"Linna III. Algkool"

(= "City Elementary School # III")

of Rakvere (= Wesenberg), in the

county of Virumaa (= Wierland = Vironia), Estonia

Names of graduates from 1890 to 1930

Biographies of inspectors and teachers from 1890 to 1930...

Extracted by Sigrid Renate Maldonado from the book
published 1930 in celebration of the
anniversary # 125 of this school's existence.
A Jubilee Commission was formed and it put
together and created this book.


Of course, the incentive to do this transcription and put it on the Web is that
my own father was a graduate from that school.

Links to other web sites of Estonian interest - not only genealogical - and to
the other pages of this site are at the end of this page, below. Latvians will find relevant material
in the book written by Sigrid Maldonado. A few Latvian ancestors can be found here, below.
In our Home Page there are a few links to sites of Latvian interest also. The Home Page contains a
"Search Box" to help you find with ease what you are looking for inside this Web Site.

Not only ethnic Estonians, but also many ethnic Germans, ethnic Latvians, Russians and students with other backgrounds went to this school. Among inspectors and teachers we find the same diversity. Do not let yourselves be guided by the family names, though, to conclude ethnic background... Family names change. Be flexible.

According to school records in 1841 there were students of the following ethnic groups in the last class: 21 Germans, 10 Estonians and 7 Russians.
In 1850 the records showed that there were: 16 Germans, 10 Estonians and 4 Russians.
1877: in the 1st class there were 37 students and in the 2nd
(= last) class 31. Among the students the school counted 42 Germans, 38 Estonians, 3 Russians and 1 Jew...
1882: in the 1st class had 50 and the last 44 students.

Inspectors and teachers were mostly of German and Russian background. In later years also a few ethnic Estonians became teachers in this school. Short biographies - until more or less 1918 - are given below. After 1918 these become even shorter.

In 1805 this probably was the only school in the larger surrounding area that accepted non-Germans. Around 1930 there were other schools in Rakvere. (Including an Upper High School for Germans.)  As I extracted the biographies I realized that at some point in history such County Schools must have been created in the whole Russian Empire.

Comments by Sigrid Maldonado:

It was just by chance and the thoughtfulness of one of my cousins - who was the first of our family to return to Rakvere for a visit - that I am in possession of the first 96 pages of this publication. No index at the beginning. I do not know how many pages are missing.
Sadly, this booklet starts with the graduating class of 1890 and not earlier.

Please, take into account that

the letter "w" is not part of the Estonian language. When this book was published all "w"s got transformed into "v"s. Or perhaps the names are like that in the original school records.
Other examples: "ii" looks like it used to be the German "ie" or "long i". - Perhaps...
The Estonian "kk" could have been "ck" in German.
Those named "Aleksander" could have been "Alexander". *
The last names which are an Estonian word could have been the same word in German.
If a last name is in 2 versions in this list it is because it was found by the transcriber exactly that way in the book at hand. The second version is printed there also in parenthesis.

* I am sure other language peculiarities also got into this list of names when the booklet was printed. As (& if) I become aware of them I point them out to you. Perhaps readers of this web page can detect other items of interest and let me know via a Guestbook entry. (Link below, via "Home Page".)

What is also certain in many cases of surnames in this 125th anniversary book is that the last names given were not the original form of the family names their ancestors had. (Again: read my book to understand this.)

When alphabetizing the list I will ignore the Umlauts and tildes at the beginnings of last names because those will have been lost when emigrating to an overseas country. Most people who search something like this on the Web will not know that the Estonian alphabet puts the vowels with Umlauts and tildes at the end. So, I decided to do this list in an non-Estonian way.

I am almost certain that many of the students at this school were from other parts of Estonia or at least from the surrounding areas and not necessarily part of families that were full time residents of Rakvere (= Wesenberg). It was customary for students from afar to be housed by other families (for payment of "room and board") while attending school in a town away from home. I just discovered the name of someone who became my mother's uncle and I know that during his youth he did not live in Rakvere with his family.

The short biographies of inspectors and teachers in some cases include unflattering facts. I try not to change what the book contains. After all researching family history is trying to learn the truth about our foreparents, trying to discover the human being in those who contributed to us being here - warts and all...

Some school background:

The history of this school reflects the history of the area. If you are familiar with Sigrid Maldonado's

book "Estonian Experience and Roots" you see the historical parallel between country and school. (The links to the web pages that describes this book and to its table of contents are below.)

1805 - 1886 The institution was called "Kreisschule" in German or "Kreiskool" in Estonian. (It means something like

"District or County School".) It started under Czar Aleksander I. The creation of these schools must have started at the
same time all over the Russian Empire. There must have been schools like these in every town. At that time Estonia was part of imperial Russia.
Regardless of who was the ruler of the empire, the academic subjects at these schools in Estonia were mostly taught in German.
In Rakvere the school was located on Pikk tänav
(= Langstraße = Long Street). The housing for teachers was across the street (# 21-23).
In 1805 the School Commission (for Estonia) was headed by the University Prof. Dr. Jaesche in Tartu. Director of all the "Kreis" Schools in Estonia was B. Tideböhl. In Rakvere Inspector Buckel had 15 pupils, teachers were J.H. Heuser, J.H. Nicolai and J.E. Loewe.
(Short bios are below.)

At first there were 2 classes. Later they added a 3rd class. I do not know when.
Subjects taught were: calligraphy, drawing (draughting), Russian, German, Latin, arithmetic, geometry, creation & technology, geography, history, physics, anthropology & dietetics, government, religion and discipline.
Around 1856 the Greek language was added for those who wanted to continue their studies in a "higher" High School (Gümnaasium = Gymnasium).
The instruction of religion meant orthodox religion, taught in the Russian language. All had to attend that class. The Russian government paid those “religion” teachers. From 1885 on it was allowed not to take orthodox religion classes, but lutheran religion, away from school. This instruction was to be given in the Russian language also, just as instruction of the "true or correct belief"
(as called by their priests and by all Russians = "Russian orthodox"). Teachers of the lutheran religion were not paid by the Russian government.
During the 75th anniversary celebration on 26 Aug 1880 the teacher of Russian
Djäkonov and Inspector Martinson gave speeches. [See "C.1.2.20)" and "B.1.10)" below.]

1886 - 1913 It was called "Stadtschule" in German or "Linnakool" in Estonian. (Something like "City School".)

This is when the Russian language was being imposed in all walks of life in the Baltics. The change started during the 1885/86 school year. If teachers wanted to keep their jobs they now had to give their classes in Russian and not in German any more.
1886 the school building was renovated and classrooms added to accomodate students in 6 classes = it took now 6 years to graduate.
After 1897 not even German language lessons were allowed.

Children 7 years old were admitted without any exam. Those 10-14 years old had to pass exams of Russian language itself and orthodox teaching and mathematics in Russian.
Those with a certificate from an elementary school were accepted as students here. If a student had had schooling at home he had to undergo examinations to gain acceptance to this school.

In 1899 there were other elementary schools that were not as expensive as this one. As a consequence the "City School" had to close the lower class.
A course of "handwork"
(crafts?) was interrupted between 1902 and 1906 for lack of funds.

1901 Rakvere apparently had the following schools: Linnakool or City School had 40 students. The "State Elementary School for Girls" had 16 pupils. City Elementary School that ran 2 classes had more than 10 children. In the girl's "Emilien" Elementary School were 30 students. In the (orthodox?) church run school for girls were 15. In the Elementary School for Boys were 6. In the church run school for boys were more than 10. In all almost 130 children.

During 1902 this institution started to prepare students for the teaching profession.
Graduation of teachers began in 1903. One of the teachers was allowed to teach the Estonian language during these courses.

Many times we find the same name in the list of regular graduates as well as in the one that gives the names of those who had achieved the teaching certificate. (I indicate this with asterisk and year in both lists - if I become aware of it. But, some will escape me, I am sure. If someone finds other coincidences like this, please point them out to me in the Guestbook. I will correct my list accordingly.)

1913 - 1918 This school was called "Höhere Volksschule" in German or "Kõrgem Algkool" in Estonian.

(Something like "Higher Elementary School" or Middle School.) Again, the language of instruction was Russian.

Summer 1918 until Mar 1919: "Poeglaste Keskkool" = "Knabenmittelschule" or "Middleschool

for Boys" had 4 classes. Language of instruction was German. Estonian language was allowed only 2 hours / week. 1st class had 44 students, 2nd had 40, 3rd had 48 and 4th had 34 pupils = 166 in all. There were a few students that came and went depending on the flow of the wars. (WWI & War for Estonian Independence.)

There even were military units housed in the school building. Feb 1919 Finnish soldiers were stationed there. Classes were held as best as possible.

1919 - 1930 Called "Linna III. Algkool" ("City Elementary School # 3").

[I do not know if the correct equivalent of "'alg'kool" is "elementary" school. It appears to have been a secondary school, but the word "alg" = “beginning”. It might not have an equivalent meaning between then and there and now and here... (By 1950 elementary schools in Europe had 4 classes and secondary schools 8. That made 12 school years before university studies.)]

By 1919 the instruction was in Estonian.
From fall of 1919 on this school also accepted female students.
School year 1919-1920: there were 238 pupils. During the school year 1920-1921 this school had 7 classes. Plus, there were 2 of each: 6th and 7th grades. In all 272 students.
Then, during the school year 1921-1922 more were added: one more parallel class was created because "Linna IV. Algkool" was closed and the students changed over to # III. School was in session in 2 shifts: morning and evening. There were 301 students.
1922-1923: there were 372 pupils (301 boys + 71 girls) and 1923-1924: 317 (203 boys + 114 girls) The school continued with 10 classes of which 3 were parallel to others.
1924-1925: one of the parallel classes was eliminated.
From then on there was some decline in amount of students. It all reflected the fluctuations of population which were happening at that time. And that is a reflection of historical events.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

First, under "A)", I have concentrated on the students who graduated 1890-1930.
Under "B)" are the inspectors employed and assigned by Russia to this school from 1804 to 1913. In "B.1" are those who were inspectors from 1804 to 1886 and "B.2" 1886-1913.
In "C)" Teachers 1805-1930 are listed. They are divided according to what was going on with the school into "C.1" to "C.4".

A few words about school archives: The school used to have its own archive.
By 1930 much of the historical material had been lost. Some had gone to the
"Nikolai I Upper High School" (gümnaasium) in Tallinn and to the Archive of the
"kurator". Finally, by 1930, all the archival material was housed at the
"Central State Archive" in Tartu.
I do not know if this material still exists or if the Soviets
and neglect have destroyed it all. Hopefully it all is still there.

A - Those who graduated:


The only thing the book mentions is that 10 graduated. Of those graduates: 1 went to study medicine in St. Petersburg, 1 went there into the military, 1 studied pharmacy, 1 learned to become a merchant, 2 started to learn a trade and 4 went to learn other professions.

