ESCI 344 � Tropical Meteorology

Lesson 5 � Tropical Cyclones:Climatology

 

References:A Global View of Tropical Cyclones, Elsberry (ed.)

The Hurricane, Pielke

Tropical Cyclones:Their evolution, structure, and effects, Anthes

Forecasters� Guide to Tropical Meteorology, Atkinsson

Forecasters Guide to Tropical Meteorology (updated), Ramage

Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting, Holland (ed.)

 

Reading:A Global View of Tropical Cyclones, Chapter 3 (e-reserve)

Tropical Climatology, pp 151 - 160

Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting, Chapter 1 (online at http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/globa_guide_intro.htm)

Tropical Cyclone Forecasters Reference Guide, Chapter 3 (online at http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/~chu/)

 

REQUIREMENTS FOR FORMATION

˜  In order for a tropical cyclone to form, the following general conditions must be present:

  Deep, warm ocean mixed layer.

n  Sea-surface temperature at least 26.5C.

n  Mixed layer depth of 45 meters or more.

  Relative maxima in absolute vorticity in the lower troposphere

n  Need a preexisting cyclonic disturbance.

n  Must be at least a few degrees of latitude from the Equator.

  Small values of vertical wind shear.

n  Disturbance must be in deep easterly flow, or in a region of light upper-level winds.

  Mean upward vertical motion with humid mid-levels.

 

GLOBAL CLIMATOLOGY

Note:Most of the statistics given in this section are from Gray, W.M., 1985: Tropical Cyclone Global Climatology, WMO Technical Document WMO/TD-72, Vol. I, 1985.

˜  About 80 tropical cyclones per year world-wide reach tropical storm strength ( 34 kts).

˜  About 50 � 55 each year world-wide reach hurricane/typhoon strength ( 64 kts).

˜  The rate of occurrence globally is very steady.

  Global average annual variation is small (about 7%).

  Extreme variations are in the range of 16 to 22%.

  Variability within a particular region is much larger than global variability.

˜  Most (87%) form within 20 of the Equator.

  Those that form farther than 20 from the Equator are usually in the Northern Hemisphere.

˜  Vast majority form in or near monsoon troughs.

  Most of the remainder form in tropical waves

  A few form along old frontal zones or shear lines.

˜  Cyclogenesis tends to cluster in 2-3 week active periods that occur after 2-3 week inactive periods.

 

NORTH ATLANTIC

˜  11.6% of global total tropical storm strength and higher.

˜  12% of global total hurricane strength and higher.

˜  97% occur between June 1 and November 30

  There is no month without at least one tropical cyclone

  Peak of season is September 10

˜  Position and strength of subtropical jet is key factor in seasonality, along with variations in SST.

  Genesis regions migrate throughout season in response to upper-level winds and SST.

˜  Per year there are on average

  10.1 named cyclones

  5.9 hurricanes

  2.5 category III or greater

˜  Variability

  Have been as few as 1, to over 20 cyclones

˜  Modes of genesis different from global averages

  More than half form in tropical waves coming off of Saharan Africa.

  Less than half form along ITCZ, with a few forming in baroclinic zones associated with old fronts or shear lines.

˜  Possible 25 to 40 year cycle in numbers (not enough data to conclusively determine).

 

SOUTH ATLANTIC

˜  Tropical cyclones are very rare in the South Atlantic.

  No ITCZ

  Strong vertical shear

˜  In satellite era there have been two tropical cyclones in the South Atlantic.

  One, in March, 2004, becoming a Category I hurricane.

n  Formed from upper-level low.

  In April, 1991 there was a nominal tropical storm off of Africa.

 

NORTHEAST AND NORTHCENTRAL PACIFIC

˜  19.8% of global total tropical storm strength and higher.

˜  19.9% of global total hurricane strength and higher.

˜  Numbers undercounted in pre-satellite era (not many ships in this area compared to Atlantic).

˜  Season similar to Atlantic.

  Peak in late-August

˜  Per year there are on average

  16.4 named cyclones

  9.2 hurricanes

  4.0 category III or greater

˜  Region off of Central America has highest density of genesis points on the globe.

˜  Little genesis south of 10 due to cold upwelling of ocean waters.

˜  Modes of genesis not well documented.

  Controversy concerning whether �African� waves propagate across Central America and spawn Pacific cyclones.

 

WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC

˜  Granddaddy of all basins

  30.7% of global total tropical storm strength and higher.

  35.7% of global total hurricane strength and higher.

˜  Noted for high occurrence of very large and very intense storms.

  Lowest SLP on record was 870 mb in Super Typhoon Tip (October, 1979).

˜  Only basin that is active throughout the year.

˜  Highly seasonal, with peak in late-July/early-August

  Can occur in any month

˜  Per year theaverage is

  26 named storms

  16 typhoons

˜  Genesis regions migrate seasonally with position of monsoon trough.

˜  Vast majority of cyclones form in monsoon trough, with a small minority forming in tropical waves.

˜  Tropical upper-tropospheric trough (TUTT) can play significant role in genesis and development.

 

NORTH INDIAN OCEAN

˜  6.5% of global total tropical storm strength and higher.

˜  5.6% of global total hurricane strength and higher.

˜  Deadliest in world.

  Low-lying, flood prone areas of Bangladesh with large population density.

  1970 cyclone killed over 300,000 people.

  Several cyclones have killed 100,000 to 200,000 people each.

˜  Highly seasonal, with two peaks in May and November.

  The bimodal distribution is associated with the transition seasons of the monsoon, as the monsoon trough is over water during these times.

  During height of summer monsoon, the monsoon trough is well inland, and there is also strong vertical shear due to the Tropical Easterly Jet, which suppresses cyclogenisis.

˜  November peak is more pronounced than May peak.

˜  Majority occur in the Bay of Bengal, with far fewer in the Arabian Sea.

˜  Per year there are on average

  5 � 6 tropical storm strength cyclones per year

n  Range is 1 � 10

  2 to 3 hurricane strength cyclones per year

 

SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (West of 100E)

˜  12.4% of global total tropical storm strength and higher.

˜  9.9% of global total hurricane strength and higher.

˜  Seasonal (October through May)

  December through March most active

  Peak in January.

  Can get off-season genesis.

˜  Per year theaverage is

  10.4 tropical storm strength cyclones

  4.4 hurricane strength cyclones

˜  Monsoon trough is important genesis feature.

 

SOUTHEAST INDIAN OCEAN (100E to 142E)

˜  8.2% of global total tropical storm strength and higher.

˜  7.6% of global total hurricane strength and higher.

˜  Seasonal (October through May)

  Peaks in January and February/March

˜  Per year theaverage is

  6.0 tropical storm strength cyclones

  3.4 hurricane strength cyclones

˜  Monsoon trough is important genesis feature.

 

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC OCEAN (East of 142E)

˜  10.8% of global total tropical storm strength and higher.

˜  9.5% of global total hurricane strength and higher.

˜  Seasonal (October through April)

  Peak in February/March

˜  Per year theaverage is

  9.0 tropical storm strength cyclones

  4.3 hurricane strength cyclones

˜  Monsoon trough and SPCZ are important genesis features.

˜  Twin cyclones (one on each side of the Equator) sometimes form in early and late season.