SA-METAR

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 5. DATE/TIME and MODIFIER 9. TEMPERATURE/DEW POINT
2. GENERAL 6. SKY CONDITIONS 10. WIND
3. LOCATION IDENTIFIER 7. VISIBILITY, RVR, WEATHER 11. ALTIMETER and REMARKS
4. REPORT TYPE 8. SEA-LEVEL PRESSURE  

LIST OF TABLES

Reportable Contractions for Sky Cover
Notations for Reporting Weather
Order of Remarks


SA-METAR INTRODUCTION

Our present standard for reporting current aviation weather, specifically the surface aviation observation (SA) is giving way to the international communities routine aviation report or METAR. So where you expect to see:

MKC SA 1754 20 SCT E50 BKN 100 OVC 3RW-F 128/72/63/3115G25/991

you will now see:

METAR KMKC 141754Z 31015G25KT 3SM -SHRA BR SCT020 BKN050 OVC100 22/17 A2991 RMK SLP128

The two reports look different, but the information is almost exactly the same just in a different format. Remember, it took some getting use to the SA when we were first introduced to it, too.

This section contains brief discussions of the differences between the standard SA and the new METAR format. This section assumes a prerequisite knowledge of the SA format. It will provide sufficient knowledge and reinforcements of the METAR format as it relates to the SA to enable the reader to transition to the new format with minimal difficulty. This section will contain the same information as in the basic portion of the METAR training with a little of the advanced portion to better relate the METAR format to the SA. If there is no difference in the way the METAR information is spoken or interpreted from the way it was done in the SA, it will not be discussed in this section.

All of the elements of the SA are in the METAR report, they are just in different places. This section will highlight each element of the SA by shading in the box, then provide its new location in the METAR report. Each will be followed by a discussion of the differences between how the SA report describes the particular element versus how METAR describes it.

GENERAL

(1) "M" is spoken as "less than" when used in conjunction with visibility or "minus" when used in conjunction with temperatures. "P" is spoken as "more than." Other phraseology changes will be discussed in each element where changes have occurred from the present standard.

(2) Unless specifically indicated in this document, each element of a METAR report is separated by a space, where the SA used a solidus ("/"), space, or no separation (3TRW).

(3) Where the SA produced a "space-saver" for missing data (M), the METAR report will simply omit the element if the phenomena does not occur or cannot be observed

LOCATION IDENTIFIER


(1) The LOCID is the second element of a METAR report vs. the first of a SA.

(2) The new format will use the international (ICAO) four-letter LOCID versus three letter. All lower 48 state LOCIDs will begin with "K" followed by the same three letters used for that station in the SA in most cases. Alaskan stations begin with "PA" (Pacific Alaskan). Hawaiian stations begin with "PH" (Pacific Hawaiian). The "PA" or "PH" will be followed by a two-letter identifier for that station. If the SA three-letter identifier for the Alaskan or Hawaiian stations does not begin with an "A" or "H" respectively, the last letter is dropped and only the first two letters are used. Otherwise a "P" or a "H" just precedes the SA three-letter identifier.

SA = FAI METAR = PAFA
SA = HNL METAR = PHNL

(3) Only letters will be used, no numerics. Weather reporting stations currently using numerics will receive a new identifier on January 1, 1996.

(4) En Route facilities will display three-letter station identifiers as the first element of a report. The K or P will not be shown.

REPORT TYPE


(1) Report type is the first element of a METAR report instead of second as in the SA.

(2) Report type will be METAR for routine reports (hourly observations, the old SA) and SPECI for special reports (the old SP). There is no way to indicate that an hourly observation meets special criteria (the old RS). Reports will always begin with one of the two types (METAR or SPECI).

(3) En Route facilities will display a M or S to indicate a METAR or SPECI report type. Instead of being the first element of a report, the M or S will follow the time of the observation.

DATE/TIME and MODIFIER


DATE/TIME

(1) Date/Time group in METAR reports has six characters to include the DATE.

