The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

General list of Cardinals
II - V Century (112-498)

II Century III Century IV Century V Century St. Gelasius I Anastasius II Summary General List Catalogs Home

Note. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1926, p. 135, indicates that its "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux" ought to start with the pontificate of St. Gelasius I (492-498) because it is from that period that Chacón-Oldoini, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 330-332, offers the first list of twenty-eight cardinal priests with their titles. But it adds that Cristofori in his Cronotassi dei Cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa, provides the names of twenty cardinals with their titles from previous centuries and that Annuaire itself adds to those two or three more names. The list of names before Gelasius' pontificate, continues Annauire, should be considered as a preface to the "Essai" and adds that they are highly doubtful.

II Century (112-142)

(1) 1. St. Calepodio, cardinal priest of S. Maria (1) in 112 (?). + (?). (2)
(2) 2. Astero (or Asterio), cardinal priest of S. Maria in 118 (?). + (?).
(3) 3. St. Sisto (or Xystus), Roman, cardinal deacon of the region where later was S. Maria in Via Lata (3). (4)

(1) Pope St. Alexander I (108 or 109-116 or 119), established the title of S. Maria ca. 112. Pope St. Calixtus I (218-222) confirmed it ca. 221 and its name was changed to Ss. Callisto e Giuliano. Later, it was renamed S. Maria in Trastevere.
(2) Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on May 10.
(3) This region must be the VII that was established later by Pope St. Fabian ca. 250. It was an oratory built in the ancient Pagan edifice called Septa Iulia. In its place was built, ca. 700, the church of S. Maria in Via Lata, name of the ancient Roman street in which it was (currently in il Corso). Erected without a doubt a deaconry (the date is not known), it was not a regional but one of the four palatine deaconries, whose cardinals assisted the pope in the the liturgical celebrations. It has had a collegial chapter of canons since 1144. It was for a long time the deaconry of the protodeacon.
(4) Elected Pope Sixtus I in 117 or 119. He died in 126 or 128. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is on April 3.

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III Century (261)

(1) 1. St. Lorenzo, cardinal deacon, his deaconry is not known. + Martyrized ca 261 (?). (1)

(1) Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on August 10. Oldoini, in a note inserted in the new edition of Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, col. 176, indicates that St. Lawrence may be ranked among the cardinals and that his title of archdeacon of the Roman Church was later changed to that of camerlengo by Pope St. Gregory VII in 1073. Cristofori does not mention him in any of his lists.

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IV Century (318-387)

(1) 1. Silvano Antonio (?), cardinal priest of S. Prassede (1) in 318 (?). + (?).
(2) 2. Giacomo Aventino (?), cardinal priest of S. Cecilia (2) in 319 (?). + (?).
(3) 3. Romano Dinamio (?), cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in 335 (?). + (?).
(4) 4. Serrao Aquileo (or Serrano) (?), cardinal priest of S. Prassede in 335 (?). + (?).
(5) 5. St. Damaso, Roman, cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo nel Teatro Pompeio (3). (4)
(6) 6. St. Girolamo (?), cardinal priest of S. Anastasia (5) in 366 (?). + September 30, 420.
(7) 7. Ammonio Seleusio (?), cardinal of S. Cecilia in 377 (?). + (?).
(8) 8. St. Siricio, cardinal priest of S. Pastore (6) before 384. (7)
(9) 9. Domizio Ligo (?), cardinal priest of S. Prassede in 387 (?). + (?).

