden" after forming to meet a higher yield strength. Usually, the product is applied for drawn parts that are subsequently paint-cured at elevated temperatures (up to 500°F).  This allows the production of a formable, low yield strength product during our manufacture. Subsequent to drawing and baking (after application of the paint), the formed part exhibits a considerably higher yield strength , and thus, exhibits good resistance to denting.  Bake Hardenable steels are applicable for parts that require the combination of low yield strength and high formability as produced by the steel manufacturer, and then high resistance to denting after fabrication. (Resistance to denting is a function of the yield strength of the product.)

ASTM Specifications for Product Designations

  • ASTM Specification A568 – This specification covers all of the general
                                             requirements related to Cold Rolled Steel Sheet
                                             products. General requirements relate to
                                             dimensional tolerances, testing practices, etc.
                                             Items that relate to the specific product
                                             designations are covered in the following individual
                                             product specifications.
  • ASTM A1008
    • Commercial Steel (CS)
    • High Strength with Columbium or Vanadium (HSLA or HSLA-F)
    • Structural Steel (SS)
    • Drawing Steel (DS)
    • Deep Drawing Steel (DDS)
    • Extra Deep Drawing Steel (EDDS)

  • ASTM A606 – High Strength Steel with Improved Corrosion Resistance (HSLAS)
  • ASTM A794 – Commercial Steel (CS) with 0.15 to 0.25% carbon

ASTM A1008 Structural Steel Mechanical Property Requirements

ASTM Designation Yield Strength Minimum, ksi Tensile Strength Minimum, ksi Elongation in 2" Minimum, %

Grade 25

25

42

26

Grade 30

30

45

24

Grade 33*

33

48

22

Grade 40*

40

52

20

Grade 80

80

82

(a)


(a) No requirement
 
* Grade 33 and Grade 40 are specified as Type 1 or Type 2 depending upon the desired chemical composition.

High Strength Sheet Steels Uniform Designator System
The uniform designator system for High Strength Sheet steel has five basic components: (1) the sheet product prefix, (2) the minimum yield strength in ksi, (3) a chemical composition classification, (4) a classification for the deoxidation practice, and (5) a classification for the minimum tensile strength.

     (1) Sheet Product Prefix –
          HR – Hot Rolled Sheet
          CR – Cold Rolled Sheet
          GP – Galvanized Sheet
          LT – Long Terne Coated Sheet
          GL – GALVALUME® Sheet
          EG – Electrogalvanized

     (2)Yield Strength –
           Numerical description of the minimum yield strength in ksi (3 digits are used for
          yield strengths equal to or greater than 100 ksi).

     (3) Steel Type –
          Each steel type is designated by a letter classification.
               S = Structural Steel
               X = Low Alloy Steel
               W = Weathering Steel
               D = Dual Phase Steel

     (4) Deoxidation Practice –
          F = Killed Steel plus Inclusion Shape Control Practice
          K = Killed Steel Practice

     (5) Tensile Strength - 
          Numerical description of the minimum tensile strength in ksi (3 digits are used            for tensile strengths equal or greater than 100 ksi).

Example of Uniform Designator System for Cold Rolled Sheet – 

      Product – Cold Rolled Structural Steel Sheet 

CR
 
arrow1
Product
Prefix
(1)

30
 
arrow2
Yield
Strength
(2)

X
 
arrow3
Chemical
Composition
(3)

K
 
arrow2
Deoxidation
Practice
(3)

45
 
arrow1
Tensile
Strength
(5)

Notes:
A). "99" in the tensile strength column indicates there is no minimum value specified.
 
B). As a general rule, XK and XF designators provide products with improved formability over SK and SF designators, respectively
 
C). For any given minimum yield strength, formability can be improved by the use of special alloying additions and specialized heat treatment, as well as by improved deoxidation practices and by inclusion shape control.

                      COLD ROLLED HIGH STRENGTH SHEET
                                        Cross References
                           U. S. Steel Designator to SAE J1392

U. S. Steel Designator Trade Names SAE J1392
CR35SK50 USS HSC 35, L35 035AHO
CR37SK47 USS HSC 37, L37 -----
CR40SK50 USS HSC 40, L40 040AHO
CR40SK55 USS HSC 40, L40 040AHO
CR40SK50 USS HSC K40 040CLK
CR40XK55 USS EX-TEN H40 040YLO
CR40XK50 USS EX-TEN K40 040XLK
CR40XF50 USS EX-TEN F40 040XLF
CR45XF60 USS EX-TEN H45 045YHO
CR45XK55 USS EX-TEN K45 045XLK
CR45XK60 ----- 045YLK
CR45XF60 USS EX-TEN F45 045YLF
CR45WF65 USS COR-TEN A 045WLK
CR45WF65 USS COR-TEN A-F 045WLF
CR50WK60 ----- 050XLK
CR50XK60 USS EX-TEN K50 050YLF
CR50XF60 USS EX-TEN F50 050XLK
CR50XF65 USS EX-TEN F50 050YLF
CR80SK82 USS HSC 80 080ALO

Note: Ordering product to a U. S. Steel High Strength Designator does not guarantee the chemistry requirements of the cross-referenced SAE and ASTM specifications. If an ASTM or SAE specification must be met, the order must indicate this requirement.

