Appendix C – Revised - January 2007
Additions to the report: West Nile Virus and Mosquito Control Practices http://skipper.physics.sunysb.edu/mosquito
This Appendix C - Revised is an update of the December 2002 report. The revision contains recently added jurisdictions marked (07) and includes updated URL links to web sources
The appendix shows jurisdictions recently found to be using non-spray adulticide policies and significant spray restrictions, combined with a variety of non-toxic alternatives, compiled from web sources.
The final page shows a composite list, which encompasses both the recent and previously reported
non-spray jurisdictions. You may refer to the full December 2002 report to review further details: http://skipper.physics.sunysb.edu/mosquito
Health officials ready for mosquito season
Mark Linda, a
From the year 2000 to date,
“Tires can accumulate small pools of water where adult mosquitoes will lay their eggs. Over the course of one breeding season, thousands of mosquitoes can be generated from just one tire.”
The county also promotes the removal of standing water, keeping rain gutters free of leaves, and maintaining swimming pools with filtration and pool chlorination.
No! Adulticide chemicals are not used. The Town uses a biological larvicide called “Bactimos” (Bti) to treat mosquito breeding grounds that contain mosquito larvae. Mosquito larvae eat the Bti and die as the enzymes destroy the mosquito larvae. However, Bti does not affect humans, fish, plants or other aquatic wildlife.
The program's mosquito control philosophy is a preventive, long term one whereby they interfere or stop the mosquito's life cycle before the bugs become biting adults capable of transmitting disease and creating community nuisances. Public education activities and extensive larviciding are performed, providing treatment or elimination of standing water capable of supporting mosquito populations.
"Breaking the breeding cycle of mosquitoes
early in the season means fewer mosquitoes will survive to reproduce,"
said Jorge Arias, PhD, supervisor of the county's
In the history of West Nile virus in
Publicity for removal of standing water, in seven languages:
The Health Department has produced educational
materials in seven languages - Chinese, English, Korean, Spanish, Vietnamese,
Farsi and Urdu - to inform residents about simple steps they can take to help
reduce mosquito populations around their homes. The materials can be downloaded
from the Health Dept’s
Voters asked to renew mosquito tax for larviciding (07)
the mosquito tax will continue funding the town’s contract with Advanced Pest Management to spray
larvicide in catch basins, and near swampy and wooded areas to prevent
mosquitoes from reproducing. The
mosquito tax is nothing new to Fowlerville residents who had previously renewed
the tax four years ago. At least four
http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:cK5tzyu-qXEJ:www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article%3FAID%3D/20061019/METRO04/610190415/1015+Advanced+Pest+Management+mosquito&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=15&client=firefox-a Detroit News
What You Should Know About
Health District sanitarians use the “dunks” type of larvicide and residents are also instructed how to use them. Their public information program includes brochures from the South West Area Regional Mosquito Task Force (SWARM). “Drain, Dunk and Protect” is their slogan for handling standing water, and personal protection steps.
Champaign Public Works Website, & News Article
Towns declare war on mosquitoes
University and seven
“Taking the bite out of the lake” May. 25, 2005
Crews battling mosquito larvae on Lake Norman for Duke Power know that the lake's biggest mosquito problems don't come from the lake, but from standing water in boats, birdbaths, planters and puddles on the shore. Those areas get treated with a larvicide called Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, or BTI (when the standing water can’t be emptied). Extensive testing has shown BTI to be nontoxic for humans, posing no threat to wildlife and the environment. The crews also clear the lake of bait cups and other debris that can trap water and breed mosquitoes. One member of the crew said, "Everybody else calls it trash, we call it (mosquito) source reduction." The program started in 1923, (82 years ago) said Ken Manuel, the Duke Power scientist who oversees the program.
Charlotte Observer, click on Advanced Search of Archives, (to find & purchase the article) http://www.charlotte.com/mld/charlotte/archives/
Historic Note: Early larviciding methods employed in
“Sanitary workers scoured the canal area looking for water sources where mosquitoes could breed. By spraying a thin film of oil on the water’s surface, they smothered any mosquito larvae that might be living there.”
Reference Smithsonian Library: http://www.sil.si.edu/Exhibitions/Make-the-Dirt-Fly/bugwar.html
In contrast to the crude oil used
in those early days, today’s larvicides are virtually non-toxic and are environmentally
friendly. The other activities for sanitation, clean-ups of standing water,
installing window screens, etc. then employed in
Spraying banned by Ordinances
These two cities banned the spraying of pesticides (adulticides) to control mosquitoes in July, ‘03 and in June ‘04, respectively. Instead of spraying, they are advising residents to eliminate standing water, the breeding ground for mosquitoes. The Lyndhurst City Council noted: “the more effective way of controlling the mosquito populations is by larvicide treatment and thorough education....” And also that, “the dangers of WNV are minimal and affect a very small segment of the population . . , [however] that the long-term health and environmental risks of spraying with synthetic pesticides poses a much greater risk.”
To Spray or Not To Spray? (07)
Metroparks has taken the position not to spray pesticides to kill adult mosquitoes. The park system’s policy is based on several studies indicating that the chemicals used in adulticides, include hormone disrupters, neurotoxins and possible carcinogens, are not only toxic to mosquitoes, but can also harm humans, wildlife (especially aquatics like fish and amphibians) and plants.