(2) "Z" is placed at the end of the DATE/TIME group to indicate coordinated universal time.

SA = 1955 METAR = 231955Z

MODIFIER

(1) Modifiers for the METAR report will be COR or AUTO. COR indicates the report is a correction of a previously transmitted manual report. AUTO indicates a fully automated station without augmentation (ASOS). The type of sensor equipment used at the station will be encoded in the remarks section.

(2) Manual stations are identified by the absence of the AUTO modifier.

SKY CONDITIONS


(MAJOR CHANGES)
(1) Sky conditions are no longer the first weather element of the report. As you can see above, it follows the weather and obscuring phenomena associated with the visibility element.

(2) Coverage precedes the cloud height with no space in between.

(3) Cloud height will always be in three digits, but still indicating hundreds of feet.

SA = 35 SCT METAR = SCT035

PHRASEOLOGY: "Three thousand five hundred scattered"

(4) The sky is now divided into eighths rather than tenths to determine coverage and new coverage indicators have been added. (See Table 1)


Table 1. -- Reportable Contractions for Sky Cover
Reportable Contractions Meaning Summation Amount
VV Vertical Visibility (indefinite ceiling) 8/8
*SKC or CLR Clear 0 or 0 below 12,000
FEW Few > 0 but < or = 2/8
SCT Scattered 3/8-4/8
BKN Broken 5/8-7/8
OVC Overcast 8/8
CB Cumulonimbus When present
TCU Towering Cumulus When present

*SKC will be reported at manual stations. The abbreviation, CLR, shall be used at automated stations when no clouds below 12,000 feet are reported.

(5) Indefinite ceilings (W) and sky obscured (X) are no longer reported. It is replaced by vertical visibility (VV). The phraseology for "VV" is "indefinite ceiling <height>"

SA = W5 X METAR = VV005

PHRASEOLOGY: "Indefinite ceiling five hundred"

(6) The new coverage indicator FEW indicates cloud coverage greater than zero and equal to or less than two-eighths. It is spoken as "Few clouds at <height>."

SA = 20 SCT METAR = FEW020

PHRASEOLOGY: "Few clouds at two thousand"

(7) There is no longer a ceiling designator (M, E) in the body of the report, but the ceiling is still the lowest, BKN or OVC layer aloft, or vertical visibility into a surface based phenomena. The word "ceiling" will still be spoken before verbalizing the layer that constitutes a ceiling.

SA = M35 OVC METAR = OVC035

(8) Cloud layers will no longer be identified as thin "-." The SA made a clear distinction between thin and opaque layers. The METAR report considered the entire layer without regard to its classification (thin or opaque). This is important to consider when interpreting the METAR report. In a SA a layer classified as thin would not be a ceiling. However, the same layer in a METAR report would be a ceiling.

SA= 9 -OVC (not a ceiling) METAR = OVC009 (a ceiling)

PHRASEOLOGY: "Ceiling niner hundred overcast"

(9) CB and TCU will be reported along with the layer with which their base is associated.

SA= none METAR = BKN010CB or SCT025TCU

PHRASEOLOGY: "Ceiling one thousand broken, cumulonimbus" or "Two thousand five hundred scattered, towering cumulus"

This example indicates that the base of the towering cumulus is at 2500 feet. (The direction from the station is entered in remarks.)

(10) Partial obscurations (-X) will be handled considerably different than in SA. Since the coding method utilizes both the sky condition element and the visibility element, this discussion will be held until the weather phenomena element is discussed.

VISIBILITY, RVR, WEATHER PHENOMENA


VISIBILITY

(1) Visibility is still the second weather element in the report, but it is reported as a separate element from its associated weather and obscurations.

(2) The methods for deriving visibility have not changed. However, SM, indicating statute miles, will always follow the reported visibility but is not spoken.

SA = 10 METAR = 10SM

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility one zero"

(3) In the visibility element, whole numbers and fractions are separated by a space.

