FAÚRYAÚB(also spelled Pa@rya@b, Ba@rya@b), a town in northern Afghanistan, now in the modern Afghan province of Farya@b.
i. IN PRE-MODERN ISLAMIC TIMES
Early Islamic Fa@rya@b lay within the region of Gu@zga@n/Ju@zja@n (q.v.). The town was probably situated some 16 km to the east of the AÚb-e Qaysáa@r at the spot now called K¨ayra@ba@d, where remains of an early Islamic settlement and a citadel have been noted (Ball, no. 542).
Fa@rya@b almost certainly had a pre-Islamic history, although we know virtually nothing of this, for it lay beyond the eastern frontiers of the Sasanian empire. Gard^z^ (ed. H®ab^b^, p. 29) attributes its foundation to F^ro@z son of Yazdegerd, the Sasanian king. It was conquered by the Arab general ¿Abd-Alla@h b. ¿AÚmer (q.v.) in 32/652-53 during the course of fierce fighting in Gu@zga@n and T®okòa@resta@n; in 45/665-66 Qays b. Hayt¯am was governor of Marv-al-ru@d, T®a@laqa@n, and Fa@rya@b. It nevertheless retained a local Iranian prince of its own, whose name (or title?) is corruptly written in T®abar^ as T.r.s.l. The Hephthalite leader T®arkòa@n N^zak brought him out in rebellion against the Arab governor of Khorasan Qotayba b. Moslem in 90/709. T.r.s.l. was pardoned by Qotayba, but again in 116/734 he was involved in the revolt of H®a@ret¯ b. Sorayj against the Omayyads (T®abar^, I, p. 2897, II, pp. 79, 1198, 1206, 1218, 1566; cf. Gibb, pp. 15, 36-37).
By the 10th century, Fa@rya@b was one of the towns of the Farighunid princes (see AÚL-E FARÈGÚUÚN) of Gu@zga@n, vassals of the Samanids, and is described by the geographers of that century. It lay on the road from Marv-al-ru@d to Balkò (q.v.), and was smaller than T®a@laqa@n; it had flourishing local agriculture and artisanal activity and a congregational mosque (Ebn H®awqal, p. 442, tr. Kramers and Wiet, pp. 427-28; H®odu@d al-¿a@lam, ed. Sotu@da, p. 97, tr. Minorsky, pp. 107, 335; Ya@qu@t, Bolda@n, Beirut, IV, p. 229; Le Strange, Lands, pp. 425, 432). Fa@rya@b was plundered by Ùa@g@rï Beg's Turkmans in 429/1037-38 and 430/1038-39, when the Saljuqs were wresting Khorasan from the Ghaznavids (Bayhaq^, pp. 534, 537, 567). It further suffered during the devastation of northern Afghanistan by Ùeng^z Khan's (q.v.) Mongols in 617/1220, but recovered enough for H®amd-Alla@h Mostawf^ to record it in the next century as a small but agriculturally rich town (Nozhat al-qolu@b, ed. Le Strange, p. 156, tr. p. 153), although it subsequently, at some unrecorded date, fell into total ruin.
Bibliography (for cited works not given in detail, see "Short References"): Bala@dòor^, Fotu@há, pp. 406-7, 409. W. Ball, Archaeological Gazetteer of Afghanistan, 2 vols., Paris, 1982. Barthold, Turkestan3, pp. 79-80. Idem, An Historical Geography of Iran, tr. S. Soucek, Princeton, 1984, p. 33. Bayhaq^, Ta@r^kò-e mas¿u@d^, ed. Q. GÚan^ and ¿A.-A. Fayya@zµ, Tehran, 1324 ./1945. EsátÂakòr^, pp. 270, 271. H. A. R. Gibb, The Arab Conquests in Central Asia, London, 1923. Markwart, EÚra@næahr, pp. 67, 70, 78-79.
