Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Annona muricata
L., Annonaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Threat only at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk, score: -3 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: laguaná, laguana, laguanaha, syasyap

Chuukese: saasaf, saasaf, saasap, sasaf

English: prickly custard apple, soursop

Fijian: sarifa, seremaia

French: anone muriquee, cacheimantier èpineux, cachiman èpineux, corasol, corossol, corossol, corossol èpineux, corossolier

Kosraean: sosap

Maori (Cook Islands): kātara‘apa, kātara‘apa papa‘ā, naponapo taratara

Marquesan: koroso

Marshallese: jojaab

Mokilese: truka shai

Niuean: talapo, talapo fotofoto

Palauan: sausab

Pohnpeian: sae, sei

Samoan: sanalapa, sasalapa, sasalapa

Spanish: guanábana, guanábano

Tahitian: tapotapo papa‘a, tapotapo urupe

Tongan: ‘apele ‘initia

Tuamotuan: korosor, tapotaporatara

Yapese: sausau

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A small tree, rarely much over 15 ft. tall. Leaves rather pale green, elliptic, rounded but apiculate or obtusely pointed at apex, rounded or narrowed at base, sepals quite thick, valvate; outer petals cordate at base; fruit oblong or somewhat curved (mango-shaped), sometimes as much as 30 cm long, the surface beset with regularly well-spaced short slightly curved spines, of moderately firm texture, green; flesh juicy, acid, whitish; seeds abundant" (Stone, 1970; p. 278).

Habitat/ecology:  Lowland areas below 1200 m altitude. Tolerant of poor soils.

Propagation:  Seed. Can be grown from cuttings.

Native range:  Tropical America.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Bryan 916
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 25)
Semicultivated near village. Voucher cited: Falanruw 2171 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 31)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2007)
Probably cultivated
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2007)
Probably cultivated
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2007)
Probably cultivated
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2007)
Probably cultivated
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2007)
Probably cultivated
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2007)
Probably cultivated
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2007)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 63)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcan Sierra Negra introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Murilo (Mwiriné) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Marshall 22 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 240 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2005) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Flynn 7215B (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2005) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Flynn 7215B (PTBG)
Possibly naturalized.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 52)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 111)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: DA 16960
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Moore 590
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 31)
Vouchers cited: Florence 2495, Grant 4307
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Tubuai (Austral) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Tubuai (Austral) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
French Polynesia
Tubuai (Austral) Islands
Tubuai (Tupuai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 78-79)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 278)
Voucher cited: Stone 4120 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wydong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Wysong 466 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 62)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58586
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 14315, MacKee 121276, MacKee 18128
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 43)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170287, CHR 170290, CHR 170293
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 22)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9857 (BISH), Yuncker 10056 (BISH)
Palau
Palau (main island group)
Angaur Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Palau
Palau (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (main island group)
Koror Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (main island group)
Malakal Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Rock Islands
Ngchus Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Pulo Ana Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Probably cultivated
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Wairiu, M./Wagatora, D. (2002)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 46)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 70)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 70)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 70)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 58)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 50)
Naturalized.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 116)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15219
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 64)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 104)
Naturalized

Comments:  Reported to be moderately invasive on Nauru (Meyer, 2000; p. 99). Not noted as a problem elsewhere.

Additional information:  Photo and additional information at the University of Guam "Plants of Guam" web site.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.

Additional online information about Annona muricata is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Taxonomic information about Annona muricata may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J. 2004. Flore de la Polynésie française, Vol. 2. Paris. IRE Editions, Publications Scientifiques, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 41. 503 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim. 2005. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 23 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2005. Botanical survey of the Yela River valley, Kosrae, F.S.M. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii. 19 pp.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. 1989. An Annotated list of the vascular plants of Pulawat Atoll. Micronesica 22:23-63.

Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. 1975. The natural history of Namoluk Atoll, eastern Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 189. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 53 pp + photos.

McCormack, Gerald. 2007. Cook Islands biodiversity and natural heritage. On-line database.

Merlin, M./Juvik, J. 1996. Irá me neeniier nón Chuuk: Plants and their Environments in Chuuk. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp. .

Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. 1996. Giddi nge gakiiy nu Wa‘ab: Plants, People and Ecology in Yap State. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 40:1-69. .

Smith, Albert C. 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 2. 810 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 43 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2007. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

Wairiu, M./Wagatora, D. 2002. Solomon Islands national profile report on invasive alien species. Prepared for "The prevention and management of invasive alien species: forging cooperation throughout the Austral Pacific", Honolulu, Hawai'i, 15-17 October 2002.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1983. The flora and vegetation of Swains Island. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 262. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 25 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1984. Annotated list of Samoan plant names. Economic Botany 38:464.489.

Whistler, W. A. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands: The plants, their Maori names, and their uses. Allertonia 5(4):347-424.

Wiggins, I. L./Porter, D. M. 1971. Flora of the Galapágos Islands. Stanford University Press. 998 pp.

Wydong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. 2007. New Hawaiian plant records for the island of Moloka‘i. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96:1-8.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 5 JAN 2008.