Hawaiian language

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ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi
Spoken in: Hawaiʻi: concentrated on Niʻihau and Hawaiʻi, but speakers throughout the Hawaiian Islands and the U.S. mainland
Total speakers: ~200 native[1]
Language family: Austronesian
 Malayo-Polynesian (MP)
  Nuclear MP
   Central Eastern MP
    Eastern MP
      Central-Eastern Oceanic
       Remote Oceanic
        Central Pacific
         East Fijian-Polynesian
           Nuclear Polynesian
            Eastern Polynesian
             Central E. Polyn.
Writing system: Latin 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Hawaii Hawaiʻi (with English)
recognised as minority language in parts of:
Flag of the United States U.S. Mainland
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: haw
ISO 639-3: haw

The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: ‘Ōlelo Hawai‘i) is an Austronesian language that takes its name from Hawai'i, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. Hawaiian, along with English, is an official language of the State of Hawaii, one of the United States. King Kamehameha III* established the first Hawaiian-language constitutions in 1839 and 1840.

For various reasons, the number of native speakers of Hawaiian gradually decreased during the period from the 1830s to the 1950s. Hawaiian was essentially displaced by English on six of the seven inhabited islands. As of 2000, native speakers of Hawaiian amount to under 0.1% of the statewide population. Linguists are worried about the fate of this and other endangered languages.[3].

Nevertheless, from about 1949 to the present, there has been a gradual increase in attention to, and promotion of, the language. Public Hawaiian-language immersion pre-schools called Pūnana Leo were started in 1984; other immersion schools followed soon after. The first students to start in immersion pre-school have now graduated from college and many are fluent Hawaiian speakers.

A type of "local English" spoken in Hawaii is technically called "Hawaiian Creole English", abbreviated "HCE". It developed from pidgin English and is often called simply "pidgin" (or Hawaiian Pidgin). It should not be mistaken for the Hawaiian language.

The ISO language code for Hawaiian is haw.


[edit] Name

The Hawaiian language is so named from the name of the largest island, Hawai'i (Hawaiʻi in Hawaiian language), in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed, originally from a Polynesian language of the South Pacific, most likely Marquesan or Tahitian. The island name was first written in English, in 1778 by British explorer James Cook and his crew members. They wrote it as "Owhyhee" or "Owhyee". Explorers Mortimer (1791) and Otto von Kotzebue (1821) used that spelling.[4]

The initial "O" in the name is a reflection of the fact that unique identity is predicated in Hawaiian by using a copula form, ʻo, immediately before a proper noun.[5] Thus, in Hawaiian, the name of the island is expressed by saying ʻO Hawaiʻi, which means "[This] is Hawaii."[6] Note that the Cook expedition also wrote "Otaheite" rather than "Tahiti."[7]

The spelling "why" in the name reflects the [ʍ] pronunciation (a voiceless [w]) of wh in 18th century English. Why was pronounced [hwai]. The spelling "hee" or "ee" in the name represents the sounds [hi], [ʔi], or [i].[8]

Putting the parts together, O-why-hee reflects [o-hwai-ʔi], a reasonable approximation of the native pronunciation, [ʔo hʌˈwʌi.ʔi].

American missionaries bound for Hawaii used the phrases "Owhihe Language" and "Owhyhee language", in Boston prior to their departure in October 1819 and during their five-month voyage to Hawaii.[9] They still used such phrases as late as February 1822.[10] However, by July 1823, they had begun using the phrase "Hawaiian Language."[11]

In Hawaiian phrase ʻōlelo Hawaiʻi means "Hawaiian language". (The adjective follows the noun).[12]

[edit] Family and origin

Hawaiian's position within Polynesian
Hawaiian's position within Polynesian

Hawaiian is a Polynesian member of the Austronesian language family.[13] It is closely related to other Polynesian languages (e.g., Marquesan, Tahitian, Maori, Rapa Nui (the language of Easter Island), Samoan), and distantly related to Fijian and more distantly to Malay, Indonesian, Malagasy, and the indigenous languages of the Philippines (e.g., Pangasinan, Tagalog, Ilokano, Visayan) and Taiwan (e.g., Paiwan, Rukai, Thao, Babuza, Saaroa, Yami).

The Marquesans colonized the archipelago in roughly 300 CE[14] followed by another wave of Tahitian immigrants around 1000 CE. Their languages, over time, became the Hawaiian language.[15]

Continuing back in time, and back up the Austronesian family tree, the language was various stages of Proto-Polynesian.[16] Going much further back in history, the language is that of the Philippine Islands. The linguistic evidence, with the methodologies of lexicostatistics and comparative reconstruction applied, takes the language back to Proto Austronesian, spoken in Taiwan (see next section).[17][18][19] In recognizing the "Austric dispersal", Li (2001:271-272) states that Reid "firmly established" a genetic relationship between the Austronesian family and the Austroasiatic family, and that Blust proposed that the Austronesian people migrated from mainland China to Taiwan around 4000 BCE.

