MODENA AND REGGIO


See also ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY IN MODENA AND REGGIO 1848 - 1861

DUCHIES OF MODENA AND REGGIO

The Este became Lords of Modena in 1288 and of Reggio in 1289. They were granted the title of Duke of Modena and Reggio in 1452. The Duchies were under French rule from 1796 to 1814, when their independence was restored. (1) (1) Territories annexed to (or united with) the Duchies after 1814 included : 1819 : annexation of part of the Garfagnana region (an ancient possession of Lucca) 1829 : personal union with the Duchy of Massa and the Principality of Carrara 1847 : annexation of the Lucca part of the Garfagnana region annexation of the Fivizanno province of the Tuscan Lunigiana region 1848 : personal union with the Duchy of Guastalla _________________________________________________________________________________

HEAD OF STATE

Duke Duca Full Style : By the Grace of God Archduke of Austria-Este, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Modena, Reggio, Mirandola, Massa, Carrara and Guastalla, etc Per la Grazia di Dio Arciduca d'Austria-Este, Principe reale d'Ungheria e di Boemia, Duca di Modena, Reggio, Mirandola, Massa, Carrara e Guastalla, etc House of Asburgo-Lorena-Este (Habsburg-Lothringen-Este) (ruled since 1814 in Modena and Reggio, since 1829 in Massa and Carrara and since 1848 in Guastalla) 1846 - 1859 Francesco V (Francesco Ferdinando Geminiano), in exile mar - aug 1848, and since 1859 (without formally abdicating (2) 1819 - 1875 (2) After the restoration of 1848 the Duke was kept in power only by Austrian support. Austrian Ministers Resident Ministerresidenten (also accredited to Parma) 1848 - 1849 ... 1849 - 1852 Giovanni conte Allegri 1852 - 1854 Eduard Freiherr von Lederer 1854 - 1857 Eduard Freiherr von Lebzeltern 1857 - 1859 Ludwig Graf von Paar See here for the Austrian commanders in the region. __________________________________________________________________________________

MINISTERS

(It's possible all ministers appointed in 1848 had a predecessor - Military affairs were under the direct supervision of the Duke) 1848* = see Administrators of Revolutionary Modena and Reggio (period mar - aug) Minister of Foreign Affairs Ministri degli Affari esteri (also de facto leading ministers) 182. - 1848 Giuseppe marchese Molza 1848* 1848 - 1859 Giuseppe conte Forni 1807 - 1887 Ministers of State of the Interior Ministri di Stato dell'Interni (Before the revolution some of the tasks normally associated with a Ministry of the Interior were performed by the Minister of Public Economy and Education. From ca 1845 to 1848 this was Giuseppe conte Forni (s.a.) 1848 Pietro Gandini* 1848 - 1859 Luigi Giacobazzi Ministers of Justice Ministri della Giustizia (No separate Ministry of Justice seems to have existed before the revolution) 1848 - 185. Rinaldo Scioza 185. - 1859 Filippo Cocchi Minister of Finances Ministri delle Finanze 1845 - 1848 Lodovico conte Poppi 1848* 1848 - 1859 Ferdinando Tarabini Castellani 1808 - 1885 (For the last Ducal ministers see below : Regency of 1859) __________________________________________________________________________________

ADMINISTRATORS OF MODENA AND REGGIO

1848* = see Administrators of Revolutionary Modena and Reggio (period mar - aug) MODENA Governor Governatore 1846 - 1848 Luigi marchese De'Buoi 1848* Delegates of the Ministry of the Interior Delegati del Ministero dell'Interno 1848 - 185. ... 1851 - 1856 Teodoro Bayard conte de Volo 1857 - 1859 Col. Antonio conte Scapinelli REGGIO Governor Governatore 1843 - 1848 Francesco conte Scapinelli 1848* Delegates of the Ministry of the Interior Delegati del Ministero dell'Interno 1848 - 1851 Giovanni conte Galvani 1851 - 1852 ... Govvi* 1853 - 1859 Col. Enrico conte Fulcini __________________________________________________________________________________