Surface Finish
The surface finishes that are available on U. S. Steel Cold Rolled Sheet are listed below. Surface finish relates to the macroscopic roughness of the sheet surface. The designations refer to specific surface roughness ranges as measured in arithmetic average (AA) microinch roughness or root mean squared (RMS). The actual roughness values can be determined quantitatively. They are determined using a diamond-tipped tracking stylus that records the peak heights and valley heights as the stylus is passed over the strip surface. The most common instrument that is used to measure the surface roughness is called a profilometer. 

U.S. Steel produces Cold Rolled Sheets with the following surface finishes:

  • Regular Matte
  • Light Matte
  • Rough Matte
  • Ground Roll Bright
  • Commercial Bright
  • Brushed Bright
  • Embossed

These are defined with specific quantitative roughness values that are determined using a profilometer.

  • Regular Matte
    This finish is widely used for most applications of cold rolled steel sheet. The finish provides a uniform dull surface that is suitable for painting and lacquering. The roughness as measured using a profilometer is approximately 35 to 65 microinches.
     
  • Light Matte
    A light, matte finish is used for applications where a finish smoother than that available with a regular matte finish is required for improved reflectivity after painting or lacquering. The roughness as measured by using a profilometer is approximately 20 to 45 microinches.
     
  • Rough Matte
    A rough matte finish is sometimes used for applications that require a rougher finish than regular matte, e.g. applications requiring porcelain enameling. The roughness as measured by using a profilometer is approximately 55 to 90 microinches.
     
  • Ground Roll Bright
    A bright sheet surface generally used for high luster lacquered or electroplated applications. The roughness range is approximately 20 to 40 microinches.
     
  • Commercial Bright
    Sheet that is manufactured to provide a smooth, reflective, bright finish. The product is normally intended to be electroplated when a highly reflective finish is required. The surface usually requires additional buffing and polishing after plating. The product is manufactured to meet a 10 microinches maximum roughness.
     
  • Brushed Bright
    This product has a smooth finish with a brushed appearance. Again, it is normally used for applications where the finished part is electroplated. The product is typically manufactured to meet 15 microinches maximum roughness.
     
  • Embossed Steel Sheet
    This is a special surface finish that is provided for applications where a distinctive pattern is desired after painting. During manufacture, one surface is rolled using

    a rough, patterned roll to provide a "stamped" pattern on the surface that is intended to be exposed after processing by the customer. The pattern depth is typically 0.0025 to 0.0035 inch deep. U.S. Steel provides Embossed Steel Sheet with three different types of patterns. The patterns give a distinctive appearance to the end product. Also, the patterns provide a "fingerprint" resistant surface, 

    embossing
    meaning that fingerprints are not very noticeable when the product is touched. The most widely used pattern is Super Seville 101.

Surface Treatments

Rust Preventative Oils
The application of surface treatments to cold rolled steel sheet is intended to provide protection from corrosion ("rusting") during shipment from our producing plant and during exposure in our customers’ warehouse. Because cold rolled steel sheet is prone to rusting, our standard practice is to apply a rust-preventative oil at the exit end of the temper mill (the last processing step). Rust-preventative oils are different than forming lubricants in that they contain special corrosion-inhibiting additions.

Additional protection from rusting can be achieved with the application of  oil to the edges of the coil after processing. The products used for this additional "edge sealing" range range from the same rust-inhibiting oil as applied to the surface to special lubricants that are specifically formulated to serve as edge sealants. Usually, these special edge sealants are more difficult to clean prior to painting in thecustomer's shop, thus it is is important to test the use of special edge sealants for cleanability prior to using widely.

Prelubricants
Another type of surface treatment that can be applied to cold rolled steel sheet product is called a prelubricant. The function of a prelubricant is to allow the steel to be deeply drawn in a customer's operation without the need to apply special drawing compounds in the customer's plant. The purchase of a prelubricated sheet generally allows the customer to avoid the often messy application of  a drawing compound; thereby, allowing him to maintain a cleaner manufacturing plant. Prelubricants are typically used only for applications that require a deep drawing operation. They are more costly than rust-preventative oils, and they are generally more difficult to remove prior to painting. As a result, paint adhesion may be worsened and paint blistering might occur if the prelubricant is not properly removed.

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