[edit] Methods of proving Hawaiian's family relationships

The genetic history of the Hawaiian language is demonstrated primarily through the application of lexicostatistics, and the comparative method.[20][21]

Lexicostatistics is a way of quantifying an approximate evaluation of the degree to which any given languages are genetically related to one another.[22][23]. It is mainly based on determining the number of cognates (genetically shared words) that the languages have in a fixed set of vocabulary items which are nearly universal among all languages.[24] The so-called "basic vocabulary" (or Swadesh list) amounts to about 200 words,[25] having meanings such as "eye", "hair", "blood", "water", and "and."[26] The measurement of a genetic relationship is expressed as a percentage.[27][28] For example, Hawaiian and English have 0 cognates in the 200-word list, so they are 0% genetically related. By contrast, Hawaiian and Tahitian have about 152 cognates in the list, so they are estimated as being 76% genetically related,[29] according to the lexicostatistical method (152 ÷ 200 = 76).

The comparative method is a technique developed by linguists to determine whether or not two or more languages are genetically related, and if they are, the historical nature of the relationships.[30][31] For a given meaning, the words of the languages are compared.[32] Linguists observe:[33]

  1. identical sounds,
  2. similar sounds, and
  3. dissimilar sounds, in corresponding positions in the words

In this method, the definition of "identical" is clear, but those of "similar" and "dissimilar" are based on phonological criteria which require professional training to fully understand, and which can vary in the contexts of different languages. Basically, a sound's phonetic manner and place of articulation, and its phonological features, are the main factors considered in investigating its status as "similar" or "dissimilar" to other sounds in a particular context. When linguists find in compared languages that compared words of the same or similar meaning contain sounds which correspond to one another, and find that these same sound correspondences recur regularly in most, or in many, of the comparable words of the languages, then the usual conclusion is that the languages are genetically related.[34][35]

In both methods, it is very important to exclude loan words from the analysis.[36]

The following table, Decimal Numbers, provides a limited data set for ten meanings. The Proto-Austronesian (PAN) forms are from Li (2004:4). The asterisk (*) is used to show that these are hypothetical, reconstructed forms. The Tagalog forms are from Ramos (1971), the Tongan from Churchward (1959), and the Hawaiian from Pukui & Elbert (1986). In the table, the year date of the modern forms is rounded off to CE 2000 to emphasize the 6000-year time lapse since the PAN era.

Decimal Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PAN, circa 4000 BCE *isa *DuSa *telu *Sepat *lima *enem *pitu *walu *Siwa *puluq
Tagalog, CE 2000 isá dalawá tatló ápat limá ánim pitó waló siyám sampu
Ilokano(ilocano), CE 2000 maysa dua talló uppat limá innem pitó waló siám sangpulo
Kapampangan, CE 2000 metung adwa atlu apat lima anam pitu walu siyam apulu
Cebuano, CE 2000 usá duhá tuló upat limá unom pitó waló siyám napulu
Indonesian, CE 2000 satu dua tiga empat lima enam tujuh delapan sembilan sepuluh
Javanese, CE 2000 siji loro telu papat limo nem pitu wolu songo sepuluh
Malagasy, CE 2000 irai(ka) roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo
Māori, CE 2000 tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau
Tongan, CE 2000 taha ua tolu fa: nima ono fitu valu hiva -fulu
Hawaiian, CE 2000 kahi lua kolu ha: lima ono hiku ʋalu iʋa -hulu

Note 1. For the number "10", the Tongan form in the table is part of the word /hoŋo-fulu/ ('ten'). The Hawaiian form is part of the word /ana-hulu/ ('ten days'), however the more common form used in counting and quantifying is /ʔumi/, a different root.

Application of the lexicostatistical method to the data in the table will show the four languages to be related to one another, with Tagalog having 100% cognacy with PAN, while Hawaiian and Tongan have 100% cognacy with each other, but 90% with Tagalog and PAN. This is because the forms for each number are cognates, except the Hawaiian and Tongan words for the number "1", which are cognate with each other, but not with Tagalog and PAN. When the full set of 200 meanings is used, the percentages will be much lower. For example, Elbert found Hawaiian and Tongan to have 49% (98 ÷ 200) shared cognacy.[37] This points out the importance of data-set size for this method — less data, cruder result; more data, better result.