(1) The title of S. Prassede was established by Pope St. Evaristus ca. 112.
(2) This title was erected almost immediately after the death of the young martyr, probably during the persecution of Diocletian (303 to 311). It is not known which pope established it.
(3) Pope St. Evaristus erected this title ca. 112. Pope St. Damasus I (366-384), who, it is believed, occupied this title, confirmed its establishment in 366. Later, the title was renamed S. Lorenzo in Damaso. From 1532 until 1973, this title was assigned to the vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. The office was suppressed in that year.
(4) Elected Pope Damasus I on October 1, 366. He died on December 11, 384. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is on December 11.
(5) The title of S. Anastasia was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus. It is located at the foot of Mount Palatine. It is an exception since all the other 24 titles enumerated during the pontificate of Pope St. Marcello (308-309) are located in the outskirts of Rome while the deaconries were in the center of the city.
(6) This title was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus; it was before St. Pudentis, where St. Peter had erected his "chair" and where he lived ca. 42. Later, in 160, Pope St. Pius I ( 142 or 146-157 or 161), annexed an oratory to it and assigned it to his friend Pastore, from whom he got the name of S. Pastore, which was later replaced by S. Pudenziana. The church was rebuilt in the IV century by Pope St. Siricius. The Roman Martyrology on July 26 says, Romae, S. Pstoris, presbyteri, cuius nomine titulus extat in Viminali, apud Sanctam Pudentianam.
(7) Elected Pope Siricius on December 15, or 22, or 29, 384. He died on November 26, 399. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 36, indicates that even though he was "honoured as a saint in earlier centuries, he was omitted from the first edition (1584) of the Roman Martyrology because of the criticisms of St Jerome and St Paulinus of Nola. His name was added to it in 1748 by Benedict XIV, who wrote a dissertation to prove his holiness." His feast is celebrated on November 26.

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V Century (414-492)

(1) 1. Valentino Salaminio (?), cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in 414 (?). + (?).
(2) 2. St. Bonifacio, Roman, cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso ca. 415. (1)
(3) 3. Annio Longo (?), cardinal priest of S. Prassede in 421 (?). + (?).
(4) 4. Pietro Illirico, cardinal priest of S. Sabina in 425 (?) (2). + (?).
(5) 5. St. Prosper d'Aquitaine (?), cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in 432 (?). + Towards the middle of the century. (3)
(6) 6. Frodiano Narciso (or Herodiano), cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in 436 (?). + (?).
(7) 7. Tusco Domno, cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in 463 (?). + (?).
(8) 8. Severo Flavio, cardinal priest of S. Prassede in 475 (?). + (?).
(9) 9. Ginesio (?), cardinal priest of S. Prassede in 478 (?). + (?).
(10) 10. Sebastiano (?), cardinal priest of S. Prassede in 482 (?). + (?).
(11) 11. St. Felice Anicio Frangipane, Roman, of the gens Anicia, cardinal priest of the title of Fasciolae (Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo) (4), before 483. (5)
(12) 12. Renato, cardinal priest of S. Clemente (6) in 492. + Before 494.

(1) Elected Pope Boniface I on December 28, 418, he was consecrated the following day. He died on September 4, 422. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on September 4.
(2) The title of S. Sabina, on the Aventine Mount, was erected ca. 423 by Pope St. Celestine I (422-432), or, most probably, it was confirmed by him because it must have been in existence for a long time since the death of St. Sabine occurred in 119.
(3) Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celbrated on June 25.
(4) This title was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus. This was its first known titular. Later, its name was changed to Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo. During the pontificate of Pope St. Gregory I (590-604), it became a deaconry in the XII Region of Rome. Later, it became a title again and is still in existence.
(5) Elected Pope Felix III (II) on March 13, 483. He died on February 25 or March 1, 492. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is on March 1.
(6) The title of S. Clemente al Monte Celio was erected by Pope St. Evaristus ca. 112.

Note. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1926, p. 137, "Observations", indicates that of the 25 names listed until the pontificate of Pope St. Gelasius I in 492, many are doubtful. However, it seems that the functions corresponding to the cardinals have been performed by a large number of priests and deacons. The lack of documents makes it impossible to know their names. Nevertheless, the twenty-five titles enumerated during the pontificate of Pope St. Marcellus (308) are known, and it can be said that a cardinal deacon headed each one of theseven ecclesiastical or deaconal regions established by Pope St. Fabian (250) comprising the fourteen civil regions of Rome. Until the times of St. Gelasius I, there were several popes who are mentioned as deacons at the moment of their election to the supreme pontificate. It is probable that they were at the head of one of those regions and that the importance of their charge made them the choice of the electors. Thus were: St. Callistus I, elected Pope in 221; St. Stephen I, elected in 254; St. Sixtus II, elected in 260; St. Caius (or Gaius), elected in 283; St. Julius I, elected in 337; St. Liberius, elected in 352; St. Innocent I, elected in 402; St. Celestine I, elected in 423. Furthermore, St. Leo I, elected in 440, was an archdeacon like St. Hillary, his successor, elected in 461, who also was legate to the Council of Chalcedon. Not having found any indications linking these popes to regional deaconries, Annuaire says that it did not believe that they should be included in the list of cardinals.