Between 1886 and 1888 Otto Strandman, the future statesman of the Republic of Estonia, was a student there. Apparently he did not graduate from this school.


Andresen, Julius / Bergmann, Paul / Greenberg, Aleksander / Jakobson, Gideon /
, Gustav / Lemberg, Johan / Lemnits, Mihkel / Maasing, Jüri / Normak, Mart /
Õun, Aleksei / Püss, Aleksander / Tamm, Jakob / Tenneberg, Johannes.


Freibach, Mihkel / Greenberg, Karl / Greenberg, Voldemar / Kena, Jaan /
Lont, Madi / Matiisen, Evald / Nurk, Jaan / Reit, Joosep / Sikkel, Aleksander /
Schvabenfeld, Joosep / Stein, Julius / Valdmann, Eduard / Valter, Rudolf /
Vehik, Toomas / Veidenbaum, Jaan.


Abner, Eduard / Elertz, Adolf / Gustavson, Karl / Keskküla, August /
Kreutzberg, Heinrich / Palkmann, Konrad / Uttendorf, Toomas.


Albau, Julius / Bender, Karl / Dahlmann, Aleksander / Friedenberg, August /
Peterson, August / Randmann, Jaan / Sapper, Karl / Sihvart, Jakob /
Virgo (Virko), Eduard.


Astok, Gustav / Jügens, Voldemar / Kosta, Eduard / Liima, Gustav / Sepp, Martin /
Veidenbaum, Priidik / Vimberg, Voldemar.


Blumer, Leonhard / Esaul, Gustav / Krass, Friedrich / Nei, Georg / Nurk, Mihkel /
Tiivas, Oskar / Tinnuri, Gustav / Võiberg, Aleksander.


Lande, Eduard / Mänd, Gustav / Molodtsov, Kirill / Nurk, Mihkel / Rotberg, Karl /
Särm, August / Teki, Joosep / Tiitso, August.


Einberg, Oskar / Männik, Voldemar / Mihailovski, Sergei / Moller, August /
Peets, Rudolf / Tiitso, Karl / Tingas, Konstantin / Vimberg, Karl.


Bekker, Elmar / Jürgens, Arnold / * 1903 ? Kirschbaum, Johannes / Lagrum, Richard /
* 1903
Mark, Reinhold / Redlich, Karl / Saar, Rudolf / Tenneberg, Aleksander /
Uhlberg, Leopold.


Baumann, Magnus / Haho, Johan / Mufel, Nikolai / Rukki, Joosep / Ruus, Voldemar /
Särm, Rudolf / Sikka, August / Veinman, Johannes.


Ader, Jakob / Baumann, Gustav / Grotmann (Krootmann), Eduard /
Jürgenson, August / Kivisepp, Karl / Kivisepp, Rudolf / Kolga, Karl /
Lillbock, Hermann / Taalfeldt, Karl / Tamm, Anton.


Grauberg, August / Grüntal, Johannes / Koršunov, Josef / Kull, Ferdinand /
Kullerkupp, Karl / Prignitz, Viktor / Rikken, Aleksander / Vebermann, Ernst /
Vink, Rudolf / Vorobjev, Vladimir.


Aver, Jüri / Feklistov, Nikolai / Freirik, Karl / Juhkam, Mihkel / * 1903 Jürna, Hugo /
* 1903
Kalamäe, Martin / * 1903 Kruusimägi, Karl / Malein, Feofil / Paavian, Heinrich / Pringnitz, Herbert / Rosenberg, Heinrich / Tingas, Emil / * 1903 Uustalu, Rudolf /
Vahtra, Jaan / Vildt, Georg.


Regular graduates:
(Jäärmann), Karl / Eero, August / Grauberg, Karl / Kask, Herman /
Kendemann, Karl / Kilkson, Johannes / Kirschbaum, August / Neudorf, Johannes /
Orav, Aleksander / Sihvart, August /Söödi, Aleksander / Steinberg, Osvald /
Vitsut, Johannes / * 1904 Ziegel, Vladimir.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, August / Auksmann, Jaan / * 1902 Jürna, Hugo / Kaik, Jüri /
* 1902
Kalamäe, Martin / * 1898 ? Kirschbaum, Jaan / * 1902 Kruusimägi, Karl /
* 1898
Mark, Reinhold / Masing, Aleksander / * 1902 Uustalu, Rudolf.


Regular graduates:
, Karl / Einberg, Karl / * 1905 Haho, Christoph / Ivanov, Vassili /
Johanson, Villem / Kaasik, Aleksander / Kauba, Johannes / Kleesmann, Richard /
* 1906 ?
Kriks, Toomas / * 1905 Lepp, Johannes / Liivak, Aleksander /
Mitrofanov, Valentin / Ots, Juhan /Saage, Aleksander / * 1905 Sallo, Anton /
Samuel, Ferdinand / Tivas, Joosep / * 1905 Tiitso, Richard / Tingas, August /
Tomingas, Ernst / Trei (Treu), Aleksander / Uuk-Areda, Heinrich / Värava, August
Virk, Verner.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, Paul / Hannus, Julius / Koonukõrb, Hugo / Leppik, Hans / Markus, Karl /
, August / Raudsepp, Osvald / Reineberg, Julius / * 1903 Ziegel, Vladimir.


Regular graduates:
, Ferdinand / Albau, Aleksander / Baumann, Georg / Biider, Karl /
Dengo, Gustav / Felder, Johannes / Holland, Johannes / Intal, Johannes /
Jürgenson, Jaan / Kaalep, Karl / Kelu (Kello), Eduard / Kilkson, Aleksander /
Klaus, Hans / Krimm, Mihkel / Linnamaa, Tiido / Malein, Aleksei / Malein, Paul /
Mittendorf, Jakob / Möller, August / Pärn, Anton / Peebo, Johannes /
Putmaker, Eduard / Reiman, Karl / Reimer, Theodor / Rumberg, August /
Schmidt, Leopold / Soopan, Villem / Stahl, Paul / Stein, August /
Tenneberg, Nikolai / Toming, Rudolf / Värava, Oskar / Vilberg, Rudolf.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, August / * 1904 Haho, Christoph / * 1904 ? Krikk, Toomas / Laurits, Oskar /
* 1904
Lepp, Johannes / Lott, Ado / Roosileht, Andres / * 1904 Sallo, Anton /
Schneider, Paul / * 1904 Tiitso, Richard.


Regular graduates:
, Richard / Adof, Arnold / Ambos, Toomas / Annus, Johannes / Argus, August / Baumann, Gustav / Baumann, Jakob / Emberg, Arnold / Fahlberg, Andrei /
Frohmann, Joosep / Jalak, Mikk / Juhkam, Johannes / Käbin, Johannes /
Landsman, Johannes / Lehtmets, Johannes / Lett, Oskar / Masing, Arnold /
Mikkos, Roman / Nelke, Herman / Pappe, Johannes / Plaum, Heinrich / Prignitz, Edgar / Pruun, Karl / Raus, Paul / Seidelberg, Robert / Teer, Karl / Trummar, Ruben /
Valter, Rudolf / Vattel, Artur / Veerbaum, Aleksander / Velberg, Mihkel /
Vollmüller, Ernst.

None graduated with teaching credentials in 1906. There was a change in study plans.


Regular graduates:
, Eduard / Bergmann, Tõnis / Datsenko, Vladimir / Eero, Aleksander /
Friedrichs, Albin / Friedrichs, Konstantin / Jürgens, Karl / Kleinmann, Oskar /
Klindemann, Mihkel / Krikmann, Karl / Kull, Eduard / Kuur, Sergei / Lauri, Heinrich /
Leppik, Christoph-August / Leppik, Jaan / Leufeldt, Karl / Mark, Julius /
Mihkra, Karl / Miilo, Rudolf / Nei, August / Nelke, Voldemar / Niedrichson, Eugen
Olev, Osvald / Olev, Reinhold / Oser, Vilhelm / Pajos, Evald / Petermann, Eilhard /
Piibemann, Oskar / Promen, Ruben / Raudkepp, Arkadi / Riisberg, Eduard /
Sarap, August / Sommer, Edgar / Tenneberg, Roman / Tiivas, August /
Tiksmann, Otto / Traks, Konrad / Treilmann, Theodor / Uukareda, Joosep /
Uustalu, Villem / Vall, Jaan / Valter, Aleksander / Vilberg, Johannes / Vink, Karl.

Those who earned teaching credentials - first females appear:
, August / Bartoševic / Baumann, Jakob / Frohmann, Ida / Frohmann, Joosep /
Jalak, Mikk / Kilkson, Karl / Landsmann, Johannes / Lemnits, Magdaleena /
Lille, Helene / Luik, Karl / Malein, Paul / Nelke, Herman / Plaum, Heinrich /
Plehn, Aleksandra / Raudkepp, Henriette / Raus, Paul / Tsiugov / Upsi, Margarete /
Veerbaum, Aleksander /Vellema (Vellberg), Mihkel / Vildt, Auguste / Volmüller, Ernst.


Regular graduates:
, Voldemar / Allik, Augustin / Bachmann, Karl / Baumann, Karl / Emberg, Paul
Gerber, August / Janov, Herbert / Kärdi, August / Kleeman, Hans /
Koppelmann, Hugo /Kulderknupp, Aleksander / Lank, Voldemar / Lepni, Gustav /
* 1909
Läks (Laeks), Hans / * 1909 Lippasaar, Abel / Mahkvei, Jaan /
* 1909 ?
Neumann, Karl / Nurkse, Heinrich / Orn, August / Piik, Ado / Pilli, Toomas /
Podrätsik, August / Põiklago, Eduard / * 1909 ? Raus, Andres / Reinhold, August /
* 1909
Roosvald, Arnold / Saare, Voldemar / * 1909 Sein, August / Siimon, Alfred /
Talbach, Julius /* 1909 Tammjärv, Aleksander / * 1909 Tark, Karl / Tenneberg, Artur /
* 1909
Tiivas, Aleksander / Tikmann, Rudolf / Toomassen, Konstantin /
Viinerfeldt, Artur / Vilde, Johannes.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, Luise / Lepik, August / Nelke, Voldemar / Noss, Liidia / Pajos, Evald / Piibemann, Oskar / Piiber, Marie / Reinumägi, Aliide / Saksing, Paul /
Sarap, August /Sirp, Anton / Steinberg, Meeta / Uustalu, Aliide / Vall, Jaan /
Volberg, Magda.