Application of the comparative method will show partly different genetic relationships. It will point out sound changes,[38] such as:

  1. the loss of all PAN word-final consonants in Tongan and Hawaiian;
  2. lowering of PAN *u to Tagalog [o] in word-final syllables;
  3. retention of PAN *t in word-initial and word-medial position in Tagalog and Tongan, but shift to /k/ in Hawaiian;
  4. retention of PAN *p in Tagalog, but shift to /f/ in Tongan and /h/ in Hawaiian.

This method will recognize sound change #1 as a shared innovation of Hawaiian and Tongan. It will also take the Hawaiian and Tongan cognates for "1" as another shared innovation. Due to these exclusively shared features, Hawaiian and Tongan are found to be more closely related to one another than either is to Tagalog or PAN.

The forms in the table show that the Austronesian vowels tend to be relatively stable, while the consonants are relatively volatile. It is also apparent that the Hawaiian words for "5" and "8" have remained essentially unchanged for 6000 years.

[edit] History

Before 1778, see Family and Origin above.

[edit] 1778 to 1820

[edit] In Hawaii

In 1778, British explorer James Cook made the first reported European discovery of Hawaii, and that marked a new phase in the development and use of Hawaiian. During the next forty years, the sounds of Spanish (1789), Russian (1804), French (1816), and German (1816) arrived in Hawaii via other explorers and businessmen. Hawaiian began to take form as a written language, but largely restricted to isolated names and words, and word lists collected by explorers and travellers.[39]

[edit] Abroad

The people responsible for "importing" those languages were also responsible for "exporting" the Hawaiian language into new territory, because there were some adventurous native speakers of Hawaiian who opted to do some exploring of their own by leaving Hawaii and sailing off to "see the world" aboard the wooden ships of the Caucasian explorers.[40] Although there were not enough of these Hawaiian-speaking explorers (and apparently no females) to establish any viable speech communities abroad, nevertheless, there were a few here and there, in various parts of the world, who may be said to have spread the use of the language, at least a little bit. One of them, a male teenager known as Obookiah (`Ōpūkaha`ia), had a major impact on the future of the language. He sailed to New England, and eventually became a student at the Foreign Mission School in Cornwall, Connecticut. He inspired New Englanders to support a Christian mission to Hawaii, and provided information on the Hawaiian language to the American missionaries there prior to their departure for Hawaii in 1819.[41] Some adventurous native speakers of Hawaiian worked aboard American and/or European ships of that period, thereby expanding, albeit slightly, the geographical area in which Hawaiian could be spoken. However, no viable Hawaiian speech communities were ever established abroad.

[edit] 1820 to 1887

[edit] In Hawaii

The arrival of American Protestant missionaries (from New England) in 1820 marked another new phase in the development of the Hawaiian language. Their evangelical mission had been inspired by the presence of several young Hawaiian males, especially Obookiah (ʻŌpūkahaʻia), at the Foreign Mission School in Cornwall, Connecticut. The missionaries wanted to convert all Hawaiians to Christianity. In order to achieve that goal, they needed to learn the Hawaiian language so that they could publish a Hawaiian Bible, preach in Hawaiian, etc. To that end, they developed a successful alphabet for Hawaiian by 1826, taught Hawaiians to read and write the language, published various educational materials in Hawaiian, and eventually finished translating the Bible. Missionaries also influenced King Kamehameha III to establish the first Hawaiian-language constitutions in 1839 and 1840.

[edit] Abroad

Adelbert von Chamisso might have consulted with a native speaker of Hawaiian in Berlin, Germany, before publishing his grammar of Hawaiian ("Über die Hawaiische Sprache") in 1837.[42] When Hawaiian King David Kalākaua took a trip around the world, he brought his native language with him. When his wife, Queen Kapiolani, and his sister, Princess (later Queen) Liliuokalani, took a trip across North America and on to the British Islands, in 1887, Liliuokalani's composition Aloha Oe was already a famous song in the U.S.[43]

[edit] 1834 to 1948

[edit] In Hawaii

This is the 115-year period during which Hawaiian-language newspapers were published. Missionaries introduced newspaper publishing in Hawaiian and in English, and played a significant role in publishing a grammar (1854) and dictionary (1865) of Hawaiian. Literacy in Hawaiian was widespread among the local population, especially ethnic Hawaiians. Use of the language among the general population might have peaked around 1881. Even so, some people worried, as early as 1854, that the language was "soon destined to extinction."[44] In spite of a huge decline in the use of Hawaiian, compared to the era of its peak, those fears have never been realized.

The increase in human travel to and from Hawaiʻi during the 19th century was the means by which a number of diseases arrived, and potentially fatal ones, such as smallpox, influenza, and leprosy, killed large numbers of native speakers of Hawaiian. Meanwhile, native speakers of other languages, especially English, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, and Ilokano, continued to immigrate to Hawaii. As a result, the actual number, as well as the percentage, of native speakers of Hawaiian in the local population decreased sharply, and continued to fall.

