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Representatives of the Government of India and the British Government in Afghanistan, c.1856-1947

c 1856-78 Native Vakils

The first of these seems to have been appointed c 1856 as a result of the Treaty of 1855 between Sirdar Ghulam Haidar Khan for Amir Dost Muhammad and Sir John Lawrence for the Governor-General. Clause 7 of the Treaty of Peshawar, 1857, made specific provision for the residence at Kabul of a native vakil on behalf of the British Government. These vakils were always Indian Muslims, Pathans from Multan.

  • Nawab Foujdar Khan, 1856- Apr 1859
  • Ghulam Husain Khan Allizai, Apr 1859- 1865
  • Bukhiar Khan, Munshi in charge, Feb 1864- Jan 1868
  • Attah Muhammad Khan Khagwani (Formerly Extra Assistant Commissioner, Dera Ismail Khan. Appointed 1865 but did not proceed until Jan 1868), 1865 - 1878

1882-1919 Indian Muslim Agents of the Government of India

  • Sirdar Muhammad Afzal Khan, CSI, Khan Bahadur (Of the Bengal Cavalry), Jun 1882- Jun 1885
  • Mirza Atta-ullah Khan Sardar (Of the Bengal Cavalry), CSI2 1885-Jul 1891
  • Sardar Muhammad Afzal Khan Gundapur Jul 1891-1894
  • Muhammad Izzat Khan, Munshi (in charge) Dec 1894
  • Muhammad Akram Khan (Of the Bengal Cavalry), Dec 1894- Sep 1895
  • Maulvi Ghaffur Khan (Formerly Deputy Collector of Lucknow), 1897-1900
  • Hafiz Muhammad Nawaz Khan (Of the Bengal Cavalry), Mar 1900-? 1903
  • Malik Khuda Bakhsh Tawana of Shahpur (Of the Punjab Provincial Civil Service), Jul 1903-1907
  • Fakir Sajyid Iftikhar-ud-Din, Mar 1907- Jul 1910
  • Malik Talib Mahdi Khan (Formerly Revenue Member in Bahawalpur State), Jul 1910- Nov 1913
  • Hafiz Saifullah Khan (Formerly Kandahar Agent, and served for many years in Baluchistan), Nov 1913-1919

1922-47 British Ministers

The Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1921 provided for the exchange of diplomatic representatives between the two countries. The British ministers in Kabul were members of the Indian Political Service, appointed by the Foreign Office.

  • Lt-Col Sir Francis Henry Humphrys, KBE, CIE Jan 1922- Feb 1929
  • Sir Richard Roy Maconachie, KBE, CIE Dec 1929- Mar 1935
  • Lt-Col Sir William Kerr Frazer Tytler, KBE, CMG, MC Mar 1935-Aug 1941
  • Sir Francis Verner Wylie, KCSI, CIE Aug 1941- Jul 1943
  • Sir Giles Frederick Squire, KBE, CIE Jul 1943- Sep 1949

Further Information

The India Office Records may be consulted in the Oriental and African Collections where the services and facilities of the Reading Room are available to researchers.

The British Library
Asia Pacific & Africa Collections
96 Euston Road
London NW1 2DB
United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0)20 7412 7873
Fax: +44 (0)20 7412 7641
Email: apac-enquiries@bl.uk


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