Unit 480: Archonta

The Vertebrates

400: Primates

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Archonta: Primates


   |  `--Archonta
   |     |--+--Scandentia
   |     |  `--Primatomorpha
   |     |     |--Plesiadapiformes
   |     |     `--Primates
   |     |        |--Strepsirhini
   |     |        |  |--Adapiformes 
   |     |        |  `--+--Lorisiformes 
   |     |        |     `--Lemuriformes  
   |     |        |        |--Indrioidea  
   |     |        |        `--Lemuroidea
   |     |        `--Haplorhini
   |     |           |--Tarsiiformes
   |     |           `--Anthropoidea
   |     |              |--Platyrrhini
   |     |              `--Hominoidea
   |     `--CHIROPTERA


480.000 Overview
480.100 Archonta
480.400 Primates
480.500 Haplorhini



Taxa on This Page

  1. Adapiformes X

  2. Indrioidea

  3. Lemuriformes

  4. Lemuroidea

  5. Lorisiformes

  6. Primates

  7. Strepsirhini


Thomas Cranmer

Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556), Archbishop of Canterbury and first Primate of the Church of England.

Primates: Lemurs, monkeys, aye-ayes, Anglicans & apes. 

Range: from the Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene.

Phylogeny: Primatomorpha : Plesiadapiformes + * : Strepsirhini + Haplorhini

Characters: Shortened rostrum; addition of hypocone & loss of paraconid from basic tribosphenic pattern; bunodont cusps; loss of at least 1 incisor and 1 premolar in all but most basal forms; orbits face anteriorly, with stereoscopic vision & well-developed vision; ethmoid exposed on orbital wall; postorbital bar; enlarged brain; floor of auditory bulla from petrosal; clavicle retained as prominent element of pectoral girdle; shoulder joint with broad mobility; digits 5/5; opposable digits; tactile pads at ends of digits; elongated hind limb; facultative bipedalism common; nail on hallux and other digits; herbivorous or omnivorous; 2 mammaries; 1-2 young per pregnancy; long gestation and developmental time; frequently highly social, with flexible dominance hierarchies; strongly adapted to arboreal life. 

Links: Electronic Zoo / NetVet Veterinary Resources - Primate Sites; Primates; About the Primates; Fossil Primates 1; Fossil Primates 2; Primates (Prof. Eernisse's usual great job of weaving together web resources and notes); Higher Primates May Have Asian Root, Science News Online (10/16/99)

Strepsirhini: Lemurs, lorises, etc.  Purgatorius?

Range: from the Early Eocene of Asia, Europe, North America & Africa.

Phylogeny: Primates : Haplorhini + * : Adapiformes + (Lorisiformes + Lemuriformes).

Characters: naked rhinarium [V+00]; unfused nasal prominences [V+00]; slit-like nostrils [V+00]; $ tapetum lucidum present; $ tooth comb formed by lower incisors & canines (lost in some lemuriforms) [V+00]; $ grooming claw on pes 2 [V+00].

Links: toothcomb.jpg

References: Vaughan et al. (2000) [V+00]. ATW021116.

Adapiformes: Adapis, Omanodon, Pondaungia, Sivaladapis, Wadilemur

Range: late Paleocene to Late Miocene of Asia, Europe, & North America.

Phylogeny: Strepsirhini : (Lorisiformes + Lemuriformes) + *.

Characters: long muzzle; auditory bulla continuous with petrosal; ventrally shielded cochlear fenestra; laterally positioned carotid foramen; long tail; flexible limbs; claws (not nails); opposable digit 1; insects, fruit & general herbivory.

Links: Fossil Primates 1; Fleagle (1988) Taxonomy of the Primates; U. Thalmann: Abstracts; 11438722; Entrez-PubMed.

References: Marivaux et al. (2001). 011028.

Nycticebus coucangLorisiformes: Arctocebus, Loris, Nycticeboides, pottos, lorises & galagos.

Range: from the Miocene of Africa, Madagascar, & South Asia

Phylogeny: Strepsirhini :: Lemuriformes + *.