As the status of Hawaiian dropped, the status of English in Hawaiʻi rose. In 1885, the Prospectus of the Kamehameha Schools announced that "instruction will be given only in English language" (see published opinion of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Doe v. Kamehameha Schools, case no. 04-15044, page 8928, filed August 2nd 2005).

For a variety of reasons starting around 1900, the number of native speakers of Hawaiian diminished from 37,000 to 1,000; half of these remaining are now in their seventies or eighties (see Ethnologue report below for citations). There has been some controversy over the reasons for this decline.

One school of thought claims that the most important cause for the decline of the Hawaiian language was its voluntary abandonment by the majority of its native speakers. They wanted their own children to speak English, as a way to promote their success in a rapidly changing modern environment, so they refrained from using Hawaiian with their own children. The Hawaiian language schools disappeared as their enrollments dropped: parents preferred English language schools.

Another school of thought insists either that the government made the language illegal, or that schools punished the use of Hawaiian, or that general prejudice against Hawaiians (kanakas) discouraged the use of the language. (See below, "Banning" of Hawaiian)

A new dictionary was published in 1957, a new grammar in 1979, and new second-language textbooks in 1951, 1965, 1977, and 1989. Master's theses and doctoral dissertations on specific facets of Hawaiian appeared in 1951, 1975, 1976, and 1996.

[edit] Kaona or Hidden meaning

According to Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Elbert in the definitive Dictionary, kaona (pronounced cow-na) is a "Hidden meaning, as in Hawaiian poetry; concealed reference, as to a person, thing, or place; words with double meanings that might bring good or bad fortune." Pukui lamented, “in spite of years of dedicated work, it is impossible to record any language completely. How true this seems for Hawaiian, with its rich and varied background, its many idioms heretofore undescribed, and its ingenious and sophisticated use of figurative language.” On page xiii of the 1986 Dictionary she warned: "Hawaiian has more words with multiple meanings than almost any other language. One wishing to name a child, a house, a T-shirt, or a painting, should be careful that the chosen name does not have a naughty or vulgar meaning. The name of a justly respectable children's school, Hana Hau'oli, means happy activity and suggests a missionary author, but among older Hawaiians it has another, less 'innocent' meaning that should not concern little children. A Honolulu street (and formerly the name of a hotel) is Hale Le'a 'joyous house', but le'a also means orgasm."

Understanding the kaona of the language requires a comprehensive knowledge of Hawaiian legends, history and cosmology.

[edit] "Banning" of Hawaiian

The law cited as banning the Hawaiian language is identified as Act 57, sec. 30 of the 1896 Laws of the Republic of Hawaiʻi:

The English Language shall be the medium and basis of instruction in all public and private schools, provided that where it is desired that another language shall be taught in addition to the English language, such instruction may be authorized by the Department, either by its rules, the curriculum of the school, or by direct order in any particular instance. Any schools that shall not conform to the provisions of this section shall not be recognized by the Department. [signed] June 8, 1896 Sanford B. Dole, President of the Republic of Hawaiʻi

This law established English as the main medium of instruction for the government-recognized schools, but it did not ban nor make illegal the Hawaiian language in other contexts. The law specifically provided for teaching languages "in addition to the English language".

Hawaiian-language newspapers were published for over a hundred years, right through the period of the supposed ban. Pukui & Elbert (1986:572) list fourteen Hawaiian newspapers. According to them, the newspapers entitled Ka Lama Hawaii and Ke Kumu Hawaii began publishing in 1834, and the one called Ka Hoku o Hawaii ceased publication in 1948. The longest run was that of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa: about 66 years, from 1861 to 1927.

[edit] 1949 to present

In 1949, the legislature of the Territory of Hawaiʻi commissioned Mary Pukui and Samuel Elbert to write a new dictionary of Hawaiian, either revising the Andrews-Parker work, or starting from scratch.[45] Pukui and Elbert took a middle course, using what they could from the Andrews dictionary, but making certain improvements and additions that were more significant than a minor revision. The dictionary they produced, in 1957, introduced an era of gradual increase in attention to the language (and culture).

Efforts to promote the language have increased in recent decades. Hawaiian-language "immersion" schools are now open to children whose families want to introduce Hawaiian language for future generations.[46] The local NPR station features a short segment titled "Hawaiian word of the day" and a Hawaiian language news broadcast. Additionally, the Sunday editions of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin, one of Honolulu's two major newspapers, feature a brief article called Kauakukalahale written entirely in Hawaiian by teachers, students, and community members.