Regular graduates:
, Villiam / * 1910 Allikas, Joosep / Bötcher, Johannes / * 1910 Ehrlich, Johannes /
Eschbaum, Harald / * 1910 ? Freudenberg, Eduard / Jaanberg, Karl / Joonits, Rudolf /
* 1910
Kasekamp, August / Kiiken, Vildemar / Kilkson, Ernst / * 1910 Kokk, Karl /
Korkmann, August / Laast, Artur / Leemets, Rudolf / Lehtmets, Richard /
* 1910
Liiv, Arnold / * 1910 ? Lintman (Lendman), Voldemar-Jakob / Lippus, Richard /
Nei, Ernst / * 1910 Nelke, Ferdinand / Pajos, Karl / * 1910 Paju, August /
* 1910
Parinbak (Parijõgi), Jüri / * 1910 Piibemann, Eduard / Raudsik, Aleksander /
Reichenbach, Otto / * 1910 Reinmann (Reiman), Rudolf / Romm, Karl /
Rööpson, Friedrich / Suurkaev, Jaan / Upsi, Otto / * 1910 Vaska, Jakob /
* 1910
Veem, Johannes /Velbaum, August.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, Anna / Katfeldt, Anette / Kirsbaum, Karl / Koltrian, Veera /
* 1908
Laeks, Hans / * 1908 Lippassaar, Abel / * 1908 ? Neimann, Karl / Palli, Teofilie /
Pašukevits, Anastasia / * 1908 ? Raus, Andrei / * 1908 Roosvald, Arnold /
* 1908
Sein, August / Tammjärv, Aleksander / * 1908 Tark, Karl /
* 1908
Tiivas, Aleksander.


Regular graduates:
, Jakob / Ansman, Jüri / Arro, Aleksander / Balder, August / Baumann, Paul /
Bergfeldt, Eduard / Brujakin, Peeter / Eeman, Karl / Esperk, Richard /
Freirik, Konrad / Hõbemägi, Julius / Järv, Jüri / Kiirik, Eduard / Kilm, Adolf /
* 1911
Kippar, Gustav / Klammer, Johannes / Koitel, Konstantin / Kraulberg, Valerian /
Lemnits, Jaan / Lugenberg, Aleksander / Masing, Herman / Meerbach, Alfred /
* 1911
Mein, Aleksander / Nurkse, Hugo / Olvi, Heinrich / Õunmann, Johannes /
Pervik, Johannes / Runge, Villem / * 1911 Siim, Jakob / Stahlberg, Viktor /
Tiiseln, Leonhard / * 1911 Tomberg, August / Vilo, Hugo / Volkov, Roman.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
* 1909 Allikas, Joosep / * 1909 Ehrlich, Johannes / Eiskopp, Ida /
* 1909 ?
Friedenberg, Eduard / Griina, Julius / Kala, Aliide / Kalda, Helene /
Kangur, Ludmilla / * 1909 Kasekamp, August / Kiisberg, Leida / * 1909 Kokk, Karl /
* 1909
Liiv, Arnold / Liiv, Meeri / * 1909 ? Lindemann, Jakob / Lumpen, Aliide /
* 1909
Nelke, Ferdinand / * 1909 Paju, August / * 1909 Parinbak (Parijõgi), Jüri /
Parts, Alma / * 1909 Piibemann, Eduard / * 1909 Reinmann (Reiman), Rudolf /
Rotka, Liina / Saks, Blume / Smidt, Veera / Valter, Elviine / * 1909 Vaska, Jakob /
* 1909
Veem, Johannes.


Regular graduates:
, Jakob / Baumann, Karl / Erma, Karl / Fählmann, Jaan /
Frohmann, Fromhold / Ibner, Johannes / Intal, Rudolf / Järv, Aleksander /
Jürgenson, Hugo / Kaasik, Roman / Kaldaalus, Arnold / Kilkson, Gustav /
Kornejev, Konstantin / Kruusmann, Jüri / Kungur, Aleksander / Lank, Konstantin /
Liibenau, Karl / Liimann, Johannes / Noorlind, Johannes / Pärenson, Karl /
Pedriks, August / Pupp, Alfred / Reitel, Lembit / Selter, Joosep / Toming, Artur /
Veermann (Vöörmann), Bernhard / Velt, Oskar / Vihmann, Johannes.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, Marta / Kašan, Alma / * 1910 Kippar, Gustav / Kopelmann, Hugo /
Korkmann, August / * 1910 Mein, Aleksander / Pohla, Aliide / Roosvald, Leida /
* 1910
Siim, Jakob / * 1910 Tomberg, August / Treimann, Aleksei / Tsvetkov, Olga /
Veia, Ida / Voikov, Paul.


Regular graduates:
, Christoph / Amberg, Nikolai / Anderson, Kuno / Bolton, Arnold /
Datsenko, Georg / Emberg, Jakob / Freudenthal, Eduard / Hansen, Osvald /
Kozin, Vladimir / Kranfeldt, Karl / Kudrin, Nikolai / * 1914 Laast, Aleksander /
Landberg, Alfred / Lauton, Arnold / Leemets, Voldemat / Mikker, Aleksander /
Ong (Onk), Aleksander / Privoi, Bernhard / Reinot (Reinhold), Alfred /
Rosenbaum, Johannes / Rulli, Oskar / Saar, Johannes / Schmidt, Richard /
Siim, August / Söödi, Karl / Stein, Ferdinand / Strauss, Adolf / Tammar, Karl /
Tenneberg, Karl / Vaelaks, Johannes / Valter, Robert / Veske, Valter /
Vilberg, Karl.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, Anette / Danilov, Georg / Kaldaalus, Arnold / Kiho, Ida / Küla, Madis /
Mälk, Theodor / Päärenson, Karl / Pašukevic, Nadešda / Tromberg, Sidonia /
Vahrberg, Jaan.


Regular graduates:
, Johannes / Grauen, Johannes / Kaaber, Oskar / Kannelaud, Julius /
Mein, Gustav / Nurm, Aleksander / Õun, Voldemar / Õuntok (Auendorf), Karl /
Pakker (Pakkai), Karl / Pakkin, Zigij / Pretter, Karl / Raudkepp, Otto /
Rumberg, Anton / Saueselg, Aleksander / Tagam, Albert / Tenneberg, Ulrich /
Tikk, Aleksander /Tingas, Richard / Tonk, Rudolf / Utmann, Friedrich /
Zelinski, Mihail.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, Ida / Küla, Madis / Linnamaa, Liisa.


Regular graduates:
, Villem / Eber, Johannes / Einberg, Albert / Elmat, Arnold / Elmat, Valter /
Heinberg, Albert / Jürgenson, Alfons / Kukeinsmann, Eduard / Laev, Herbert /
Liebreich, Johannes / Mikker, Leonhard / Palmberg, Albert / Redlich, Friedrich /
Samberg, Johannes / Sepp, Jakob / Tenneberg, August / Tenneberg, Martin /
Toming, Karl / Viinberg, Rudolf.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, Johannes / Kiilits, Julie / * 1912 Laast, Aleksander / Neuland, Olga /
Noss, Olga / Pikkat, Leida / Soopan, Tooni / Vitsut, Maria.


Take into account the year and the historical situation. Read my book which gives
the history in short form to understand it.

Regular graduates:
, Ernst / Adrikorm, Konstantin / Erild, Rudolf / Eschbaum, Johannes /
Kiimann, Oskar / Kirsch, August / Kustin, Hugo / Laast, Erich / Lipinski, Peeter
Malmberg, August / Metsis, Alfred / Porman, Aleksander / Raamat, Eduard /
, Hugo / Saarmann, Gustav / Saarmann, Rudolf /
(Sults), Joosep / Siisberg, Martin / Tiinas (Tiinast), Jakob /
Undeldorf, Aleksander / Uustalu, Toomas / Võrno, Johannes.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, Oskar / Seebas, Alvine / Sirotkin, Sinaida / Treilmann, Ella.


Regular graduates:
Aavik,August / Arro, Heinrich / Argus, Eduard / Einberg, Oskar / Erm, August /
Evrest, Artur / Felder, Eduard / Krihvel, Karl / Jalakas, Arnold /
Kanemägi, Aleksander / Keskküla, Anton / Kotka, Johannes /
Lehtmets, Voldemar / Liholm, Gustav / Luigas, Leopold / Nikolaev, Ivan /
Nurk, Johannes / Ong, Gustav / Pilve, Evald / Reinberg, Voldemar / Rumm, Artur
Rumm, Hugo / Tipner, Johannes / Vademann (Laasberg), Ernst.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
, Juhan / Laupmann, Liisa / Uustal, Linda / Vakmann, Olga / Vikov, Alide.


Regular graduates:
, Jaan / Erapart, Arnold / Haug, August / Juurik, Leonhard / Kangur, Johannes / Kirsipuu, Evald / Kommel, Aleksei / Kozin, Georg / Koovits, Aleksander /
Kuivkaev, Leonhard / Laur, Arnold / Meister, Heinrich / Nirgi, Voldemar /
Olev, Villem / Pääro, Karl / Parinbak, Julius / Pinkovski, Leo / Remmet, August /
Takjas, Toomas / Tiisfeldt, Konstantin / Struzkov, Mihail / Vissenberg, Oskar.

Those who earned teaching credentials:
There are none mentioned. These courses had been terminated. Those who wanted to become teachers now had to go to special schools called "teacher seminars".

Accounting courses had started during this school year and there were those who graduated with this kind of credentials. But, names of graduates are not given.


Regular graduates:
Aavik, Helmar / Allikberg, Arnold / Altorf, Heinrich / Bechmann, Adolf /
Eiskop, Johannes / Grünberg (Kremberg), Burchardt / Ibner (Hübner), Johan /
Järv, Voldemar / Kiik, Aleksander / Käsper, Karl / Lehtmets, Elmar /
Lootus, Leonhard / Martof, Julius / Mägi, Johannes / Möllits, Roland / Neito, Erich /
Niilbach, Arnold / Parinbak, Alfred / Pinkovski, Paul / Rakles, Karl /
Raudsepp, August / Reinot, Arnold / Sööt, Edgar / Suurmann, Richard /
Tomei, Alfred / Valtmann, Ernst / Viiburg, Julius / Viinberg, Jüri / Vilk, Oskar.

Accounting courses continued and ended this school year and there were those who graduated with this kind of certificates. But, names of graduates, again, are not given.


Regular graduates:

Argus, Herman / Aus, Anton / Hinno, Mihkel / Kaaber, Gerhard / Kangert, Johannes /
Kask, August / Kreitsman, Karl / Leihter, Karl / Lugenberg, Hans / Pank, Valter /
Pelfeld, Richard / Peterson, Joosep / Rikken, Leopold / Roostar, Arnold /
Saksen, Valter / Saukas, August / Silbergleich, Johannes / Stein, Bernhard /
Strauss, Erich / Strauss, Roman / Tamm, Einart / Tenneberg, Paul /
Treifeldt, Johannes / Veinmann, Johannes / Viilip, Karl / Vilo, Eduard / Vimberg, Karl.


Regular graduates:

Beermann, Arnold / Brinkmann, Valfried / Einblau, Karl / Einmann, Karl /
Hinno, Karl / Kalm, Peeter / Käsper, Gustav / Käsper, Johannes / Krimm, Arnold /
Lasberg, Johannes / Lehtmets, Olav / Leibach, Johannes / Nulbach, Georg /
Paju, Teodor / Palland, Hugo / Peebo, Rudolf / Pudini, Eduard / Purka, Johannes /
Pärn, Alfred / Soonike, Eduard / Sirelpuu, Heinrich / Tenneberg, Friedrich /
Tepp, Voldemar / Tiitus, Meliks / Ups, Martin / Vares, Voldemar /
Viikmann, Johannes / Vilo, Arnold / Vilo, Heinrich / Virks, August.


Regular graduates: (There were 2 graduating classes that year.)

a) Argus, Villem / Brinkmann, Karl / Eero, Rudolf / Ehvart, Friedrich /
Freudental, Alfred / Hanson, Oskar / Järv, Richard / Kolberg, Evald /
Kongi, Reinhold / Kurs, Elmar / Lootus, Albert / Otto, Oskar / Pank, Karl /
Past, Kristof / Rootsi, Voldemar / Sooden, Albert / Steinhaus, Heinrich /
Stolberg, Adolf / Strundt, Arnold / Talbach, Karl / Tepp, Arnold /
Tomingas, Oskar / Toots, Johannes / Viinberg, Johannes / Vilo, Karl.

b) Allese, Aleksander / Grostal, Viljam / Krikk,Herbert / Kukkur, Friedrich /
Landberg, Eduard / Lillepea, Helmut / Lippassaar, Paul / Mühlbach,Karl /
Pelfeldt, Roman / Poltsenas, Eduard / Rannaberg, Voldemar /
Remmert, Johannes / Remmert, Johannes / Rootsi Evald / Rosnikov, Johannes /
Sallo, Aleksander / Schnell, Evald / Stein, Evald / Steinfels, Robert /
Toiger, August / Unterverk, Heinrich / Vimberg, Alfred.

1922: From 1922 on young ladies started to graduate from this school together with the traditional young men.
                   Times were changing...

Regular graduates:

Grostal, Harald / Hübner, Heinrich / Joa, Erich / Jürna, Ernst / Jurtom, Rudolf /
Kala, Adele / Kransberg, Boris / Lauri, Voldemar / Lootus, Artur / Midri, Herbert /
Nirgi, Ferdinand / Parkla, Heinrich / Posti, Elmar / Rentik, Joosep / Sägi, Artur /
Siim, Heinrich / Silbergleich, Heinrich / Stein, Otto / Talbach, Arnold / Tiido, Ida /
Tobias, Herman / Vakker, Hugo / Valter, Ilmar / Vebermann, Friedrich / Volt, Ernst / Vöölmann, Arnold.


Regular graduates:

Gerst, Bernhard / Haus, Ernst / Jalak, Heinrich / Jürken, Helmi / Kunstmann, Georg /
Lemberg, Alma / Liigmann, Salme / Luht, Artur / Mölder, Linda / Müllerhof, Karl /
Pakker, Hermann / Penjam, Amanda / Pihlak, Edgar / Pilt, Johannes / Põiklik, Villiam / Raud, Voldemar / Riisberg, Ferdinand / Rumberg, Evald / Sägi, Artur / Schönfeldt, Artur / Seier, Evald / Selber, Helmi / Siider, Edgar /
Silbergleich, Heinrich / Steinberg, Lydia / Tinnuri, Alfred / Vitsut, Fromhold.


Regular graduates:

Ehrenberg, Aleksander / Eino, Mihail / Grüntal, Otto / Hallert, Erna / Herma, Evald / Jaakson, Boris / Käär, Elfriede / Leetberg, Meeta / Lilbock, Ernst / Mägi, Arnold /
Meimer, Arnold / Pakker, Artur / Rikken, Rudolf / Semenjuk, Nikolai / Siirak, Evald /
Siirak, Roman / Sildever, Hilja / Talbach, Helmi / Tartu, Arnold / Tomingas, Edgar / Uustalu, Martin / Vall, Voldemar / Veigel, Otto / Veinberg, Valentin / Veske, Arnold / Viinberg, Oskar.


Regular graduates:

Alt, Helmi / Ahelik, Dagmar / Baumann, Hartvig / Bock, Erich / Bock, Evald /
Borkmann, Karl / Fählmann, Evald / Habicht, Harald / Hein, Artur / Järv, Arnold /
Jegorov, Ivan / Johannov, Leoniid / Kaasik, Erich / König, Herbert /
Krikmann, August / Kurs, Salme / Lemberg, Ella / Luugenberg, Adeele /
Meeru, Richard / Oomer, Leoniide / Orlova, Valentiina / Õunapuu, Edmund /
Põldmäe, Voldemar / Privoi, Marie / Privoi, Margareete / Proosa, Leida /
Putnik, Hans / Puurmann, Paul / Scherbitski, Oleg / Semenjuk, Elisabet /
Siiak, Sigfried / Talpak, Alfred / Tepp, Emilie / Ubner, Arnold / Ubner, Ernst /
Valter, Johannes / Vebermann, Salme.


Regular graduates:

Ahelik, Marie / Etverk, Sigfried / Hakker, Roland / Haunmann, Herman /
Jefimov, Veera / Jõe, Heino /Keskküla, Heino / Konso, Aino / Kunstmann, Andrei /
Lärm, Hilda / Lemberg, Herman / Mänd, Johannes / Männik, Johannes /
Markus, Helmut / Martens, Aleksander / Mathiesen, Margarete / Mati, Hilda /
Orav, Viktor / Õunapuu, Heinrich / Puusepp, Evald / Rätsep, Karl /
Reinmann, Arved / Remmelg, Johannes / Schermann, Samuel / Silbergleich, Elfriede.


Regular graduates:

Avik, Ervin / Avik, Helmut / Bauer, Friedrich / Eiart, Alfred / Einfeldt, Olga /
Funk, Sale / Jakobson, Eduard / Julle, Leoniid / Jürgens, Aino / Kirsch, Lonny /
Küüra, Egon / Lemberg, Voldemar / Moor, Selma / Rand, Valter / Reitel, Edmund
Sillaots, Roland / Taalbach, Evald / Tartu, Gerda / Tatrik, Gerhard / Tobias, Helene
Ups, Herman / Uustalu, Aino / Veinberg, Auroora.


Regular graduates:

Aavik, Sigrid / Aavik, Elfriede / Blechmann, Rafael / Brükker, Paul / Einfeldt, Albert / Einfeldt, Karl / Eapost, Eustafii / Kaktus, Alice / Kaev, Adolf / Korn, Helga /
Mikiver, Valter / Novikov, Niina / Piilberg, Voldemar / Plunkvist, Karl / Raja, Otto /
Rosenberg, Artur / Siiak, Helmut / Siirak, Eliita / Tamson, Elmar / Tamson, Erich
Veske, Linda / Veinberg, Akte.


Regular graduates:

Bauer, Leida / Haarmann, Arnold / Jõesaar, Elga / Kala, Heinrich /
Keskküla, Maria / Kukke, Aino / Kulli, Raimund / Kutti, Erik / Liigmann, Johannes
Meero, Bernhard / Meisner, Erich / Mosel, Antoniina / Murd, Juta / Puurmann, Marie
Reinmann, Renate / Riisberg, Salme / Schermann, Berta / Selli, Ella / Siiak, Nora /
Tepp, Aksel / Vanda, Elfriede / Venig, Alfred.

B - The inspectors from 1804 to 1917:

B.1: at the "Kreiskool" ("Kreisschule" or "County School") in Rakvere 1804-1886:

B.1.1) Johann Adam Buckel: He had been born 1765 in Gotha, Germany. [There his father was part of the "Kammerkollegium" Alliance (League?).] He studied at the Universities of Jena and Göttingen. Until 1804 he was a home teacher in Estonia. (Most probably at some very prominent households.) 1 Oct 1804 Johann Adam Buckel was appointed inspector of the "Kreis" Schools of Rakvere and Paide - with his central office in Paide (= Weißenstein).

B.1.2) Joachim Heinrich Mickwitz: born 1775 in Estonia where his father was a pastor (probably in Viljandi = Fellin). He studied at the University of Jena in Germany. He then worked as a home teacher in Estonia. From 1806 to 1816 he was teacher at the Paldiski (= Baltischport) "Keis" School. On 1 Oct 1810 he became inspector of the County Schools of Rakvere and Paide. His central office was also in Paide. His post at the Rakvere "Kreis"School ended in 1820.

B.1.3) Friedrich August Grove: born 1761 (?) in Salzwedel, Brandenburg. He was either the son of a book binder or a pastor. He did his university studies in Germany. Then he was a home teacher (where?) and later a teacher at the County School in Valga (= Walk), Estonia. From 22 Dec 1809 - 20 Aug 1820 he was teacher at the "Kreis" School in Rakvere. Then he became temporary inspector of this school and from 30 Sep 1820 on he was full inspector until he died on 12 Apr 1826.

B.1.4) Heinrich Johann Winckler was born 11 Jul 1798 in Estonia. 1816-1819 he studied theology at the University of Tartu (= Dorpat). After that he dedicated himself to ownership of an estate in Estonia. 1824-1826 he was a teacher and from 1826 to 1843 he was the inspector of the County School of Rakvere. From 1843 on he taught at the County School in Paide. He died 4 Aug 1864.

B.1.5) Alexander Eduard Gebhardt: he was born 27 Dec 1806 in Estonia. 1826-1929 studied theology. 1830-1837 he was a home teacher. 1837-1842 he taught at the County School in Paide. In 1843 he became inspector at the County School in Rakvere. Died 29 Oct 1847.

B.1.6) Jakob Johann Nocks was born 7 Feb 1800 in the County of Virumaa (= Wierland), Estonia. 1919-1822 he studied at the University of Tartu. He was a home teacher after that. 1826-1847 he taught at the Rakvere "Kreis" (or County) School. 1847-1858 we was the inspector of that same school. 1858-1864 he was an Aid of the Director of all Schools in Estonia. 1861-1864 he became inspector of "Nikolai I" Upper High School (gümnaasium) in Tallinn (= Reval). He retired and lived in Tallinn.

B.1.7) Johann Kirber was born 14 Mar 1821 on an estate called "Heimadr..." (?) in Livonia. His father was a teacher. He studied in Tartu at the Teachers Seminar. 1840-1856 he was a teacher at the High School in Lihula (= Leal, Estonia). 1856-1858 he taught in Bauska (= Bauske, now in Latvia) and 1858-1862 he was inspector at the "Kreis" School in Rakvere. 1862-1865 he was a teacher there. He retired and died in 1884.