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St. Gelasius I (492-496)

Note. Following is the list of 28 cardinal priests in 494 given by Chacón-Oldoini, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 330-331 as well as the names of seven cardinal deacons listed in col. 332. Furthermore, the names of three cardinal priests and one cardinal deacon given by Cristofori's Cronotassi dei Cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa, are also listed.

(1) 1. Lorenzo Celio, cardinal priest of S. Prassede in 494. + (?).
(2) 2. Martiniano (or Marciano?), cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in 494. + (?).
(3) 3. Gennaro Celio, cardinal priest of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio (1) (Vestinae) in 494. + (?).
(4) 4. Gordiano, cardinal priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (2) (Pammachus) in 494. + Shortly after as he was replaced
in 495.
(5) 5. Pietro, cardinal priest of S. Clemente al Monte Celio in 494. + Before 499.
(6) 6. Paolino, cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (Callisto e Giulio) in 494. + (?).
(7) 7. Valente, cardinal priest of S. Sabina in 494. + (?).
(8) 8. Pietro, cardinal priest of S. Crisogono in Trastevere (3) in 494. + (?).
(9) 9. Asterio, cardinal priest of Ss. Pudente e Pudenziana (Pastore) in 494. + (?).
(10) 10. Felice, cardinal priest of S. Silvestro (Equitii) (4) in 494. + (?).
(11) 11. Projettizio, cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in 494 (or 492). + (?).
(12) 12. Gioviano, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Emiliana (5) in 494.
(13) 13. Bono, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Crescenziana (6) in 494. + (?).
(14) 14. Probiano, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Eusebio (7) in 494. + (?).
(15) 15. Sebastiano, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Nicomede (8) in 494. + (?).
(16) 16. Marciano, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme di Diocleziano (9) in 494. + (?).
(17) 17. Andrea, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Matteo (10) in 494. + (?).
(18) 18. Romano, cardinal priest, of the title of Tigride (S. Sisto) (11) in 494. + (?).
(19) 19. Marcello, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio (12) in 494. + (?).
(20) 20. Asello, cardinal priest, of the title of Ss. Gabino e Susanna (13) in 494. + (?).
(21) 21. Anastasio, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Anastasia in 494. + (?).
(22) 22. Epifanio, cardinal priest, of the title of Ss. XII Apostoli (Ss. Filippo e Giacomo) (14) in 494. + (?).
(23) 23. Aconzio (or Acontio), cardinal priest, of the title of Fasciola (Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo) in 494 (or 492). + (?).
(24) 24. Benedetto, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Caio (15) in 494. + (?).
(25) 25. Domenico, cardinal priest, of the title of Ss. Aquila e Prisca nel Monte Aventino (16) in 494. + (?).
(26) 26. Stefano, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Marcello (17) in 494. + (?).
(27) 27. Epifanio, cardinal priest of the title of S. Marco (18) in 494. + (?).
(28) 28. Ilario, cardinal priest, of the title of Lucina (19) in 494. + (?).
(29) 29. Cipriano, cardinal deacon of the III and X ecclesiastical regions of Rome in 494. + (?).
(30) 30. Anastasio, Roman, cardinal deacon in 494, of the IV and XI ecclesiastical regions of Rome (Caput tauri). (20)
(31) 31. Tarrense (or Torrente), cardinal deacon of the I and VIII ecclesiastical Regions of Rome in494. + (?).
(32) 32. Citonato, cardinal deacon of the V and XII ecclesiastical Regions of Rome in 494. + (?).
(33) 33. Tertullo, cardinal deacon of the VI and XIII ecclesiastical Regions of Rome in 494. + (?).
(34) 34. Giovanni, cardinal deacon of the II and IX ecclesiastical Regions of Rome in 494. + (?).
(35) 35. Celio Giovanni, cardinal deacon of the VII and XIV ecclesiastical Regions of Rome in 494. + (?).
(36) 36. Paolino, cardinal priest of the title of of Fasciola (Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo) in 494. + Before 499. (21)
(37) 37. St. Giovanni (or Catalino, or Catelino), from Siena, Tuscany, cardinal priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (Pammachus) ca. 495. (22)
(38) 38. St. Celio Simmaco, Roman or from Sardinia, created deacon at the end of this pontificate. (23)
(39) 39. Valentino, cardinal priest, of the title of S. Eusebio in 492.