Today, on six of the seven permanently inhabited islands, Hawaiian is largely displaced by English, and the number of native speakers of Hawaiian is under 0.1% of the state-wide population. Native speakers of Hawaiian who live on the island named Niʻihau have remained fairly isolated and have continued to use Hawaiian almost exclusively.[47]

[edit] Niʻihau

Niʻihau is the only area in the world where Hawaiian is the first language and English is a foreign language. Because of many sufficiently marked variations, Niʻihau people, when visiting or living in Honolulu, substitute the Oʻahu dialect [sic] for their own — apparently easy to do — saying that otherwise people in Honolulu have trouble understanding them. Niʻihau people speak very rapidly; many vowels and entire syllables are dropped or whispered.[48]

The island named Niʻihau, aka 'the Forbidden Island' to locals, off the southwest coast of Kauaʻi, is the one island where Hawaiian is still spoken by the entire population as the language of daily life.[49] Children are taught Hawaiian as a first language, and learn English at about age eight. Reasons for the persistence include:

  • Niʻihau has been privately owned for over 100 years;
  • visitation by outsiders has been only rarely allowed;
  • the Caucasian owners/managers of the island have favored the Niʻihauans' continuation of their language;
  • and, most of all, because the Niʻihau speakers themselves have naturally maintained their own native language, even though they sometimes use English as a second language for school.

Native speakers of Niʻihau Hawaiian have three distinct modes of speaking Hawaiian:

  1. an imitation and adaptation to "standard" Hawaiian;
  2. a native Niʻihau dialect that is significantly different from "standard" Hawaiian, including extensive use of palatalizations and truncations, and differences in diphthongization, vowel raising, and elision;
  3. a manner of speaking among themselves which is so different from "standard" Hawaiian that it is unintelligible to non-Niʻihau speakers of Hawaiian.

The last mode of speaking may be further restricted to a certain subset of Niʻihauans, and is rarely even overheard by non-Niʻihauans. In addition to being able to speak Hawaiian in different ways, most Niʻihauans can speak English too.

Elbert & Pukui (1979:23) states that "[v]ariations in Hawaiian dialects have not been systematically studied", and that "[t]he dialect of Niʻihau is the most aberrant and the one most in need of study". They recognized that Niʻihauans can speak Hawaiian in substantially different ways. Their statements are based in part on some specific observations made by Newbrand (1951). (See below, Processes, under Phonology.)

[edit] Orthography (writing system)

The Hawaiian alphabet, ka pīʻāpā Hawaiʻi, is a variety of the Latin alphabet. Hawaiian words end only in vowels. The Hawaiian alphabetical order has all of the vowels before the consonants,[50] as in the following chart.

Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Hh Kk Ll Mm Nn Pp Ww ʻ
/a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /h/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /w/ /ʔ/

[edit] Origin

This writing system was developed by American Protestant missionaries during 1820-1826.[51] It was the first thing they ever printed in Hawaii, on January 7, 1822, and it originally included the consonants B, D, R, T, and V, in addition to the current ones (H, K, L, M, N, P, W), and it had F, G, S, Y and Z for "spelling foreign words". The initial printing also showed the five vowel letters (A, E, I, O, U) and seven of the short diphthongs (AE, AI, AO, AU, EI, EU, OU).[52]

In 1826, the developers voted to eliminate some of the letters which represented functionally redundant allophones (called "interchangeable letters"), enabling the Hawaiian alphabet to approach the ideal state of one-symbol-one-sound, and thereby optimizing the ease with which people could teach and learn the reading and writing of Hawaiian.[53] For example, instead of spelling one and the same word as pule, bule, pure, and bure (because of interchangeable p/b and l/r), the word is spelled only as pule.

  • Interchangeable B/P. B was dropped, P was kept.
  • Interchangeable L/R. L was kept, R was dropped.
  • Interchangeable K/T. K was kept, T was dropped.
  • Interchangeable V/W. V was dropped, W was kept.

However, hundreds of words were very rapidly borrowed into Hawaiian from English, Greek, Hebrew, Latin, Syrian, and Chaldean.[54][55][56] Although these loan words were necessarily Hawaiianized, they often retained some of their "non-Hawaiian letters" in their published forms. For example, Brazil fully Hawaiianized is Palakila, but retaining "foreign letters" it is Barazila.[57] Another example is Gibraltar, written as Kipalaleka or Gibaraleta.[58] While [z] and [g] are not regarded as Hawaiian sounds, [b], [ɹ], and [t] were represented in the original alphabet, so the letters (b, r, and t) for the latter are not truly "non-Hawaiian" or "foreign", even though their post-1826 use in published matter generally marked words of foreign origin.