(C. EDMUND BOSWORTH)
ii. IN MODERN TIMES
Fa@rya@b (also Pa@rya@b), common Persian toponym meaning "lands irrigated by diversion of river water" (see AÚBÈ). It is presently borne by twenty-one villages in Persia, most of them in the south, eighteen under the form Fa@rya@b, three under Pa@rya@b (Pa@pol^ Yazd^, pp. 121, 385). Several medieval settlements of varying importance were also known by that name: mere villages in Sogdiana and western Khorasan (Barthold, Turkestan3, p. 138; H®a@fezá-e Abru@, II, pp. 57, 203); a small town and district in southern Fa@rs (Le Strange, Lands, pp. 257 n., 296); and a much larger city in Gu@zga@n (northern Afghanistan), present-day K¨ayra@ba@d, near Dawlata@ba@d(-e Maymana; q.v.; Le Strange, Lands, p. 425; Barthold, p. 33; Ball, I, pp. 150-51). The striking fact that none of these old Fa@rya@bs has retained its former name underlines the vulnerability and instability of settlements built along rivers and liable to destructive floods (for an example in Kerma@n, see Sykes, pp. 269-70). It was, however, the Mongol invasion of 617/1220 that ruined Fa@rya@b in Gu@zga@n.
The name of that once prosperous city was revived in 1344 ./1965, when the high governorate (háoku@mat-e ¿ala@) of Maymana, which had remained an independent administrative division in Afghanistan since the annexation of the Uzbek khanate of Maymana in 1293/1876, was elevated to the rank of province (wela@yat) under the name Fa@rya@b. The province was, however, about twice as large as the former administrative division because it also incorporated two major districts (háoku@mat) detached from the province (na@÷eb al-háoku@mag^) of Torkesta@n: Darza@b-Gorz^va@n and Andkòu@y-Dawlata@ba@d. In the early 1980s the district (woloswa@l^) of Darza@b was again detached from Fa@rya@b and returned to the neighboring province Jo@zja@n. At present Fa@rya@b province covers 21,141 km2. Straddling the boundaries between several major geohistorical regions, mainly Turkestan and Khorasan, it lacks real unity. The northern part isin the western extremity of the Afghan Turkestan lowlands, on the edge of the Kara Kum desert, including the big oasis of Andkòo@y /Andkòu@y (q.v.) and some of the lowest elevations in Afghanistan (257 m on the border with Turkmenistan); Turkic-speaking populations (Uzbek, Turkmen) predominate. The westernmost area (Qaysáa@r) is an outpost of Ba@d@g@^s (q.v.), the eastern extremity of greater Khorasan, largely repopulated by Paætu@n colonists. The southern region, or Ko@hesta@n, extends over the central Band-e Torkesta@n (q.v.) ridge, with elevations of more than 3,000 m and sparsely distributed Persian-speaking villages. The provincial capital, Maymana, is strategically located at the intersection of the roads linking all these regions.
Other than Maymana, the only localities with urban status in the province are Andkòu@y (13,000 inhabitants in 1358 ./1979) and Dawlata@ba@d (q.v.). The population, recorded at 541,706 settled inhabitants in the census of 1358 ./1979, is so unevenly distributed
that the comparatively high provincial density of twenty-six inhabitants per km2 has only limited geographical significance. Furthermore, Fa@rya@b is among the Afghan provinces with the highest number of nomads (ca 4,000 families, or 25,000 persons, mainly Paætu@n;
For a summary of the most important available data about population and land use, see Tables
Bibliography: W. Ball, Archaeological Gazetteer of Afghanistan, 2 vols., Paris, 1982. W. Barthold, An Historical Geography of Iran, tr. S. Soucek, Princeton, N.J., 1984. H®a@fezá-e Abru@, Ta@r^kò II. Bakòæ-e jog@ra@f^a@-ye K¨ora@sa@n, tr. D. Krawulsky as Óora@sa@n zur Timuridenzeit nach dem Ta@r^ª-e H®a@fez-e Abru@, 2 vols., TAVO, Beihefte 46/1-2, Wiesbaden, 1984. M.-H®. Pa@pol^ Yazd^, Farhang-e a@ba@d^ha@ wa maka@nha@-ye madòhab^-e keævar, Maæhad, 1367 ./1988. P. M. Sykes, Ten Thousand Miles in Persia or Eight Years in Iran, London, 1902.