B.1.8) Heinrich Tichter: was born 1813 in Frankfurt/Oder in Germany. He studied at the University in Berlin. 1845-1847 he taught at the County School in Paide, Estonia. 1847-1848 in Valga. 1848-1861 he was inspector of the "Kreis" School in "Vindavi" (could this be Ventspils = Windau, Latvia?) 1862-1871 he was inspector of the County School in Rakvere. After 25 years of service he was separated from his duties because he did not know the Russian language. He then went to Tallinn where he taught at the Upper High School (gümnasium) from 1871 to 1875. After that he became city school inspector in Talsi (= Talsen), Latvia.

B.1.9) Alexander Loffrenz: born 8 Nov 1834 in Livonia. From 1856 to 1861 he studied theology at the University of Tartu. Until 1868 he was a home teacher in Livonia and Kuronia (= Courland = Kurland). 1868-1871 he was a teacher and from 1871 to 1878 inspector at the "Kreis" School in Rakvere. 1878-1889 the Estonian Knighthood Society (= Ritterschaft) employed him as the director of the "Kuuda" Seminar. (Could this be in Kuude, NE of Viljandi?) After that he taught in Tallinn.

B.1.10) Peeter Martinson: was born 22 Aug 1835 in Riga, then Livonia. He studied in Germany, at the Teacher Seminar of Weimar. 1867-1873 he was in Paide, Estonia. 1873 in Viljandi. 1874-1878 he was teacher and inspector at the "Kreis" School in Võru (= Werro). 1878 for a short while at the County School in Tartu. The same year he became inspector at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. When this school was renamed from "Kreis School" to "City School" he continued as its inspector until he died on 30 May 1889.

B.2: inspectors at the same, but renamed "City School" in Rakvere: 1886-1913 and later "Kõrgem Algkool" (Higher Elementary School):

B.2.1) Vladimir Senatski: from 1889 to 1896. Before coming to Rakvere he was a teacher at the City School in Arzama (Arce in Latvia?) and inspector from 1887 to 1889 at the Linnakool in Võru. After Rakvere he was assigned to the City School in Jaroslav, Russia, as a teacher.

B.2.2) Konstanti Talantov: 1886-1890 he was a teacher at the City School in Jekabpils (=Jakobstadt), Latvia. In Rakvere he was inspector from 1890 to 1892. To impose more Russian he made all students use Russian uniform type shirts and coats. There was physical punishment for speaking in Estonian. He also made everyone pray in Russian the orthodox prayers and kids had to sing Russian church songs. (Only 5% of the children were from orthodox homes.) A few times the children were even made to go to the Russian orthodox church. 1892-1900 he was inspector at the same school where he had been a teacher before, in Latvia. After that he was inspector at several schools in the Ventspils (= Windau) area in Latvia.

B.2.3) Ivan Vasiljev: he taught at the Linnakool in Peetri (= Peterhof), Estonia and 1889-1892 he was inspector at the City School in Paide. In Rakvere he started as inspector in 1892 and left in 1897. He instituted music lessons and created a school band. Uniform shirts were gone. Under him there even were parties where relatives of pupils could attend. Among the more or less 150 students (some 20 years of age) there were only around 10 Russians. Most spoke Estonian among themselves. In 1897 he was assigned as inspector at the Linnakool called "Katarina II" in Tallinn. He had that position for a whole decade.

B.2.4) Ivan Rõzov: he studied at the Teachers Institute in Orenburg, Russia. 1891 - 1897 he was a teacher at the City School called "Katarina II" in Tallinn. He was the inspector at the Linnakool in Rakvere from 1897 to 1905. He did not get along with the students nor with the teachers. He was reassigned to Paide as an inspector in 1905.

B.2.5) Aleksei Dušeckin: He was born in the St. Petersburg Province of Russia. He studied at the Teachers Institute in St. Petersburg. He worked as a teacher in the City School at Ostrov, Russia (close to Latvia). From 1889 to 1904 he was a supernumerary teacher at the Linnakool called "Katarina II" in Tallinn. 1904 - 1905 he was inspector at the Linnakool in Paide. In Rakvere he was the inspector at the City School from 1906 until his death in May 1917. He came after the Gerasjkin affair. (See teacher under "C.2.17", below.) The years he was there things were quiet.

C - The Teachers from 1805 to 1930:

C.1: at the "Kreis Schule" = "Kreiskool" ("Kreis" or County School) in Rakvere

from 1805 to 1886:

I leave the list as it is in the book - arranged according to the years taught at this school.

C.1.1: those who taught general subjects:

C.1.1.1) Johann Heinrich Fidejustus Heuser: he was from Erfurt, Germany. He studied at Erfurt and Jena Universities. 1794-1796 he was the secretary at the Rakvere "Keis" School and later home teacher on large estates. 1805-1807 he taught at the Rakvere "Kreiskool". From there he went to Tallinn, where he taught at the "Toomkool" (= "Domschule" = cathedral school).

C.1.1.2) Johann Heinrich Nikolai: from Herborn, Germany. Studied at Göttingen U. Then he worked as home teacher in Estonia. 1805-1809 he was a teacher at the Rakvere and 1810-1815 at the Pärnu (= Pernau) "Kreis" Schools. He died 25 Aug 1815 in Pärnu.

C.1.1.3) Johann Ernst Loewe: he was born in Gotha, Germany. His father was a pastor. He studied at Jena U. After that he was a home teacher on several estates in Estonia. 1804-1807 he taught at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. He died there on 28 Sep 1807.

C.1.1.4) Johann Georg Sigismund Erbe: he was born in Ortdruff, in the Duchy of Gotha, Germany. His father was a craftsman (worked with his hands). He studied at the Jena U. After that he was a home teacher. 1807-1817 he taught at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere, 1817-1827 at the "Kreiskool" in Pärnu. From 1827 to 1837 he was the inspector of the last school. Retired 1837.

C.1.1.5) Emmanuel Gottlieb Wilhelm Behmer: he was born in Bernburg, Germany, as the son of a pastor. Studied at the University in Halle. 1808-1810 he was teacher at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. After that he became a home teacher.

C.1.1.6) Carl Gustav Scheffler: was born 22 Feb 1788 in Tartu, Estonia, as the son of a merchant. 1807-1810 he studied Law at Tartu U. 1810-1824 he was a teacher at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. Then he became the secretary (clerk?) of that school and finally the "Reitmeister" of this "Kreis" (county). (Can anyone translate this old profession into modern terms? Master rider?)

C.1.1.7) Carl Wagner: was teacher at the "Kreis" School in "Šaule(n)" (could be "Saule" in Latvia?). During 1848 he taught very shortly (Mar-Jun) in the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. After that he taught at the one in Tallinn. 1857-1858 he was again teacher in the same school in Rakvere. Was relieved from his duties because of a drinking problem.

C.1.1.8) Ferdinand Allihn: was born 1829 in Anhalt-Köthen, Germany, as son of a pastor. Studied pedagogy in Halle and Leipzig Universities. 1845-1848 he taught in Viljandi at a private school. 1848-1853 he was a teacher at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. From there he went to the "Kreis" School in Kuldiga (= Goldingen), Latvia.

C.1.1.9) Robert Jahnentz: he was born 17 Mar 1825 in Tartu, Estonia, as son of a master (ceramic) oven builder. From 1843 to 1848 he studied history at Tartu U. At first he was a home teacher at the Vaeküla estate, just E of Rakvere. 1853-1856 taught at the Rakvere, 1856-1871 at the Tallinn "Kreis" Schools. 1871-1888 he was inspector at the last school and teacher at the Tallinn School for Girls. He lived in Tallinn after leaving the teaching profession.

C.1.1.10) Oscar Haase: was born 19 Dec (year?) in Livonia. 1856-1857 studied medicine at Tartu U. Earned a home teaching diploma. He worked as such in Rakvere and 1858-1861 taught at the "Kreiskool" there. 1861-1865 he was an inspector's aid at the Teachers Seminary in Tartu, where he also taught. Later he was a teacher in Vitebsk and at the "V. (= 5th) Upper High School" (gümnaasium) in St. Petersburg, Russia. 1881 director of the Upper High School in Pihkva (= Pskov), Russia and after that he held the same position at the Vologda Upper High School in Russia. In 1885 he became the inspector of schools in West Siberia.

C.1.1.11) Heinrich Paucker: was born 7 Aug 1839, studies at the "Miitav" (= Jelgava = Mitau, Latvia?) Upper High School and became a home teacher. 1866-1868 he taught at the Rakvere "Kreis" School. Then, in Tartu, took the exam to become a teacher of the Russian language. Returned to the same "Kreiskool" until 1871 to teach Russian. 1871-1873 he taught Russian at the "Kreiskool" in Tallinn. At the same time he was working as the assistant to the director of schools in all Estonia. Until later temporarily he was the censor in Tallinn.

C.1.1.12) Alexander Böttcher: born 19 May 1838 in Kuronia (= Courland = Kurland). 1859-1862 and 1865-1868 he studied theology at Tartu U. 1862-1864 he worked for the government in Kovno (Kaunas, Lithuania?) and 1869-1870 as a home teacher on the Hulja estate in Vironia. 1871 fall semester he taught at the Rakvere "Kreiskool". 1871-1874 he was inspector at the "Kreis" school in Tukums (= Tuckum), in Latvia. On 1 Jul 1874 he died in Iecava (= Eckau), Latvia,.

C.1.1.13) Hugo Macker: 1871 teacher at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. He soon was terminated the following year because of illness.

C.1.1.14) Sigismund Grossberg: born 1849 in Võru (= Werro), Estonia, as the son of the local elementary school teacher. Studied at the "Kreiskool" in Võru. He worked as a home teacher in Pivaroti and Jaroslavl, Russia. 1868 in Tartu he became a home teacher in mathematics and worked as a private teacher.1872-1876 he taught at the Rakvere "Kreiskool". In 1876 he became an inspector at the "Kreis" School in Limbazi (= Lemsal), Latvia.

C.1.1.15) H. Jahnentz: 1877-1878 he taught at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere.

C.1.1.16) August Solbrig: was born in Kuronia on 4 Sep 1822. 1839-1845 he studied mathematics at Tartu U. He worked as a private teacher in Tartu and a home teacher on estates in Livonia. During the fall semester of 1878 he taught at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. He was "set free" because of illness. He died in Tartu in spring of 1883.

C.1.1.17) Theodor Paucker: Born on 7 Aug 1857 as son of a pastor. Studied at the Upper High School in Tartu. 1879-1885 taught at the Rakvere "Kreiskool". 1885 he was sent to St. Petersburg to teach at the Teacher Institute City School. 1886 he became teacher at the "Kreiskool" in Paide, Estonia.