[edit] Glottal stop

Main article: ʻokina

A modern Hawaiian name for the symbol (a letter) which represents the glottal stop is ʻokina (ʻoki 'cut' plus -na '-ing').[59] It was formerly known as ʻuʻina ('snap'[60][61]). It can be written as ʻ, with the Unicode hex value 02BB (decimal 699), which does not always have the correct appearance because it is not supported in some fonts/browsers. It is alternatively written as an opening single quote with the Unicode hex value 2018 (decimal 8216), which appears either as a left-leaning quote or a quote with greater thickness at the bottom than at the top. It can look like a very small "6" with the circle filled in black.

For examples of the okina, consider the Hawaiian words Hawaiʻi and Oʻahu (simply Hawaii and Oahu in English orthography). In Hawaiian, these words can be pronounced [hʌˈwʌi.ʔi] and [oˈʔʌ.hu], and can be written with an okina where the glottal stop is pronounced.[62][63]

As early as 1823, the missionaries made some limited use of the apostrophe to represent the glottal stop,[64] but they did not make it a letter of the alphabet. In publishing the Hawaiian Bible, they used it to distinguish koʻu ('my') from kou ('your').[65]. In 1864, W.D. Alexander published a grammar of Hawaiian in which he made it clear that the glottal stop (calling it "guttural break") is definitely a true consonant of the Hawaiian language.[66] He wrote it using an apostrophe. In 1922, the Andrews-Parker dictionary of Hawaiian made limited use of the opening single quote symbol, called "reversed apostrophe" or "inverse comma", to represent the glottal stop.[67] Subsequent dictionaries have preferred to use that symbol. Today, many native speakers of Hawaiian do not bother, in general, to write any symbol for the glottal stop. Its use is advocated mainly among students and teachers of Hawaiian as a second language, and among linguists.[68]

[edit] Macron

A modern Hawaiian name for the symbol (not a letter) which is the macron is kahakō (kaha 'mark' plus 'long').[69] It was formerly known as mekona (Hawaiianization of macron). It can be written as a diacritical mark which looks like a hyphen or dash written above a vowel, i.e., ā ē ī ō ū, and Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū. It is used to show that the marked vowel is a "double", or "geminate", or "long" vowel, in phonemic terms.[70]

As early as 1821, at least one of the missionaries, Hiram Bingham, was using macrons (and breves) in making handwritten transcriptions of Hawaiian vowels.[71] The missionaries specifically requested their sponsor in Boston to send them some type (fonts) with accented vowel characters, including vowels with macrons, but the sponsor made only one response and sent the wrong font size (pica instead of small pica).[72] Thus, they could not print ā, ē, ī, ō, nor ū (at the right size), even though they wanted to.

[edit] Pronunciation

In general, each Hawaiian letter represents the sound value of the same letter in the IPA alphabet. Due to extensive allophony, however, if one were to converse in Hawaiian with only 13 phones, the result would sound definitely foreign to the ear of a native speaker. See Phonology, below, for details on the ranges of actual allophones used.

The letter ʻ, the ʻokina, is not an IPA symbol. The IPA symbol for glottal stop is <ʔ>.[73] Since the Hawaiian letter ʻ stands for [ʔ], in effect, the phonetic value of ʻ is [ʔ].[74]

The macron, or kahakō, is not a letter, and its use to indicate allophony is not an IPA convention (the IPA symbol for gemination is ː). The kahakō has no sound of its own, and is not used alone. Although it marks phonemic vowel length in Hawaiian, long vowels are not always pronounced long by native speakers of Hawaiian in actual Hawaiian communication.[75] The macron does not represent stress, although under the rules for assigning stress in Hawaiian, a long vowel will always receive stress.[76][77]

[edit] Phonology

Main article: Hawaiian phonology

Hawaiian is known for having very few consonant phonemes — eight. It is notable that Hawaiian has free variation of [p] with [b],[78] [t] with [k],[79][80][81][82], [l] with [ɹ],[83] and [w] with [v].[84] The [t]-with-[k] variation is quite unusual among the world's languages, but can be understood when one notes the common transcription of fellow Malayo-Polynesian languages, Indonesian or Malaysian , [ʔ] as k or ' or t in English. The eight Hawaiian consonant phonemes are /p, k, ʔ, h, m, n, l, w/.

Hawaiian has either 5 or 25 vowel phonemes, depending on how the long vowels and diphthongs are treated.[85] If the long vowels and diphthongs are treated as two-phoneme sequences, then the total of vowel phonemes is five. But if the long vowels and diphthongs are treated as separate, unit phonemes, then the total of vowel phonemes is 25. The short vowel phonemes are /u, i, o, e, a/. If long vowels are counted separately, they are /uː, iː, oː, eː, aː/. If diphthongs are counted separately, they are /iu, ou, oi, eu, ei, au, ai, ao, ae, oːu, eːi, aːu, aːi, aːo, aːe/. There is some allophonic variation of the vowels, but it is nowhere near as dramatic as that of the consonants.