SA = 11/2 METAR = 1 1/2SM

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility one and one half"

(4) There is no indication in the body of the report that visibility is variable. However, when the criteria exists, the minimum and maximum readings will still be placed in remarks preceded by VIS versus VSBY as in the SA.

SA = 11/2V (remarks - VSBY 1V2) METAR = 1 1/2SM (remarks - VIS 1V2)

PHRASEOLOGY (remarks): "Visibility variable between one and two"

RVR

(1) RVR is no longer the first element of remarks. When reported, it will be entered in the body of the report between the visibility and weather phenomena elements.

(2) Manual stations will report only one RVR, but automated stations can report up to 4 different locations.

(3) There are three minor changes in the way RVR is encoded. They are:

SA = R12LVR12 METAR = R12L/1200FT

PHRASEOLOGY: "Runway one two left R-V-R one thousand two hundred" or "Runway one two left visual range one thousand two hundred"

(4) If the RVR value is less than its lowest reportable value, the lowest reportable value is encoded preceded by "M" (minus), spoken as "less than." If the RVR value is more than its greatest reportable value, the greatest reportable value is encoded preceded by "P" (plus), spoken as "more than."

SA = R12LVR10- METAR = R12L/M1000FT

PHRASEOLOGY: "Runway one two left R-V-R less than one thousand"

SA = R12LVR60+ METAR = R12L/P6000FT

PHRASEOLOGY: "Runway one two left R-V-R more than six thousand"

(5) If RVR equipment is out of service or data is not available, but criteria for reporting RVR exists, the element is omitted from the body of the report and RVRNO is entered in remarks.

(6) The HOST computer at En Route facilities will not display the RVR element.

WEATHER PHENOMENA

(MAJOR CHANGES)

(1) Criteria for reporting weather phenomena are still pretty much the same. Weather is reported whenever it occurs and obscurations only when they restrict visibility to less than 7 statute miles.

(2) All the designators for weather phenpmena (restrictions to visibility) have changed and descriptors have been added. There is really no way to get around memorizing the new designators (symbols) in the table on the following page. They will need to be memorized just the same as you did to become an expert on SA. The designators come from either an English or French word (Remember this is an international format) so to help in the memorization, the French word will be provided during the discussion of each category.

(3) They are reported in the order (left to right) listed in the table on the next page and within each column in the order of prominence. Intensity or proximity is entered first, then a descriptor if needed, followed by a precipitation type or obscuration in order of predominance. The one exception to this is "FC" which will always be first when present.

Note: Refer to the table during the remaining discussion of weather phenomenas.

ABOUT THE TABLE: Instead of lumping all the precipitation and restrictions to visibility into one big pile to pick from as in the SA, the METAR clearly divides them into separate categories. This gives the observer more flexibility in describing the weather. However, there are certain rules to follow in order to interpret the coded information correctly.

Table 2. -- Notations for Reporting Weather
  Qualifier: INTENSITY or PROXIMITY   Qualifier: DESCRIPTOR   Wx Phenomena: PRECIPITATION   Wx Phenomena: OBSCURATION   Wx Phenomena: OTHER
- LIGHT MI Shallow DZ Drizzle BR Mist PO Well-Developed Dust/Sand Whirls
    BC Patches RA Rain FG Fog SQ Squalls
  Moderate (NoQualifier) DR Low Drifting SN Snow FU Smoke FC, +FC Funnel Cloud, Well-Developed Funnel Cloud, Tornado or Waterspout
    BL Blowing SG Snow Grains DU Dust SS Sandstorm
+ Heavy or Well-developed SH Showers IC Ice Crystals SA Sand DS Duststorm
    TS Thunderstorm PE Ice Pellets HZ Haze    
VC In the Vicinity FZ Freezing GR Hail PY Spray    
    PR Partial GS Small Hail or Snow Pellets (< 1/4) VA Volcanic Ash    
        UP * Unknown Precipitation        

The weather groups shall be constructed by considering columns from left to right in this table, in sequence; i.e., intensity, followed by descriptor, followed by weather phenomena; i.e., heavy rain showers(s) is coded as +SHRA. * Automated stations only.