C.1.1.18) Johann Kunder: was born 14 Dec 1852 in Paistu (= Paistel) where his father was owner of a farm. 1875 finished his studies at the Teacher Seminary in Tartu. Taught at the elementary school in Tartu and then, 1876, in Rakvere. 1878-1882 he taught natural science at the "Kreis" school in Rakvere. 1882-1885 continued in Rakvere as a supernumerary teacher. Then he went to teach at the high school in Kasan, Russia. After that he was at the Teachers Institute in St. Petersburg. He died 12 Apr 1888. He had also been active as a journalist.

C.1.2: those who taught the Russian language:

C.1.2.1) Joseph Pohl: he was from St. Petersburg. He finished school there and then worked as a home teacher. 1805 he taught in Rakvere only from Aug to Dec and without a word just returned to St. Petersburg.

C.1.2.2) Peter Johann Lorenzen: he was from Tallinn where he had studied at the "Toomkool". After graduation he was a private teacher. 1806-1807 he taught Russian at the Rakvere "Kreis" School. He was relieved from his duties because of alcoholism and immoral behavior.

C.1.2.3) Georg Jakob Limberg: was a secretary in Rakvere. 1807 from May to the end of the year he was an aid to the Russian language teacher at the local "Kreiskool".

C.1.2.4) Johann Sommer: was born in Tallinn on 12 Dec 1777. He studied at the Tallinn "Kreis" School. Then he was a private teacher in that city. 1808-1810 substitute and 1810 until the end of 1813 he was the fully assigned Russian teacher at the Rakvere "Kreiskool". 1814 in Viljandi and 1815-1837 in Pärnu he taught Russian at "Kreis" Schools. In the history of Estonian literature he became known for 2 works: "Russian Heart and Russian Soul" ("Vene süda ja vene hing") and "Swan's Ruin" ("Luige Laos"). He died in Pärnu 6 Jan 1851.

C.1.2.5) Andrei Beluhin: was born in Tallinn as son of a Russian officer and went to the "Kreis" School there. 1810-1816 he worked in government offices. 1816-1826 he taught in Rakvere and from Nov 1826 on Russian in Haabsaare (= Habsal) in the Estonian county called Võrumaa (= Kreis Werro) at the "Keis" schools.

C.1.2.6) Vassili Blagovešcenski: born 1801 in Moscow, son of the secretay of a high city official. He studied at the Upper High School in Moscow and then at the university. After that, until 1825, he taught Russian in Bauska, Latvia. 1825-1827 in Rakvere and later in Viljandi "Kreis" Schools. 1837-1842 he taught Russian at the Teachers Seminar in Tartu. After that he was inspector at the "Kreis" School in Riga and later censor in Tallinn. He wrote several books on how to teach the Russian language. 1861 appeared an annonymous - but apparently attributed to him - brochure in Berlin titled "The Estonian and his master" where the miserable plight of an Estonian farm boy is described. He died 19 Aug 1864.

C.1.2.7) Friedrich de Gamperle: substitute teacher in Pihkva. 20 Sep 1827 he was assigned to Rakvere but illness postponed his arrival. Reasigned to Rakvere again as summer of 1828 approached. On the way he broke a leg and returned to Pihkva. Died there 22 Jun 1828.

C.1.2.8) Peeter Šeremetevski: he studied at the University in Moscow. 1829-1833 he taught at the "Kreis" School. He was relieved of his duties because of drinking and lack of morals.

C.1.2.9) Aleksander Molcanov: studied at Moscow U. 1834-1837 taught Russian at the "Kreis" School. After Rakvere he did the same at the "Kreiskool" in Tallinn. He died in spring of 1838.

C.1.2.10) Nikolai Argillander: studied at Moscow U. Then taught Russian at the "Kreis" School in Kuldiga, Latvia. 1837-1839 he did the same in Rakvere. End of spring he returned to Moscow.

C.1.2.11) Hermann Clemenz: born 13 Oct as son of the administrator of an estate. Studied at the "Kreiskool" in Võnnu (= Wenden), the Teacher Seminar in Tartu and then the Higher Institute of Pedagogy in St. Petersburg. 1839-1840 he taught Russian in Rakvere. 1840-1842 at the "Kreiskool" in Kuressaare (= Arensburg) in the Estonian county Saaremaa (= Ösel). 1842-1855 at the Teachers Seminar in Tartu. 1851-1874 he also taught the Latvian language at Tartu U. In Tartu he became the censor of books published there in Latvian. He died in 1874.

C.1.2.12) Karl Flemming: born 20 Sep 1818 in Padur(e) (= either Paddern or Hasenpoth-Paddern), Kuronia as the son of a shoemaker. Studied at the Tartu Teachers Seminar and the Higher Institute of Pedagogy in St. Petersburg. 1840-1849 he taught Russian at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. 1849-1851 at the High School in Liepaja (=Libau), Latvia. Then he was a journalist in Paris and 1869-1870 a teacher at the "Kreis" School in Riga, Latvia.

C.1.2.13) August Girgensohn: born 1823 in Tartu. Studied at the Higher Institute of Pedagogy in St. Petersburg. Worked as a teacher 1843-1844 in Buzuluki, 1844-1849 in Ufa, (both in Russia) and 1849-1850 he taught Russian at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. Later he was the Russian teacher at the "Kreiskool" in Tartu.

C.1.2.14) Friedrich Feldmann: was from St. Petersburg and had finished his studies there at the Higher Institute of Pedagogy. 1856 he taught at the "Kreis" School in Kozlov in the Province of Tambov in Russia. 1856-1865 he was a teacher at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. 1865-1871 the same in Tallinn and 1871-1880 he taught Russian there at the Higher High School.

C.1.2.15) Julius Luck: finished the Higher High School (gümnaasium) in Tallinn. 1865 from Jan to Aug he taught Russian at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere as a replacement teacher.

C.1.2.16) Friedrich Althausen: studied agronomy at the Agricultural School in Kharkov (= Charkow), Russia and 1865-1868 he taught Russian at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. Later he was a teacher at the "Kreis" School # II in Riga.

C.1.2.17) Mihail Svjätoslavski: finished the Theological Seminary in Riga. 1871-1877 he taught Russian at the Rakvere "Kreiskool".

C.1.2.18) Vassili Pigulevski: born 1852, studied in Minsk at the Theological School and Seminary and later at the History-Languages Institute in St. Petersburg. 1876 he became the youngest teacher at the Upper High School in Tartu. 1877 he taught Russian at the Rakvere "Kreiskool". He remained there only a few days and left for St. Petersburg.

C.1.2.19) Johann Milhard: born 1850 in Kuronia. He studied at the Kuressaare Upper High School where he became a teacher. 1877 he was assigned to teach Russian at the "Kreiskool" in Rakvere. Reassigned, he left 1879 and went to Riga and taught at the "Kreis" School there.

C.1.2.20) Nikolai Djäkonov: he was from Dobele (= Doblen), Latvia and had studied in "Schulze" (= Sultsi = Schultzenhof?), Estonia. 1879 he was assigned to teach Russian at the "Kreis" School in Rakvere. 1886 authorities sent him to St. Petersburg to the Teachers Seminar to upgrade his credentials. He returned to Rakvere only a few months later and died there 11 Nov 1886.

C.2: at the same school, renamed "Stadtschule" or "Linnakool" ("City School") in Rakvere

from 1886 to 1913 and later named "Kõrgem Algkool" (Higher Elementary School):

Teachers - those who taught all the different courses:

C.2.1) Peeter Šumakov: he was born 2 Oct 1865. Studied at the Teachers Institute in Moscow. Graduated 1886. After that, from 1886 to 1892, he was a teacher in Rakvere. From there he was sent to Paide as an inspector at the City School. In 1898 he was inspector at the 4 class Linnakool in Tallinn. 1900 to Haabsaare (= Habsal) in Võrumaa and later to Tallinn again as inspector.

C.2.2) Mihail Nikolaev: born 3 Nov 1864. Studied at the 4th Upper High School in Moscow and became at teacher for County Schools. 1886-1887 he worked as a teacher at the Linnakool in Rakvere. 1887 to better prepare him for that profession he was assigned for 1 year to the Teachers Institute of the City School in St. Petersburg. 1888 he was ordered to teach at the Aleksander School in Põltsamaa (= Oberpahlen), in Viljandimaa (= Kreis Fellin). 1902 to 1908 he was the inspector at the City School in Valmiera (= Wolmar) and then as teacher at the Upper High School "Nikolai I" in Riga. Both assignments were in Latvia.

C.2.3) Dimitri Grišanin: He finished the Teachers Institute in St. Petersburg. After that he was sent to Rakvere where he was a teacher from 1887 to 1888. From there he went as a teacher to the Linnakool in Oranienbaum (sounds like a German colony in southern Russia).

C.2.4) Ivan Ivanov: he was born 2 Jan 1864 in the district of Peterhof in Russia. He studied at the Teachers Institute in St. Petersburg. Graduated there in 1888. He worked as a teacher in the following schools: 1888-1889 at the Linnakool in Rakvere. Then in Tallinn at the Katarina II City School. 1893-1896 again in Rakvere. After that he was assigned to Riga, where he taught at the "Aleksander" Upper High School.

C.2.5) David Kibermann: he was born 18 Jan 1854 in Ermistu (= Ermes), Parish of Tõstamaa, in Livonia, now Estonia. Studied in Valga at the Teachers Seminar. 1872-1873 he was at the church school in Ermistu. 1873-1877 at the village school in Turkel(on), in the Aloja (= Allendorf) County (?!). 1880-1887 he taught at the seminary in Valga.1887-1888 at the Võru City School and 1888 he was sent to the Linnakool in Tallinn. But that same year they ordered him to St. Petersburg to the Teachers Seminar. He taught in the Rakvere City School from 1889 to 1903. He became ill in 1903 and died soon after.

C.2.6) Jaan Volmer: born 11 Jul 1867 as son of a farmer in Kuigatsi-Soontaga (= Löwenhof-?), just E of Tõrva. He studied at Soontag and Kanepi (= Kannapäk) schools and later at the Teacher Seminar in Tartu. Graduated in 1888. Worked at the village school in Mudaste in Hiiumaa (= Dagö). 1982 he was sent to study at the Teacher Institute of the City School in St. Petersburg. After that he was assigned to Rakvere the same year to teach at the Linnakool there. 1893-1895 he taught at the City School in Haapsalu, 1896-1905 in Aizpute (= Hasenpoth), Latvia. At this last school, from 1905 to 1915, he was assigned as inspector. That school was evacuated to Podoolia (= Podillja) in Ukraine, during WWI and he taught there until 1920. He opted to return to Estonia. 1920-1923 he taught at the Upper High School in Pärnu. 1921 he was teaching at the "Treffner" High School in Tartu. By 1930 he was retired and lived in Tartu.