Characters: low pre-orbital skull; eyes face forward with thin interorbital septum [V+00]; head round [N91]; braincase globular; tooth comb present; dental formula 1-2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3 [V+00]; upper incisors small [V+01]; lower canine incisiform [V+01]; molars quadritubercular; hind limbs same length or longer than forelimbs [N91]; digits specialized for climbing; strong digital flexors; digits with nails or claws [V+00]; slow, arboreal hand-over-hand climbers; insectivorous, carnivorous or frugivorous; prey captured with hands; nocturnal.

Links: The Primates: Prosimians: Part II; Lecture 18 - Primates (Streps.); Primate Taxonomy; genetenw00.pdf

References: Nowak (1991) [N91]; Vaughan et al. (2000) [V+00].  ATW021116.

Ring-tail lemurLemuriformes: Daubentonia, Lepilemur, Megaladapis.  

Range: from the Middle Eocene (Oligocene?) of Africa, Asia & Madagascar.

Phylogeny: Strepsirhini :: Lorisiformes + * : Indrioidea + Lemuroidea.

Characters: nasal region with ethmoid recess; eyes face laterally; postorbital bar in which zygomatic & frontal form lateral strut; dental tooth comb; grooming claw on pes 2; mostly diurnal herbivores or frugivores, with some (smaller forms) nocturnal insectivores; almost all arboreal quadrupeds; relatively larger, more complex groups than other prosimians; groups are multi-male, multi-female and include all age ranges in about 10 to 25 individuals.

Links: Primate Taxonomy; Seznam madagaskarských recentních druhu lemuru (Lemuriformes) (Czech); The Primates: Prosimians: Part I; The Prosimians; Lemur taxa; Superfamily Lemuroidea; Anthropology 2141 Primate Classification Order Primates Suborder ...

References: Marivaux et al. (2001) [M+01]. 011028.

IndriIndrioidea: wooly lemurs, indri, sifakas.  Archaeoindris, Archaeolemur, Avahi, Hydropithecus, Indri, Mesopropithecus, Palaeopropithecus, Propithecus.  

Range: presently restricted to Madagascar. 

Phylogeny: Lemuriformes : Lemuroidea + *.

Characters: moderately large [V+00]; skull shorter & more monkey-like than lemuroids [V+00]; specialized larynx with capacity for very loud calls [V+00]; limbs long [V+00]; limited dexterity [V+00]; currently all arboreal but some recently extinct large (200 kg) terrestrial forms [V+00].

Image: Indri indri  

Links: APUS.RU | Speesok veedov ... (Russian); Indrioidea; Lemur taxa.  

References: Vaughan et al. (2000) [V+00].  ATW021215. 

Lemuroidea:  dwarf, fork-marked & bamboo lemurs (lemurids and cheirogaleids). Cheirogaleus, Hapalemur, Lemur, Microcebus.  The "Lemuroidea" of many sources is equivalent to the Lemuriformes here.

Range: presently restricted to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.

Phylogeny: Lemuriformes : Indrioidea + *.

Characters: head and rostrum moderately elongate; P4 molariform, triangular, & waisted [M+01]; M1 & M2 with waisted, triangular outline [M+01]; M1 & M2 without conules or hypocone [M+01]; M1 &M2 with protocone oblique and short, distolingual postprotocrista [M+01]; upper molars with lingual cingulum continuous buccally to metastyle [M+01]; lower molars with distinct post protoconid ridge (protocristid) & postmetacristid [M+01]; paracristid straight & transverse, with a small buccal extension oriented mesially [M+01]; cristid obliqua straight short, and located laterally (i.e. buccally), intersecting trigonid wall distal to postprotoconid ridge (rather than being oriented more lingually) [M+01]; arboreal.  

Bugtilemur left m2Links: APUS.RU | Надсемейство ·Лемуроиды - Lemuroidea (Russian); Sektion Primatologie- Lemuroidea; ChimpanZoo Web Site- Lemuroidea Superfamily (brief discussion).  

References: Marivaux et al. (2001) [M+01].  ATW030805.

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