INTENSITY or PROXIMITY

(1) The coding of intensity for the weather phenomena has not changed, but it moves to the front of the associated weather rather than the end and is used only once. The only exception to intensity codes is "+" used with "FC" which means "well-developed funnel cloud" instead of "heavy funnel cloud."

SA = 4R- METAR = 4SM -RA

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility four, light rain"

(2) When more than one type of precipitation is present, the intensity refers to the first precipitation element. The precipitation types and obscurations are entered in order of predominance (impact on restricting visibility), so any phenomena that follows will be the same or of a lesser intensity.

SA = 4R-L-S- METAR = 4SM -RASNDZ

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility four, light rain, snow, drizzle"

In the example, the SA enters the precipitation in the order of liquid, freezing, and frozen without regard to predominance. When reporting in a METAR, the observer considers predominance and enters the types in that order. In this case, the observer has determined that the snow is more predominate than the drizzle so has encoded it before the drizzle.

(3) Intensity refers to the next precipitation or certain obscuration types not to the descriptor that may separate them. (More on this later.)

(4) In the vicinity (VC) will be used only when the phenomena is not occurring at the station, but within 5 to 10 miles of the station. It will replace the intensity symbol. Intensity and "VC" will never be used in the same group.

(5) There are restrictions in which weather and obscurations can be used with VC. It is used only with TS, FG, FC, SH, PO, BLDU, BLSA, BLSN, SS, and DS.

SA = not applicable METAR = 7SM VCBLSN

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility seven, blowing snow in the vicinity"

Notice there are two descriptors SH and TS that can be used with VC. When this combination occurs, the type of precipitation is not entered.

SA = not applicable METAR = 7SM VCSH

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility seven, showers in the vicinity"

DESCRIPTORS

(1) MEMORIZATION AID: The designator for shallow (MI) comes from the French word "mince." The designator for patches (BC) comes from the French word "banc."

(2) The descriptors in the table can precede certain precipitation or obscurations in the next two columns. So where blowing snow had its own symbol (BS) in SA format, to describe the same phenomena in METAR it would be BL from the descriptor list and SN from the precipitation list. Blowing is a description or qualifier of the precipitation type snow.

SA = 4BS METAR = 4SM BLSN

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility four, blowing snow"

(3) Only one descriptor can be used for each grouping of weather phenomena reported. It is important to note that thunderstorm (TS) and shower (SH) are now descriptors of the precipitation rather than being a part of the weather phenomena category. Therefore, you will never see TS and SH in the same report. This does not mean that showers can no longer occur when thunderstorms are reported. Since thunderstorms imply convective, showery activity, the descriptor of TS along with the precipitation type of rain (RA) still translates to thunderstorm and rain shower. However, the word "showers" will not be spoken in the phraseology.

SA = 2TRW METAR = 2SM TSRA

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility two, thunderstorm, rain"

(4) Should a thunderstorm be occurring without precipitation, it is the only descriptor that can stand alone and will be encoded without a precipitation type.

SA = 10T METAR = 10SM TS

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility one zero, thunderstorm"

(5) When light precipitation is occurring along with a thunderstorm, following the rule of intensity before descriptor puts the "-" in an uncomfortable location for SA veterans.

REMEMBER, THE INTENSITY REFERS TO PRECIPITATION, NOT THE DESCRIPTOR. THERE IS STILL NO SUCH THING AS A LIGHT THUNDERSTORM.

SA = 3TRW- METAR = 3SM -TSRA

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility three, thunderstorm, light rain"

(6) Using the same principle, when a "+" is placed in front of "TS" it is not an indication of a severe thunderstorm. Again, the intensity symbol relates to the precipitation not the descriptor. METAR does not establish criteria for severe thunderstorms. Even though there will no longer be a classification of severe thunderstorms, by knowing the criteria (50 knot winds or �" hail) the information is available in the report to know that one is occurring.