C.2.7) Paul Ahremenko: he graduated from the Teachers Institute in Gluhov (= Gluchow), S of Poznan, Poland. He was a substitute teacher at the "Linnakool" in Rakvere during 1895.

C.2.8) Peeter Silin: he was born 1869. He finished the City School of the Teachers Institute. 1896 he was sent to the City School in Viljandi as a substitute teacher. Oct 1896 he was assigned to the "Linnakool" in Rakvere as a teacher. In 1890 he returned to Russia.

C.2.9) Georg Tuuling: 1886 he had finished the Teacher Seminar in Tartu. After that he taught 9 years at a Russian church school in Risti (= either Kreuz-Kirche or Marienruh - I do not know which of the 2). 1896-1899 he was a substitute teacher at the "Linnakool" in Rakvere. 1899 he was elected (?!) secretary for the town of Rakvere. He died 4 May 1920.

C.2.10) Friedrich Bergmann: born 2 Feb 1864 in Kärkna, Äksi Parish (= Falkenau, Ecks-Kirche) as son of a school teacher. His father, beside working as a teacher also directed a local choir. He gave his son the first music lessons. Friedrich studied in St. Petersburg with the General Narõski Choir and on the side he gave lessons. From 1993 to 1917 he was the music teacher and director of the school band at the Ralvere "Linnakool". In Rakvere apparently the Society of Volunteer Firemen had a choir and he was the choirmaster of it also. (My father, Nikolai Amberg, never told me about that choir! He and my maternal grandfather, Karl Sebald, belonged to the Volunteer Firemen. They must have known this musician.) 1910 in Riga there appears to have been a competition or get-together of City School musical bands from all over and he and his band stood out. In 1930, after he had retired, he was living in Rakvere.

C.2.11) Pastor Richard Hirschhausen: 1888-1901 he taught lutheran religion at this school in Rakvere. He finally was able to convince the authorities in St. Petersburg to allow Estonian lutheran children to pray and sing according to lutheran customs in the Estonian language. After Rakvere he went to Hiiumaa as a teacher of lutheran religion.

C.2.12) Priest Victor Bezanitski: born 3 Mar 1852. He studied at the orthodox ecclesiastical Seminary and graduated in 1873. He preached 1874-1876 in the orthodox church in Aruküla - located in Harjumaa - and 1876-1880 in Põltsamaa - in Viljandimaa, both in Estonia. 1880 he was assigned to the orthodox church in Rakvere. 1881-1918 he taught Russian orthodox religion at this County, then City School in Rakvere. [See "C.3.7)" below.]

C.2.13) Georg Hion (Iion): born 13 Aug 1873 in Heimtal, Viljandimaa, as son of a farmer. 1894 he finished the Teachers Seminar in Tartu. 1894-1896 he was a teacher at the elementary school in Kõpu (= Köppo?), Hiiumaa. 1896-1898 he was the sexton at the church of true believers = Russian orthodox church in Jõhvi (= Jewe) in Virumaa. 1898-1899 he taught at the 2 class school in Jõhvi. 1899-1901 he was a substitute teacher at the "Linnakool" in Rakvere. 1901-1903 at a school in Järvakandi (= Reichenau?), S of Rapla, in Harjumaa. 1903-1904 again he was a substitute teacher in that same school in Rakvere. 1904-1907 he was the senior teacher at the 2 class farming and handicrafts school in Privolje, Province of Mohilev, in Russia. 1907-1916 he managed the estate school in Oru (= Orrenhof - there were 2!) either in Läänemaa or in Harjumaa. 1916-1917 he taught at schools in Paide. 1917-1920 he was teacher at the 9th elementary school in Tallinn. 1920-1927 he was the director or superintendent of the 28th elementary and by 1930 of the 9th elementary school, both in Tallinn.

C.2.14) Jüri Maasing: born 18 Apr 1871 somewhere close to Rakvere. Possibly in the Paide area. 1890 he graduated from this same school in Rakvere. He studied in St. Petersburg at the Teachers Institute, graduating in 1896 or 1899. Then he was assigned to the "hiding place" of prince Oldenburg... From there he was sent to Rakvere where he was a teacher at the "Linnakool" from 1900 to 1907. In Oct 1907 he was assigned to the "Linnakool" in Tartu and left Rakvere. At the same time he continued his own studies at the University of Tartu. 1912 he graduated with a Degree in history and philosophy. He was sent to Russia, to Borisov, NE of Minsk. There he was a substitute teacher at a middle school. During WWI the Russians drafted him and he was lost without a trace.

C.2.15) Ivan Šijko: born 1886 in the Russian Province of Poltava. Son of a Cossack. He graduated from the Teachers Institute in Gluhovo, Poznan Province. After that he was sent to Plotski (?) as a supernumerary teacher at the local City School. 1901-1903 he was assigned to the Rakvere "Linnakool" as a teacher. Inspector Rõzov disliked him... In Aug 1903 he was called to Riga to the curator's office and he was fired for "being a socialist".

C.2.16) Aleksei Akoncenkov: born 10 Feb 1867. He finished the Teachers Institute in St. Petersburg. After that he was sent to work as a teacher at City Schools in several different localities: Porchov, Ustyug, Malo-Višerski, Novorzevi, Holm, Staraja-Russas, again to Porchov, Oudova, St. Petersburg and in 1904 to Rakvere for a short period. After that he was assigned to the City School in Tallinn, then Tartu and later to a seminar in Rakvere.

C.2.17) Dimitri Gerasjkin: Born 25 Oct 1882. 1904 he graduated from the "Feodosia" Teachers Institute in southern Russia. 1904-1905 he was assigned to teach at the City School in Rakvere. He spent summer of 1905 at his old school: "Feodosia" and returned to Rakvere. In Nov he took part of the conference of all Russian teachers in St. Petersburg. Apparently he was a "revolutionary". He organized revolts against Inspector Rozov. Gerasjkin was relieved of his duties. Inspector Rozov was reassigned to Paide. [See "B.2.5)" above & "E" below.]

C.2.18) Peter Šabunin: born 10 Feb 1883. 1904 he graduated from the Teachers Institute in St. Petersburg. 1904-1906 he was sent to Rakvere to teach at the "Linnakool" there. He was expelled in 1906 because of a chronic drinking problem.

C.2.19) Martin Okas: born 16 Feb 1864 in Adavere, Viljandimaa. 1884 he graduated from the Teachers Seminar in Tartu. 1884-1886 he was a teacher at a local school in Põltsamaa. Until 1894 he taught at the City School there. 1906-1910 he was teacher and 1917-1919 inspector at the "Linnakool"/"Higher Elementary School" in Rakvere. (He replaced Gerasjkin.) This teacher demanded a lot from his students. Some time after he started he was allowed also to teach the Estonian language without pay as an evening course. He taught German and for a short time French. 1919 he went to Tartu to be the superintendent of the "Tartu XV. Algkool". [See "C.3.1)" below.]

C.2.20) Jakob Buben: born 1878 in White Russia. Studied at the Teachers Institute in Vilnius, Lithuania. 1898-1902 he taught in the Province of Minsk at the elementary school in Ostrogljadi and 1902-1906 at the City School in Ošmjanski. End of 1906 he was sent to Rakvere as a supernumerary teacher at the City School. Later he became a full teacher there. (He replaced Šabunin.) He taught "handwork". That course in 1907 had 107 students. Feb 1918 he left Rakvere before the German troops arrived. ("War for Estonian Independence" 1918-1920 - read Sigrid Maldonado's book or other books about Estonian history.)

C.2.21) Semjon Kostjuk(ov): born 1873. 1901 finished the Gluhovi Teachers Institute. He was teacher at the City School in Novgorod-Severski. 1902-1906 taught at the "Linnakool" in Pärnu and 1906-1908 in "Rezitsas" (Rezi = Reschenhof in Latvia?). 1908-1913 he taught at the "Linnakool" in Rakvere. From there he went to teach at the City school in Petrokov.

C.2.22) Ivan Cerepanov: born 5 Jan 1877. He received schooling at home. 1903 he got the license of city school teacher at the Odessa Teachers Administration. He was sent to Novomirgorod to teach at the City school. 1908 to Vilkov (= Wilkau), E of Breslau. 1910-1912 he taught at the City School in Rakvere. 1912 he went to Ljublin (could be Ljubliana = Laibach in Slovenia?).

C.2.23) Jahnis Kains: finished Teachers Institute in St. Petersburg and was sent to Rakvere to teach at the "Linnakool". There he was from 1912 to Apr 1918.

C.2.24) Stepan Afanasjev: he finished the Teachers Institute in Belgorod. He taught there and other towns at City Schools. He was assigned to the "Linnakool" in Rakvere where he taught from Jan to Sep 1913.

C.2.25) Joosep Polfander: born 15 Jan 1885. Studied at the Volmar Teachers Seminar. He taught at elementary schools in Gorodoki and then in Latvia in Praulienis (= Praulen). He participated in the disturbances of 1905. He was judged by a war tribunal and released in 1907. He taught 1907-1908 in Odense, Võnnu (= Wenden) area. 1908-1909 in Cilipinski, Province of Vitebsk. 1912 he finished the Teachers Institute in Tiflis in the Caucasus. 1913-1915 he was assigned to teach at the "Higher Elementary School" in Rakvere. From Rakvere he was drafted into the Russian Armed Forces. Later he taught at a "Higher Elementary School" in Aluksne (= Marienburg), Latvia.

Extracted out of the general text - but not in a list of teachers at the Rakvere "Linnakool" and later "Higher Elementary School" - I found the following:

C.2.a) Karl Tiitso: gave dance lessons? Russian folk dance or what?... He did speak Estonian to the students.

C.2.b) Pastor R. Masing: (1901-1907) he was the teacher of lutheran religion.

C.2.c) Pastor V. Paucker: taught lutheran religion from 1907 on.

C.2.d) H. Neumann: he taught singing.

C.2.e) G. Kudrjašev: was a music teacher. He sang psalms at the local Russian orthodox church.

C.2.f) A. Bestsennõi: he also taught music and he also was a psalm singer at the "true believers'" church in Rakvere.

C.2.g) A. Kivi: he was an artist and taught drawing in 1909.

C.2.h) E. Jüiado: ?

C.2.i) E. Sobolevi: Physical Education.

I suppose the teachers C.2.a) to C.2.i) did not have some official contract with this school district and thereby were not included in the list of teachers. These non-listed teachers are apparently not repeated in the list that follows either. (Or did something escape me?...)

C.3: Summer of 1918 until Mar 1919: now named "Poeglaste Keskkool" = "Middle School for Boys" = "Knabenmittelschule" and those who taught during these difficult times were:

(Sigrid Maldonado's book "Estonian Experience and Roots" will clearify the historical events taking place. Use the Links below to read about it.)