REVOLUTIONARY AND PRO SARDINIAN ADMINISTRATORS IN 1848

Events of 1848 Mar 21 : On the news of the invasion of his states by a pro-Sardinian "liberation" army headed by Livio Zambeccari (1802 - 1862) Duke Francesco left the country, leaving a Regency in charge. (3) Mar 23 : After having been in occupation for two days Zambeccari left the country, leaving behind the provisional governments of Modena and Reggio. Mar : Provisional governments demanding the reunion with Tuscany were established in Garfagnana, Lunigiana and Massa and Carrara. A provisional government also toke power in Guastalla. Apr 02 : The two provisional governments united to form the Provisional Government of Modena and Reggio. May 12 : The territories of Garfagnana and Lunigiana and the Duchies of Massa and Carrara were annexed to Tuscany. May 25 : After a plebiscite the Duchies were declared annexed to Sardinia. Jun : The administration of the Duchies (including Guastalla) was taken over by Sardinian officials. Aug : The Duchies were occupied by Austrian troops. (4) Aug 10 : Duke Francesco returned to Modena. (3) Regency Reggenza 1848 -Rinaldo Scioza (Preidente) s.a. -... (4) Commander of the Austrian troops operating in Modena 1848 LtFieldMarsh. Friedrich Prinz von und zu Liechtenstein 1807 - 1885 (The Regency established some months before seems to have re-assumed power in the brief period before the arrival of the Duke) PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENTS Provisional Government of Modena Governo provvisorio di Modena 1848 -Giuseppe Malmusi (Presidente) 1802 - 1865 -Luigi Araldi -Antonio Brocchi -Giovanni Minghelli Viani 1817 - 1891 Provisional Government of Reggio Governo provvisorio di Reggio 1848 -Luigi Peretti -Jacopo Ferrari -... Provisional Government of Modena and Reggio Governo provvisorio di Modena e Reggio 1848 -Giuseppe Malusi (Presidente) s.a. -Nicodemo Bianchi -Luigi Peretti s.a. -Jacopo Ferrari s.a. -Giuseppe Malchior Giovannini -Giovanni Minghelli Viani s.a. (no names of ministers in this period were found. All information on this subject will be very welcomed) SARDINIAN ADMINISTRATORS Royal Commissionner of Modena Commissario del Re di Modena 1848 Ludovico conte Sauli Royal Commissioner of Reggio Commissario del Re di Peggio 1848 Pietro Santarosa

DUCHY OF GUASTALLA

The Duchy of Guastalla was created in 1621. It was united with Parma in 1748 and remained so - except for the period 1801-1814 when it was under French rule - until 1848 when it was united in a personal union with Modena and Reggio. The same year a provisional government assumed power and thereafter Guastalla was briefly administered by Sardinia. __________________________________________________________________________________ S.a. for the Heads of State

ADMINISTRATORS

Governor Governatore 1848 ... Provisional Government 1848 ... Sardinian Administrator(s) 1848 ... Delegate of the (Modena) Ministry of the Interior Delegato del Ministero dell'Interno 1848 - 1859 Enrico conte Casanova

DUCHY OF MASSA AND PRINCIPALITY OF CARRARA

The Duchy of Massa and the Principality of Carrara were created in 1662. They were under French rule from 1797 to 1814 and were united in a personal union with Modena and Reggio in 1829. In 1848 provisional governments seized power in both places and thereafter they both briefly became part of Tuscany. __________________________________________________________________________________ S.a. for the Heads of State

ADMINISTRATORS

Governor Governatore 1846 - 1848 Luigi conte Giacobazzi s.a. Provisional Governments 1848 ... Tuscan Administrator(s) 1848 ... Delegates of the (Modena) Ministry of the Interior Delegati del Ministero dell'Interno 1848 - 1853 Pietro conte Gandini s.a. 1853 - 1857 Col. Antonio conte Scapinelli s.a. 1857 - 1859 Maj. Raffaele Raffaelli