(7) There are restrictions on the use of descriptors. The most significant of these is mist (BR) which will never be used with a descriptor. So when a descriptor is used to describe fog, FG will always be used regardless of the visibility within the fog.

SA = not applicable METAR = 3SM BCFG (never BCBR)

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility three, patchy fog"

PRECIPITATION

(1) MEMORIZATION AID: The designator for hail (GR) comes from the French word "gr�le." The designator for small hail (GS) comes from the French word "gr�sil." There are a lot of recognizable names under new identifiers.

OBSCURATIONS

(1) MEMORIZATION AID: The first identifier on the list, mist (BR), comes from the French word "brume." The same applies to the identifier for smoke (FU). The French word is "fum�e."

(2) Obscuring phenomena when present along with precipitation will be in a separate group from precipitation and entered in order of predominance.

(3) Notice there is no identifier for ground fog and no descriptor to create ground fog. The best we can do is shallow fog. (MIFG).

(4) Here's another one you may need to ponder. You are probably thinking it will be pretty rare to see BR in any report. Well, think again. BR will be seen far more than FG. The definition of mist and fog are the same. However, FG will not be encoded unless visibility is less than 5/8 statute miles or a descriptor is used, otherwise BR is encoded. Remember, BR is never used with a descriptor. The separation of FG and BR came from the famous London fog. It seems the British do not think it is fog unless you can cut it with a knife, so a new name was established for "wimpy fog" thus mist. So those of you who have always equated mist with drizzle need to modify that correlation.

OTHER WEATHER PHENOMENA

(1) Although squalls are a wind phenomena and in the SA were reported in the wind element, in METAR they are reported in the weather phenomena element. The definition of a squall has changed slightly from a sudden increase of at least 15 knots (SA) to a sudden increase of at least 16 knots. The sustained wind must now be 22 knots or more instead of the 20 knots required in the SA (see the Glossary in Appendix C for a complete definition).

SA = 2320Q45 METAR = 23045KT 7SM SQ

PHRASEOLOGY: "Wind two three zero at four five, visibility seven, squalls"

PARTIAL OBSCURATIONS

As stated earlier in the sky conditions discussion, to report partial obscurations requires the use of the weather phenomena element as well as the sky conditions element.

(1) METAR makes no distinction between a partial obscuration and a cloud layer in the body of a report. It simply encodes the obscuration as a cloud layer whose height (base) is below 50 feet. To denote this, the sky conditions contraction is followed by 000. Which sky conditions contraction is used is determined by the total amount of sky obscured by the phenomena.

(2) The ground based obscuring phenomena is identified in the weather phenomena element and also in remarks.

(3) Whenever a layer is followed by 000 it will be verbalized as "<sky condition> less than five zero." The amount of obscuration will be spoken with the remarks. In the case below, the correct phraseology for remarks would be "fog obscuring three- to four-eighths of the sky."

SA = -X 1/4F METAR = 1/4SM FG SCT000
(in remarks: F4) (in remarks: FG SCT000)

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility one-quarter, fog, scattered clouds less than five zero"

(in remarks) "Fog obscuring three- to four-eighths of the sky"

(4) If the layer is actually a cloud layer aloft, less than fifty feet in height, and not ground based; remarks will not be shown. The layer is considered the first layer aloft.

SEA-LEVEL PRESSURE


(1) Sea-level pressure is removed from the body of the report and placed in remarks.

(2) It is preceded by "SLP" and reported in hectopascals (same as millibars) with the beginning 9 or 10 omitted in the same manner as it was in the SA. This will always be the last item in the Automated and Manual section of remarks.

EXAMPLE: 1013.2 hectopascals would be encoded as SLP132.

PHRASEOLOGY: "Sea-level pressure one zero one three point two hectopascals"

TEMPERATURE/DEW POINT


(1) The temperature and dew point will be reported in 2 digits Celsius instead of Fahrenheit. It is important to note that the Celsius scale is not graduated to as small a degree as the Fahrenheit scale. So temperatures that are only one degree apart on the Fahrenheit scale could read as the same temperature in Celsius based on the rounding to the nearest whole degree. For this reason, the hourly temperature and dew point to the nearest tenth of a degree will be encoded in the additive data section of remarks.