(1) The title of Ss. Gervasio e Protasio, called Vestinae, was erected, or confirmed, ca. 402 by Pope Innocent I. It is currently known as Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio and its titular is Cardinal Adam Joseph Maida.
(2) This title, called also Pammachus or Byzantis (Bizantys was a friend of St. Jerome, father of Pammachius and son-in-law of St. Paola), was erected about this time. It still exists with the name of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
(3) The title of S. Crisogono was erected by Pope St. Evaristus ca 112.
(4) The title of S. Silvestro, also called Equitii, was erected ca. 314 by Pope St. Silvester I in the land of one of his priests called Equitius, in Carine, near the Esquilino. It still exists with the name of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
(5) The title of S. Emiliana was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus. It was suppressed by Pope St. Gregory I, who replaced it ca. 590 with the current title of S. Balbina.
(6) The title of S. Crescenziana or S. Crescenzio, was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus in Via Mamertina (II Region of Rome) and was confirmed ca. 366 by Pope St Damasus I. It was suppressed by Pope St. Gregory I ca. 590, who substituted it with the current title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
(7) The title of S. Eusebio nell' Esquilino was erected before before 492 and it still exists.
(8) The title of S. Nicomede was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus en the Via Nomentana. It was suppressed by Pope St. Gregory I who substituted it with the current title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme ca. 590. Cristofori does not mention any titular before 1012 (?).
(9) This title could have been erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus and if not, in the V Century. It was suppressed in 1477 by Pope Sixtus IV who replaced it with the title of Ss. Ciro e Giulitta. In 1493, Pope Alexander VI restored the name of S. Ciriaco. The title was definitively suppressed in 1587 by Pope Sixtus V. The title of Ss. Ciro e Giulitta (erected in 1477) was assigned in 1587 (with the name of SS. Quirico e Giulitta) to Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici who thus passed from one title to another. This latter title still exists.
(10) The title of S. Matteo in Via Merulana was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus. It was suppressed by Pope St. Gregory I who substituted it with the already existing title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio but that substitution seems not to have taken place. The title of S. Matteo was reestablished on July 6, 1517 by Pope Leo X and finally suppressed by Pope Pius VI in 1776 because its church was in ruins and without revenues. In 1801, Pope Pius VII substituted it with the title of S. Maria della Vittoria nelle Terme di Diocleziano which still exists.
(11) The title Tigride was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus. It was suppressed by Pope St. Gregory I, who substituted it ca. 590 with the title of S. Sisto which still exists.
(12) The title of S. Stefano Rotondo al Monte Celio must have been in existence by the V Century (494). It is not certain that Pope St. Gregory erected it in 590 to replace the ancient titles that he suppressed.
(13) The title of Ss. Gabino (Gabinius) e Susanna was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus. Its name was later modified and it is still known as the title of S. Susanna.
(14) This title, named originally Ss. Filippo e Giacomo, was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus. It was confirmed by Pope Pelagius I ca. 555. Pope John III confirmed it again in 560 and named it Ss. XXII Apostoli when he consecrated its newly built church on May 1.
(15) The title of S. Caio is one of the first 25 titles erected by Pope St. Evaristus ca. 112 but it kept the name only until the end of the III Century. It was suppressed by Pope St. Gregory I who substituted it ca. 590 with the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati.
(16) The title of Ss. Prisca e Aquila was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Evaristus. Aquila and his wife Priscilla (or Prisca) hosted the Apostle St. Paul who cites them in his letters. They are inscribed in the Roman Martyrology and their feast is celebrated on July 8. The title exists under the name of S. Prisca.
(17) The title of S. Marcello was erected ca. 304 by Pope St. Marcellus I. It also had the name of Lucina seconda because it was in the house that holy Roman matron.
(18) The title of S. Marco al Palatino was erected, or confirmed, or reestablished by Pope St. Mark in 337.
(19) The title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina is an ancient one. It could have been, under another name, one of the titles established by Pope St. Evaristus ca. 112. It was confirmed by Pope St. Benedict II ca. 684. It was for a long time the title of the cardinal primo prete.
(20) Elected Pope Anastasius II on November 24, 496. He died on November 19, 498.
(21) Most probably he occupied this title shortly after because Chacón indicates that he is its archpriest in 494.
(22) Elected Pope John I on August 13, 523. He died a martyr in Ravenna on May 18, 526. His feast in the Roman Martyrology is on May 27.
(23) Elected Pope Symmachus on November 22, 498. He died on July 19, 514. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on July 19.