MODENA 1859

Events of 1859 Apr 28 : Pro Sardinian Provisional Governments toke power in Massa and Carrara, soon afterwards also in Guastalla, Garfagnana and Lunigiana. May 14 : Sardinian troops invaded Modena and occupied the revolted territories. Jun 11 : Duke Francesco left the country, leaving a Regency in charge. (5) Jun 13 : The Regency was overthrown by a pro-Sardinian provisional government. Jun 15 : The administration was taken over by Sardinian officials. Aug 20 : A National Assembly (Presidente : Giuseppe Malmusi, s.a.) formally deposed the house of Asburgo-Lorena-Este. Aug 21 : The National Assembly proclaimed the union of the Duchies with Sardinia Dec 03 : Modena and Reggio became part of Central Italy. Dec 08 : Modena and Reggio became part of Emilia. (5) Regency Reggenza 1859 -Luigi Giacobazzi (Presidente), continued as Minister of the Interior s.a. -Tommaso Borsari, also in charge of the Ministry of Justice (?) -Giuseppe cavalier Coppi -Giovanni conte Galvani, also in charge of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs -Pietro conte Gandini, also in charge of the Ministry of Finances s.a. Francesco V remained pretender and head of the House of Asburgo-Lorena -Este until his death in 1875 Successors As Francesco V died without male heir, the succession passed to members of the Austrian House of Habsburg-Lothringen on condition that they adopted the name of Austria-Este (�sterreich-Este), the arms of Este, that they learned Italian and avoided unions with non- Catholic princesses. 1875 - 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand Karl Leopold Joseph Maria, nephew of the Austrian Emperor Franz-Joseph I, assassinated at Sarajevo 1863 � 1914 1914 - 1916 Archduke Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria, nephew, renounced the title when he became Austrian Emperor 1887 � 1922 1916 - 1996 Archduke Robert Karl Ludwig Michael Anton Franz Ferdinand Joseph, etc, son 1915 - 1996 __________________________________________________________________________________

CHIEF ADMINISTRATORS

Provisional governments (jun 13 - jun 15) Provisional Government of Massa 1859 -Vincenzo Giusti (Presidente) -... Provisional Government of Carrara 1859 -Enrico Brignolari (Presidente) -... Provisional Governments of Modena, Guastalla, etc. 1859 ... Provisional Extraordinary Commissioner (jun 15 - jun 19) Commissario Straordinario Provvisorio 1859 Luigi Zini Governor of the Modena Provinces (jun 19 - jul 27) Governatore delle Provincie Modenesi 1859 Luigi Carlo Farini 1812 - 1866 Dictator of the Modena Provinces (jul 28 - dec 08) Dittatore delle Provincie Modenesi 1859 Luigi Carlo Farini, also Dictator of Parma and Romagna (since Nov) s.a. __________________________________________________________________________________

MINISTERS

(since jul 28; Possible predecessors and exact style not known) Minister of Foreign Affairs (and Head of the Government) 1859 Luigi Carlo Farini s.a. Minister of War 1859 I. Ribotty Minister of the Interior 1859 Col. Luigi Masi 1814 - 1872 Minister of Justice 1859 Luigi Chiesi Minister of Finances 1859 Luigi Terni

CENTRAL ITALY 1859 - 1860

Since aug 1859 the pro-Sardinian regimes of Modena, Parma, Romagna and Tuscany were linked by military treaties. On nov 07 they all elected Eugenio Emanuele di Savoia- Carignano, principe di Carignano (1816-1888) regent for the Sardinian King. The King however refused to endorse the election, but as a compensation appointed Carlo Boncompagni, conte di Mombello (1804-1880) Governor General of Central Italy and entrusted him with the coordination of the diplomatic and military affairs of the three - later two : Emilia and Tuscany - states. (dec 03) The Government General of Central Italy (also styled Confederation of Central Italy, Union of Central Italy or United Provinces of Central Italy) ended on mar 03 1860 when Boncompagni resigned.

EMILIA 1859 - 1860

On dec 08 1859 Modena (and its appended territories), Parma and Romagna were united into one single administrative unit, styled Royal Provinces of Emilia. __________________________________________________________________________________

CHIEF ADMINISTRATOR

Dictaror of the Royal Provinces of Emilia Dittatore delle Regie Provincie dell'Emilia 1859 Luigi Carlo Farini s.a. Governor of the Royal Provinces of Emilia Governatore delle Regie Provincie del'Emilia 1860 Luigi Carlo Farini s.a. __________________________________________________________________________________

MINISTERS

(exact style not known) Minister of the Interior 1859 Carlo Mayr Minister of Justice 1859 Luigi Chiesi s.a. Minister of Finances 1859 Marchese Gioacchino Napoleone Pepoli 1825 - 1881 After a plebiscite had confirmed the acts of annexation promulgated by the three Assemblies some months before, Emilia was formally annexed to Sardinia in 1860 (mar 18)
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