SA = 40/39 METAR = 04/04

(2) The temperature/dew point spread for considering saturated air will be 3 degrees or less instead of 5 degrees under the Fahrenheit scale.

(3) "M" precedes all temperatures below zero instead of "-" to indicate "minus"

SA = -5/-8 METAR = M20/M22

PHRASEOLOGY: "Temperature minus two zero, dew point minus two two"

(4) The temperature and dew point are considered to be a single group separated by a solidus ("/"). If the dew point is not reported or missing, the "/" still follows the temperature, but there is no indicator that dew point is missing.

SA = -5/M METAR = M20/

PHRASEOLOGY: "Temperature minus two zero, dew point missing"

(5) Maybe the biggest adjustment to make here is equating a new number to how it feels. (Is 20 degrees hot, cold, or just right?)

WIND


(1) The wind element moves from after the temperature/dew point in the SA to the first weather element of the report after the Date/Time group (or modifier if included in the report) where sky conditions had been.

(2) Wind direction is reported relative to true north in three characters instead of two as in SA format.

(3) Wind speed will be reported normally in two characters or three when necessary. The speed is followed by "KT" to indicate the speed is in knots rather than kilometer per hour (KPH) or meters per second (MPS) as used in some other countries.

SA = 3115 METAR = 31015KT

PHRASEOLOGY: "Wind three one zero at one five"

(4) Even though wind can still be estimated, in METAR code, there is no way to indicate that wind direction or speed has been estimated in the body of the report.

SA = E3115 METAR = 31015KT

(5) Wind gusts will be reported in the same manner as in the SA.

SA = 3115G25 METAR = 31015G25KT

PHRASEOLOGY: "Wind three one zero at one five, gusts two five"

(6) Squalls "Q" will no longer be reported in the wind element. However, if the wind qualifies, "SQ" is placed in the weather element. Squalls will be discussed later.

(7) When the wind direction meets the criteria for a variable wind; wind speed greater than 6 knots (10 knots or greater under the SA) and direction varies by 60 degrees or more, the minimum and maximum range will follow the wind group using three digits each.

SA = 3115 (in remarks WND 27V34) METAR = 31015KT 270V340

PHRASEOLOGY: "Wind three one zero at one five, wind variable between two seven zero and three four zero"

(8) If the wind is 1 knot or greater and 6 knots or less, the wind direction may be replaced by "VRB" followed by the speed or reported as observed. "VRB" would be spoken as "wind variable at <speed>."

SA = 1204 METAR = VRB04KT or 12004KT

PHRASEOLOGY: "Wind variable at four"

(9) Calm wind (less than 1 knot) is encoded by five zeroes. Except for the one additional zero and the "KT," it's the same as in the SA.

SA = 0000 METAR = 00000KT

PHRASEOLOGY: "Wind calm"

ALTIMETER and REMARKS


ALTIMETER

(1) The altimeter setting will still be in inches of mercury as before, but it will be coded in four digits instead of three. (No more complicated calculations to determine if a 2 or 3 will be placed in front when spoken.) The decimal is still dropped.

(2) This element will be preceded by an "A." ("A" is the international indication that the code to follow is in inches of mercury vs. hectopascal.)

SA = 992 METAR = A2992

PHRASEOLOGY: "Altimeter two niner niner two"

REMARKS

Note: Many of the remarks will be familiar since they will be exactly the same as they were in the SA just in a different order. This discussion will not rehash all the remarks, just the ones that are different or new from the SA and not previously covered in the other elements.

(1) If there are remarks to be included in the report (which there almost always will be), the element begins with the contraction "RMK," otherwise it is omitted.