C.3.1) Teacher Martin Okas acted as head of the school at that time. He left town Feb 1919. [See "C.2.19)" above.]

C.3.2) August Eero: he had graduated from this school in 1903. He had taught religion before 1918. [See "C.4.1.1)" below.]

C.3.3) Alvin Adler: he had studied Law at St. Petersburg Univertity. By 1930 he was a lawyer in Tartu.

C.3.4) Karl Reiman: 1912 he finished the Teachers Institute in Belgorod. For 6 years after that he worked as a teacher. Then he taught in Rakvere. During Jul 1920 he drowned in the Emajõgi (= Embach), a river.

C.3.5) Mihkel Selli: town secretary (clerk) during several years. He had teaching credentials. [See below as "C.4.1.2)".]

C.3.6) Alice Tenorist: she had finished the 7th class at the "Upper High School for Girls" in Tallinn. She taught French. [See below as "C.4.1.6)"]

C.3.7) Victor Bezanitski: he had been teaching Russian orthodox religion at this school before. [See "C.2.12)" above.]

C.3.8) Robert Reinomägi: taught orchestral music.

C.4: Mar 1919 the school was given to the town of Rakvere and became the "Linna III. Algkool" or "City Elementary School # III".

C.4.1: refers to the School year 1919-1920. Teachers were:

C.4.1.1) August Eero became the head of the school. [See C.3.2) above.] I suppose, he also taught.

C.4.1.2) After him came Mihkel Selli. [See "C.3.5)" above.]

C.4.1.3) Johan Andreson: 1913 he finished the Teachers Seminary in Valmiera (= Wolmar), Latvia. 1913-1918 in Rakvere he taught at the Teachers Seminar and 1918-1919 he was a teacher at the Upper High School for Girls in Rakvere. Here he became superintendent of the "Linna III. Algkool" on 29 Aug 1919. He still held the same position in 1930. He taught crafts to boys, civics and mathematics.

C.4.1.4) Marta Niedrichson: 1914 finished the pedagogical courses taught at this same school. (1911 Marta Gutmann?) She taught in Pihkva until 1924. In Rakvere she taught the Estonian language and Estonian history (eesti keelt & kodulugu).

C.4.1.5) Lydia Johanson: 1908 she had finished the Upper High School for Girls in Tallinn. She had taught at a private elementary school in Rakvere and was a teacher from 1919 to 1921 at this "City Elementary School # 3". She was a teacher of history and German.

C.4.1.6) Alice Tenorist [mentioned above as "C.3.6)"]: she taught here until 1923. As she continued to work here she went from teaching French to teaching Russian. By 1930 she was a teacher in Tallinn.

C.4.1.7) Johannes Kadarik: 1901 he had finished the pedagogical courses at the City School in Haapsal. 1919-1921 he taught in Rakvere at this "City Elementary School # III". He was a teacher of the Estonian language and of singing (a very important Estonian activity). By 1930 he was teaching in Saaremaa.

C.4.1.8) Vilhelmine Jeermann: 1914 she had graduated from the pedagogical courses at the Upper High School inNarva. 1919-1920 she taught in Rakvere Estonian history (?) and natural sciences (?) (looduslugu & kodulugu). By 1930 she was teaching at the elementary school in Narva.

C.4.1.9) Salme Maasikas: she had finished the pedagogical courses at the Upper High School for Girls in Tallinn. 1919-1920 she taught mathematics here in our Rakvere school. By 1930 she was a teacher at the elementary school in Narva.

C.4.1.10) Klaudia Korsakova: she had finished the business school in Sestrorezk (located just NW of St. Petersburg). 1919-1920 she taught mathematics and crafts at this Rakvere "City Elementary School # III".

C.4.1.11) Olga Raudsepp: 1919-1920 she taught art (drawing) at our Rakvere school. By 1930 she was a teacher at the "City Elementary School # II" in Rakvere.

C.4.1.12) Eduard Ole: he had finished the art school in Pensa, Russia. 1919-1920 he taught art (drawing) at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". By 1930 he was a teacher at the Upper High School called "Treffner" in Tartu.

C.4.2: School year 1920-1921 teachers:

(Some continued from the year before and others were newly hired)

C.4.2.1) Max Sikkut: 1917 he finished his studies at the Teachers Seminar in "Petrograd" (= until 1914 "St. Petersburg"). 1920-1927 he taught in Rakvere at the "City Elementary School # 3". His subjects were singing and "looduslugu".

C.4.2.2) Gerda Steinberg: she had graduated from the "Lender" Upper High School in Tallinn. 1920-1922 she was a teacher in Rakvere at the "Linna III. Algkool". Taught German and Estonian languages. [See "C.4.6.2)" below.]

C.4.2.3) Elfriede Koor-Sikkut: Had finished the Upper High School for Girls in Tartu and the pedogogical courses at the seminary. 1920-1923 she taught arithmetic and "kodulugu" at the Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool".

C.4.2.4) Anna Luha: 1909 graduated here in Rakvere with this school's pedagogical certificate. (Could have been Anna Jürgenson.) 1920-1923 she taught gymnastics (physical education - more likely the typical Estonian kind of rhythmic gymnastics) in this school.

C.4.2.5) Ernst Pärko: he finished the Rakvere Teachers Seminar. 1920-1921 he was a teacher of natural sciences at the Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". He died in 1924.

C.4.2.6) Arnold Liiv: 1910 he finished the pedagogical courses at this "Linnakool" in Rakvere. 1910-1914 he was head of the 2 classes elementary school in Pudivere (= Poidifer) estate, Simuna Parish (= St. Simonis). 1920-1922 he taught at the Rakvere City Upper High School for Girls (gümnaasium) and from 1921 on until at least 1930 he worked at this Rakvere "City Elementary School # 3". Subjects he taught were Estonian language, geography and religion.

C.4.2.7) Jakob Lindmann: 1910 graduate of this school's pedagogical courses when his name was spelled "Lindemann". 1919-1921 he taught world history at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". By 1930 he was teaching at "Linna II. Algkool" in Rakvere.

C.4.3: the 1921-1922 new teachers:

C.4.3.1) Alfred Liigmann: had finished the padagogical courses at the City School in Tallinn. 1921-1925 he was aid to the superintendent of Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool" and also taught there the Estonian language and singing. By 1930 he was teaching at Rakvere "Linna I. Algkool".

C.4.3.2) Emilie Steinberg: she had finished the Narva "Upper High School for Girls". 1921-1925 she taught German and Estonian languages at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". By 1930 she was teaching at "Linna I. Algkool" in Rakvere.

C.4.3.3) Ferdinand Birkenfeldt: had studied at the art school "Stiegitz" in Petersburg. 1921-1923 he taught art/drawing at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". He died in 1924.

C.4.3.4) Anna Bergmann: she studied at the Viljandi "Upper High School for Girls". From 1921 on (at least until 1930) she taught world history, mathematics and crafts at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool".

C.4.3.5) Valerie Ots-Tire: she finished the "Grassi" Upper High School in Tartu. 1921-1924 she was a teacher at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool" and taught Estonian and Russian languages and history.

C.4.3.6) Linda Eilart: she finished the Upper High School for Girls (in Rakvere?). 1921-1922 she taught mathematics and the Estonian language at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool".

C.4.4: the 1922-1924 new teachers:

C.4.4.1) Johannes Tölp: he finished the Clerical Seminary in Riga. 1922-1926 he taught German, mathematics and natural sciences at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". By 1930 he was retired.

C.4.4.2) Natalie Lindmann-Hinno: she had graduated from the Rakvere Teachers Seminar. 1923-1925 she was a mathematics, crafts and "kodulugu" (homemaking or home management?) at the Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". In 1930 she was a teacher at the "Linna II. Algkool" in Rakvere.

C.4.4.3) Veera Birkenfeldt: she had studied at the Arts Academy in Petersburg. 1923-1926 she taught drawing at the Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool".

C.4.4.4) Marta Aren: had finished the "Puškin" Upper High School in Tartu and taken gymnastics courses in Riga. 1923-1929 she taught gymnastics at the Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". By 1930 she was a teacher at the Elementary school in Haapsalu.

C.4.5: school year 1924-1926 only 1 new teacher added:

C.4.5.1) Klaudia Tamm-Kristoffel: she was a French language teacher. 1925-1926 she taught English at the Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". By 1930 she was teaching at the Upper High School in Rakvere.

C.4.6: the 1926-1927 incoming teachers:

C.4.6.1) Serafiima Koov: she finished the Upper High School in Kuressaare and then in Tallinn she took the couses to qualify as a teacher. From 1926 until at least 1930 she taught at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". Her subjects were the Estonian language, mathematics, "kodulugu" and crafts.

C.4.6.2) Gerda Steinberg-(Uibo-)-Lindmann: she had worked at this school 1920-1922 and she returned 1926 to teach German, Estonian and religion. 1930 she still was working there. [See "C.4.2.2)" above.]

C.4.6.3) Anatol Sivard: had studied at the "Pallas" Art School in Tartu. 1926-1928 he taught drawing at this Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". By 1930 he was art teacher at middle schools in Rakvere.

C.4.7: new teacher for school year 1927-1928:

C.4.7.1) Feliks Gruustam: had finished the Upper High School for Boys in Rakvere. He started to teach 1927 at the Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool". His subjects were natural sciences, "kodulugu" and singing. He still was there in 1930.

C.4.8: for the 1928-1930 school year:

C.4.8.1) Glafiire Laabo: he finished the Teachers Seminary in Rakvere and 1929 started to teach physical education (gymnastics) at Rakvere "Linna III. Algkool".

D - Those who were students there, graduated somewhere else, and who became famous in Estonian literature:

Friedrich Robert Faehlmann was a "Kreiskool" student in Rakvere 1810 - 1813 (?). Enrolled 1814 at the Upper High School inTartu.
Jakob Johann
Nocks was a student here 1813 - 1816 (?).
Friedrich Reinhold
Kreutzwald was a student here 1817 - 1818. He became the Estonian literary giant.

E - Students expelled from school in 1905, after the Gerasjkin ["C.2.17)"] revolt:

J. Lehtmets, K. Teer and R. Trummar. It was arranged in a way that it looked like the students had wanted to quit school themselves. They were given a chance to finish their studies elsewhere. (I sure hope, they took that chance.)


The following names are mentioned as belonging to the 125th Anniversay Commission: J. Andreson,
F. Gruustam, H. Jõesaar, M. Juhkam, G. Kütt, M. Leppik, A. Liiv, H. Meister, A. Orav, K. Rotberg, J. Tenneberg and J. Thomei.


Finished to extract the data on 29 January 2000.

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