Hawaiian syllable structure is (C)V . All CV syllables occur except for ;[86] wu occurs only in two words borrowed from English.[87][88] As shown by Schütz,[89][90][91] Hawaiian word-stress is predictable in words of one to four syllables, but not in words of five or more syllables. Hawaiian phonological processes include palatalization and deletion of consonants, as well as raising, diphthongization, deletion, and compensatory lengthening of vowels.[92][93] Phonological reduction (or "decay") of consonant phonemes during the historical development of the language has resulted in the phonemic glottal stop.[94][95] Ultimate loss (deletion) of intervocalic consonant phonemes has resulted in Hawaiian long vowels and diphthongs.[96][97][98][99]

[edit] Consonants

Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n    
Plosive p   k ʔ
Fricative       h
Lateral   l    
Approximant w      

[edit] Vowels

[edit] Monophthongs

Short Long
Front Back Front Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

[edit] Diphthongs

Short Diphthongs 
 Ending with /u/   Ending with /i/   Ending with /o/   Ending with /e/ 
 Starting with /i/  iu      
 Starting with /o/  ou oi    
 Starting with /e/  eu ei    
 Starting with /a/  au ai ao ae
Long Diphthongs 
 Ending with /u/   Ending with /i/   Ending with /o/   Ending with /e/ 
 Starting with /o/  oːu      
 Starting with /e/    eːi    
 Starting with /a/  aːu aːi aːo aːe

[edit] Grammar

Hawaiian is an analytic language. There is no use of inflection. Instead the grammatical meaning of words is marked by adjacent particles (short words) and their relative positions. Hawaiian is a VSO language.

Some example verb phrase patterns:

Nouns can be marked with articles:

  • ka honu the turtle
  • nā honu the turtles
  • ka hale the house
  • ke kanaka the person

ka and ke are singular definite articles. ke is used before words beginning with a-, e-, o- and k-, and with some words beginning ʻ- and p-. ka is used in all other cases. is the plural definite article.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Lyovin (1997:258)
  2. ^ U.S. Census (2005)
  3. ^ see e.g. (Hinton & Hale 2001)
  4. ^ Schütz (1994:44, 459)
  5. ^ Carter (1996:144, 174)
  6. ^ Carter (1996:187-188)
  7. ^ Schütz (1994:41)
  8. ^ Schütz (1994:61-65)
  9. ^ Schütz (1994:304, 475)
  10. ^ Schütz (1994:108-109)
  11. ^ Schütz (1994:306)
  12. ^ Carter (1996:3 Figure 1)
  13. ^ Lyovin (1997:257-258)
  14. ^ Schütz (1994:334-336; 338 20n)
  15. ^ Elbert (Pukui)
  16. ^ Schütz (1994:334)
  17. ^ Schütz (1994:325)
  18. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:ix)
  19. ^ Dyen (1965)
  20. ^ Lyovin (1997:1-12)
  21. ^ Schütz (1994:322-338)
  22. ^ Lyovin (1997:8)
  23. ^ Schütz (1994:331)
  24. ^ Lyovin (1997:8)
  25. ^ Schütz (1994:332-333)
  26. ^ Lyovin (1997:3)
  27. ^ Lyovin (1997:8)
  28. ^ Schütz (1994:331-333)
  29. ^ Schütz (1994:333) citing Elbert
  30. ^ Lyovin (1997:1-12)
  31. ^ Schütz (1994:332-335)
  32. ^ Lyovin (1997:2-3)
  33. ^ Lyovin (1997:3, 11-12)
  34. ^ Lyovin (1997:2)
  35. ^ Schütz 1994:324-325
  36. ^ Lyovin (1997:3-5, 8, 10)
  37. ^ Schütz (1994:333)
  38. ^ Lyovin (1997:8-12)
  39. ^ Schütz (1994:31-40)
  40. ^ (Schütz 1994:43-44)
  41. ^ (Schütz 1994:85-97)
  42. ^ (Elbert & Pukui 1979:2)
  43. ^ Carter (1996:7, 169) example 138, quoting McGuire}}
  44. ^ quoted in Schütz (1994:269-270)
  45. ^ (Schütz 1994:230)
  46. ^ Warner (1996)
  47. ^ Lyovin (1997:258)
  48. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:23)
  49. ^ Lyovin (1997:258)
  50. ^ Schütz (1994:217, 223)
  51. ^ Schütz (1994:98-133)
  52. ^ Schütz (1994:110) Plate 7.1}}
  53. ^ Schütz (1994:122-126; 173-174)
  54. ^ Lyovin (1997:259)
  55. ^ Schütz (1994:223)
  56. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:27, 31-32))
  57. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:406)
  58. ^ (Pukui & Elbert 1986:450)
  59. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:257, 281, 451)
  60. ^ Schütz (1994:146)
  61. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:11)
  62. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:62, 275)
  63. ^ In English, the glottal stop is omitted, or is replaced by a non-phonemic glide, resulting in [hʌˈwai.i] or [hʌˈwai.ji], and [oˈa.hu] or [oˈwa.hu]. Note that the latter two are essentially identical in sound.
  64. ^ Schütz (1994:143)
  65. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:11)
  66. ^ Schütz (1994:144-145)
  67. ^ Schütz (1994:139-141)
  68. ^ Schütz (1994:146-148)
  69. ^ (Pukui & Elbert 1986:109, 110, 156, 478)
  70. ^ (Elbert & Pukui 1979:14-15)
  71. ^ Schütz (1994:139, 399)
  72. ^ Schütz (1994:139-141)
  73. ^ (Elbert & Pukui 1979:11)
  74. ^ Lyovin (1997:259)
  75. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:14-15)
  76. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:xvii-xviii)
  77. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:14, 20-21)
  78. ^ Schütz (1994:113, 125)
  79. ^ Schütz (1994:115)
  80. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:22-25)
  81. ^ Kinney (1956)
  82. ^ Newbrand (1951)
  83. ^ Schütz (1994:116-118)
  84. ^ Schütz (1994:119-122)
  85. ^ Lyovin (1997:259)
  86. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986) see Hawaiian headwords.
  87. ^ Schütz (1994:29 4n)
  88. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:386)
  89. ^ Lyovin (1997:259)
  90. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:xvii-xviii)
  91. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:16-18)
  92. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:22-25)
  93. ^ Kinney (1956))
  94. ^ Robert Louis Stevenson, In the South Seas, 1891 page 12, quoted in Schütz (1994:134)
  95. ^ Carter (1996:373))
  96. ^ Lyovin (1997:268)
  97. ^ Carter (1996:373)
  98. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:164, 167)
  99. ^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:107-108))