SA = 992/ <remarks> METAR = A2992 RMK <remarks>

(2) Instead of the six groups in SA, the remarks element is broken into two major groups, (1) Automated, Manual, and Plain Language, and (2) Additive and Maintenance Data. The Additive and Maintenance Data remarks follow the Automated, Manual, and Plain Language remarks. Items within each group will be listed in a specific sequence. (See Table at the end of this section)

(3) Automated stations will indicate one of two codes, AO1 or AO2. AO1 indicates the most basic of stations with no weather discriminating equipment. AO2 indicates a station with weather discriminating equipment. If one of these codes is not present, the report was generated by a real person or a person has augmented the observation.

(4) PK WND is encoded the same except the direction is in three digits instead of two.

SA = PK WND 2845/15 METAR = PK WND 28045/15

PHRASEOLOGY: "Peak wind two eight zero at four five occurred at one five past the hour"

(5) The contraction for visibility when placed in remarks is now VIS instead of VSBY.

(6) "Vicinity" is now VC (the same as in the body) instead of VCNTY. It also has a new definition. Vicinity now means between 5-10 statute miles of the station. A cardinal direction of the compass indicates the direction of the phenomena from the station. Weather occurring at the station or in the vicinity is reported in the body of the report.

SA = VSBY 7 (remarks: OCNL RW- SW) METAR = 7SM VCSH SW

PHRASEOLOGY: "Visibility seven, showers in the vicinity, southwest"

(7) DSNT is entered in front of the cardinal direction when it is more than 10 miles from the station. Weather occurring more than 10 miles from the station is reported in remarks.

SA = CB 20S METAR = CB DSNT S

PHRASEOLOGY: "Cumulonimbus distant south"

(8) Other new contractions for old standard terms:

(9) The beginning and ending of precipitation is encoded in remarks in the same manner as in SA (except for using METAR contractions) and will be placed in remarks prior to sea-level pressure. The size of hailstones will be reported after thunderstorm location and movement in the Automated, Manual, and Plain Language section of remarks.

SA = TB15 OVHD MOVG E AB17E40 HLSTO �
METAR = GRB17E40 TSB15 TS OHD MOV E GR�

PHRASEOLOGY: "Hail began at one seven, ended at four zero, thunderstorm began at one five, thunderstorm overhead moving east, hailstones three-quarter inch in diameter"


Table 3. -- Order of Remarks
  AUTOMATED, MANUAL and PLAIN LANGUAGE   AUTOMATED, MANUAL and PLAIN LANGUAGE   ADDITIVE and AUTOMATED MAINTENANCE DATA
1. Volcanic Eruptions 21. PRESFR or PRESRR 27. Hourly Precipitation
2. Tornado, Funnel Cloud, or Waterspout 22. Sea-Level Pressure (SLPppp) 28. Precipitation Amount
3. STN Type (A01 or A02) 23. ACFT Mishap 29. 24-Hr. Precipitation
4. PK WND 24. NOSPECI 30. Snow Depth on Ground
5. WSHFT (FROPA) 25. SNINCR 31. Water Equivalnet of Snow
6. TWR VIS or SFC VIS 26. Other SIG Info 32. Cloud Type
7. VRB VIS     33. Duration of Sunshine
8. Sector VIS     34. Hourly Temperature/Dew Point (tenths)
9. VIS @ 2nd Site     35. Max Temperature
10. Dispatch Visual Range     36. Min Temperature
11. (freq) LTG (type) (loc)     37. 24-Hr. Max/Min Temperature
12. Beginning/Ending of Precipitation/TSTMS     38. Pressure Tendency
13. TSTM Location & MVMT     39. Sensor Status: PWINO, FZRANO, TSNO, RVRNO, PNO, VISNO, CHINO
14. Hailstone Size        
15. Virga        
16. VRB CIG Height        
17. Obscuration        
18. VRB Sky Condition        
19. Significant Cloud Types        
20. Sky @ 2nd Site        

Try the Sky Condition Quiz
Try the Visibility, RVR, Weather Phenomena Quiz
Try the SA-METAR Conversion Quiz

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