Note. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1926, pp. 139-140, "Note complétive", indicates that Chacón-Oldoini, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 331-332, adds to the lists of cardinal priests and deacon given above, another two lists: the archpriests of the cardinalitial titles, which were twenty-four in 494, and the minores priests attached to those same titles, eleven in 494. Annuaire adds that to better understand these lists, it is necessary to distinguish between the function and the title that accompanies it. During the first centuries of the Church, the title indicated the function and was not, as it is today, a simple mark of honor that does not confer any jurisdiction. Besides, from the signatures that appear in the ancient documents, it can be seen that besides the archpriest and the cardinal priest, there were signatures of other priests of the same title. To distinguish themselves from other priests, they took the name of the church in which they were incardinated and this did not mean that they had been vested with the cardinalitial dignity. In a Roman synod celebrated by Pope St. Symachus on March 1, 499, three priests signed with the same title. The first one was Anastasio, presb. card. tituli S. Anastasiae, this was the titular cardinal of that church. The second one was Italiano, archipresbyter in titulo, who was the archpriest of that church, the one who presided over the clergy who served in it. The third one, Giovanni, signed presbyter in titulo S. Anastasiae, was one of the priests (nowadays, vicars) who served in the same church. Following are these two lists.
Archpriests of cardinalitial titles: Urbico, archpriest of the title of S. Clemente al Monte Celio (he could be cardinal no. 6 in the pontificate of St. Symmachus); Sorano, archpriest of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio, of the title Vestinae; Giustino, archpriest of Ss. Pudente e Pudenziana, of the title of Pastore; Redempto, archpriest of the title of S. Crisogono; Giovanni, archpriest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, of the title Pammachius (he could be cardinal no. 2 in the pontificate of St. Symmachus); Epifanio, archpriest of the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme; Marcello, archpriest of S. Maria, of the title of Callisto e Giulio in Trastevere; Domizio, archpriest of S. Crescenzia; Abondanzio, archpriest of S. Sabina nell'Aventino; Agatone, archpriest of the title of Ss. Gabino e Susanna; Sebastiano, archpriest of S. Silvestro nell'Esquilino, of the title Equitii; Valentino, archpriest of the title of S. Eusebio nell'Esquilino; Geno, archpriest of the title of S. Nicomede; Denis, archpriest of the title of S. Emiliana; Paolino, archpriest of the title Fasciolae (he is no. 36 in the pontificate of St. Gelasius I); Agapito, archpriest of the title of Ss. XII Apostoli; Redempto, archpriest of the title Tigride; Severo, archpriest of the title of S. Caio; Giuliano, archpriest of the title of S. Anastasia sub Palatio; Bonifazio, archpriest of the title of S. Cecilia in Trastevere; Pietro, archpriest of the title of S. Prassede; Timoteo, archpriest of the title of S. Marcello; Lorenzo, archpriest of S. Lorenzo, of the title Lucinae; and Abundio, archpriest of the title of S. Marco.
Minores priests attached to the cardinalitial titles: Servo di Dio, priest of the title of S. Clemente al Monte Celio; Opilio, of the title of S. Crisogono in Trastevere; Pietro, of Ss. Vitalio, Gervasio e Protasio, of the title Vestinae; Adeodato, of the title of S. Silvestro nell'Esquilino; Crescenzio, of the title of Ss. XII Apostoli; Settimio, of S. Maria Madre di Dio, called Trastevere, of the title of Callisto e Giulio; Epifanio, of the title Fasciolae; Vittorino, of the title of S. Sabina nell'Aventino; Eutichio, of the title of S. Emiliana; Giuliano, of the title of S. Anastasia; and Vincomalo, of the title of S. Crescenziana.

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Anastasius II (497-498)

Elected pope on November 24, 496. He died on November 19, 498. No names of new cardinals are found in his pontificate.

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SUMMARY
II Century (112-142) - 3 cardinals
III Century (261) - 1 cardinal
IV Century (318-387) - 9 cardinals
V Century (414-492) - 12 cardinals
St. Gelasius I (492-496) - 39 cardinals
Anastasius II (497-498) - No names of new cardinals are found in his pontificate
Total - 64 cardinals

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