[edit] See also

[edit] Bibliography

  • Carter, Gregory Lee (1996). The Hawaiian Copula Verbs He, ʻO, and I, as Used in the Publications of Native Writers of Hawaiian: A Study in Hawaiian Language and Literature. Ann Arbor: U.M.I. University of Hawaiʻi Ph.D. dissertation.
  • Churchward, C. Maxwell (1959). Tongan Dictionary. Tonga: Government Printing Office.
  • Dyen, Isidore (1965). A Lexicostatistical Classification of the Austronesian Languages. Indiana University Publications in Anthropology and Linguistics. Memoir 19 of the International Journal of American Linguistics.
  • Elbert, Samuel H. & Pukui, Mary Kawena (1979). Hawaiian Grammar. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. ISBN 0-8248-0494-5
  • Hinton, Leanne & Hale, Kenneth (2001). The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice. Academic Press
  • Kinney, Ruby Kawena (1956). A Non-purist View of Morphomorphemic Variations in Hawaiian Speech. Journal of the Polynesian Society 65.3:282-286.
  • Li, Paul Jen-kuei (2001). The Dispersal of The Formosan Aborigines in Taiwan (PDF). Languages and Linguistics 2.1:271-278.
  • Li, Paul Jen-kuei. (2004). Numerals in Formosan Languages. Taipei: Academia Sinica
  • Lyovin, Anatole V. (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.. ISBN 0-19-508116-1
  • Newbrand, Helene L. (1951). A Phonemic Analysis of Hawaiian. University of Hawaiʻi M.A. thesis.
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena & Elbert, Samuel H. (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press. ISBN 0-8248-0703-0
  • Ramos, Teresita V. (1971). Tagalog Dictionary. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. ISBN 0-87022-676-2
  • Schütz, Albert J. (1994). The Voices of Eden: A History of Hawaiian Language Studies. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press. ISBN 0-8248-1637-4
  • Warner, Sam L. (1996). I Ola ka ʻŌlelo i nā Keiki: Ka ʻApo ʻia ʻana o ka ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi e nā Keiki ma ke Kula Kaiapuni. [That the Language Live through the Children: The Acquisition of the Hawaiian Language by the Children in the Immersion School.]. Ann Arbor: U.M.I. University of Hawaiʻi Ph.D. dissertation.
  • U.S. Census (2005). U.S. Census Press Releases. Public Information Offce.
  • Wilson, William H. (1976). The O and A Possessive Markers in Hawaiian. University of Hawaiʻi M.A. thesis.

[edit] External links

Hawaiian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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