To regulate the mosquito populations without spraying, Metroparks uses a biological control
larvicide, Bti, Note: The MetroPark system includes 11 parks totaling over 9,000-acres
Taking action to prevent
The Mayor of Milford, James Richetelli knows
the mosquito problem first-hand. As a teenager he had a job spraying for
them. He recently stated to News Channel
8: "Things have changed a lot since then. Back then we sprayed. We don't
do that anymore. We treat the marshes."
The town hires All Habitat Services to spread larvacide in places where
water collects. Milford Health Director
Dennis McBride said "Real mosquito control takes place at the larval
stage. The point is to get them before they get in the air." The city used to spray years ago, but
spraying has since become politically and environmentally incorrect. "This is more effective than
spraying," McBride added. And
residents need to check and empty standing water around their own property for
the program to be successful, officials said.
http://www.wtnh.com/Global/story.asp?S=3372990&nav=3YeXa7U9 News Channel 8
Porter council decides to forego mosquito spraying
The Porter Town Council decided Tuesday night that
the risks of spraying to eliminate mosquitoes that carry
Council member Jennifer Granat said the best method for now is education - making sure homeowners keep their property and gutters free of stagnant pools where the insects breed, frequently refilling birdbaths and keeping water in ornamental ponds clean, filtered and circulating. Councilman Mike Liebert said he had talked with two
http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives/ Search 2003 for “Porter mosquito spraying” (to find & purchase the article)
Treatments to stop mosquito larvae again funded for 2006
This year’s program is scheduled to begin as early as 4/14/2006 and will run through the summer and early fall months. If you have standing water on your property for over 7 days and you would like this treated please call direct to Advance Pest Management at the following number: 877-276-4714 (toll free). There is no additional cost to any resident.
Most municipalities in
Many municipalities, including universities participated in the larvicide efforts, and most municipalities in the County “did not do any adult mosquito spraying.”
Programs with significant spray restrictions:
City says mass-fogging in neighborhoods is a bad idea (07)
Eight reasons are discussed to explain why the spraying of adulticides is a bad idea. Some of these are:
< Spraying is the least-effective measure, as acknowledged by the CDC;
< Natural predators of the mosquitoes are harmed, leading to more abundance of mosquitoes;
< Adverse environmental effects, including water contamination, fish kills, birds sickened or killed especially their babies, beneficial insects killed, honey-bees, dragon flies, etc;
< Human health impacts, both immediate and long-term. The most vulnerable groups include pregnant women, the elderly, those with asthma, cancer and immuno-supressed individuals.
The City’s efforts are aimed at source control and reducing standing water. Larvicide blocks and dunks are applied to standing waters by city employees. Citizens are encouraged to purchase mosquito dunks from local businesses. Educational materials (in English and Spanish) promote the steps for personal protection and draining standing water in back yards. Grants of $200 are given to neighborhood associations to reimburse the costs of draining or treating standing waters with dunks. Note: Fogging is done only with hand-held units restricted to small areas such as culverts.
Catch basins are treated with larvicides in areas
with high populations of senior citizens. The county recommends use of Dunks,
and provides pick up of scrap tires to eliminate them as breeding sources. Homeowner check-lists and brochures are part
of their public information program.
The county’s policy restricts spraying to be done only if there were an
epidemic and an extreme rate of West Nile virus upon approval of the
Programs in other countries:
Eliminating breeding grounds, as advance preparation for 2008 Olympics
Professor Tongyan Zhao of the Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology said that with a series of measures and persuading people to be aware of mosquito-breeding grounds, the number of insects can be reduced without pesticides. In addition to a program for eliminating the usual wet areas in neighborhoods and businesses such as tire and recycling facilities, they are adopting a practice of removing the roots after cutting bamboo to correct a local source of water-holding receptacles that breed mosquitoes.
Prevention: Anti-mosquito efforts stepped up
From January to April, a number of weekly anti-mosquito and clean-up operations were conducted to remove potential mosquito breeding grounds. And today operations were stepped-up. Staff was supplemented by contractors’ workers taking part. These operations include clearing stagnant water, filling tree holes and bamboo stumps, and removing debris. For any stagnant water that could not be eliminated immediately, larvicidal oil is applied to control mosquito larvae.
A Natural Larvicide (Mesocyclops)
Professor Brian Kay (
Lancet Newswise (registration required)
Below is the composite list of jurisdictions found to be using non-spray adulticide policies and significant spray restrictions, combined with a variety of non-toxic alternatives, compiled from web sources.
The composite list encompasses both the recent and previously reported non-spray jurisdictions.
New jurisdictions added are marked below as (07). URL’s have been updated for the (05) listings and links should all be currently available. You may refer to the December 2002 report to see detailed descriptions of the one’s marked (02). The URL is: http://skipper.physics.sunysb.edu/mosquito
47 communities in Anne Arundel Cnty, Md.
Atlanta area, Fulton County,
Champaign, Illinois (05)
Fulton County, Atlanta area,
Hamilton County, Cincinnati area,
Homer, Illinois (05)
Mahomet, Illinois (05)
Porter, Indiana (05)
Savoy, Illinois (05)
Urbana, Illinois (05)
In Other Countries: