Every district in the city with the exception of Port Area has its own public market, locally called the pamilihang bayan or Palengke. Public markets are often divided into two, the dry goods section and the wet goods section. Commerce in these public markets is lively, especially in the early morning. Under the urban renewal program of the incumbent administration, some of the public markets had been refurbished and given a fresher look, like the Sta. Ana public market. It is one of the more advanced markets in the city featuring a modern 2-story building with an escalator.
The tropical climate in Manila plus the facilities of its world-class malls continue to attract Filipinos to the shopping malls. Modern shopping malls dot the city especially in the areas of Malate and Ermita. SM City Manila, part of the country's largest chain of malls, stands behind the Manila City Hall, while the original SM Department store still operates in Carriedo in Sta. Cruz while another called SM Centrepoint is located north east of the city in Sta. Mesa close to the Quezon City-San Juan boundary. One of the popular malls that lies at the heart of Manila is Robinson's Place Ermita. In the southern part of the city in Malate district is Harrison Plaza, one of the city's oldest shopping malls.
For the adventurous shoppers, you may venture beyond the hotel/shopping complex package and combine other interesting destinations for cheap buys such as in Divisoria and Quiapo districts. Bargaining is the major part of your shopping experience when you pass by on these areas, as it sells goods at rock-bottom prices. In Divisoria, there is already a shopping mall that caters to the adventurous shoppers. Tutuban Center in Divisoria gives a little comfort to the shoppers as it offers air-conditioned mall, but the price of the goods here is still very similar to the goods bought outside. In Quiapo, one unique spot is the marketplace under the bridge. It sells indigenous Filipino crafts and delicacies. Raon Center is famous for its cheap electronic products. Though through the changing times, department stores began sprouting the Quiapo area, but still the flea market of Quiapo is still vibrant and very much popular among the average Filipinos. Photo and video enthusiasts looking for cheap equipment can proceed to R. Hidalgo street in the Quiapo district.
The establishment of the country's manufacturing base centered around the not so distant districts of Manila during the Spanish colonial times. During the arrival of the Americans by the turn of the 20th century, Manila's manufacturing base expanded and diversified into different areas and interests.
The district of Tondo due to its proximity to the Manila North and South Harbor became a center for several manufacturing facilities and the district of Pandacan and portions of Paco nearest to the banks of the Pasig River served as centers for manufacturing in the city.
Manila during the Spanish period was well-known for its quality tobacco production by the Manila Tabacalera Company which had its manufacturing and production base along Tayuman street in Tondo. Philippine food and beverage giant San Miguel Corporation first started its beer brewing production along San Miguel district. The old brewing building for San Miguel is now within the high security enclave of Malacañan Palace grounds. Nearby the old San Miguel brewery was the Manila Ice Plant and portions of its old building now houses the Department of Budget and Management. Tanduay Distilleries, a manufacturer of rhum still operates its facilities in the San Miguel district while its rival La Tondeña which had its production facilities in nearby Quiapo district has scaled down its operations.
Tondo was base for food manufacturing by the 1920s and several American companies established plants in the area. The Philippine Manufacturing Company or PMC established production of various products derived from coconut oil ranging from cooling oil to soaps and toiletries. The Philippine Manufacturing Company would later become Procter and Gamble Philippines and in the late 1980s, production from within the crowded Tondo area was gradually phased down and moved to areas outside of Metro Manila.
PMC's rival company, the Philippine Refining Company or PRC established its based of operations five kilometers upstream of the Pasig River in Paco district, along the United Nations Avenue, near Isla de Provisor. PRC was also engaged in the manufacture of product derivatives from coconut oil. In the 1990s, Philippine Refining Company changed its corporate name as part of the global strategy of company brand recognition and is now called Unilever Philippines.
The United Nations Avenue (formerly named as Calle Isaac Peral) near the corner of Romualdez street used to be the mini Detroit in the 1930s when the Ford Motor Company established its first assembly plant in the area. The plant facility remains standing and it houses the government office issuing the seaman's passbook.
American owned oil companies in the 1930s like Esso, Mobil Oil and Filipino Oil or FilOil established their oil distribution and lube facilities along the banks of the Pasig River in Pandacan district, at a time when the area was largely a farm village. after almost a century of operations, the fuel distribution and manufacturing facilities are gradually being removed due to its potential security and safety risk to the highly dense population in the area.
Coca Cola still operates its bottling plant in Pandacan but its plant operations is more focused on product distribution into the Metro Manila franchise area.
Several key and notable manufacturing facilities in the City of Manila closed down through the years especially after 1980s. The country's then largest copra milling company at the boundary of Paco and Pandacan district closed down and its plant site is now a middle class town house facility. The depot of the Philippines only gas company with pipelines servicing every home, the Manila Gas Company ceased operations in the 1980s after a protracted legal battle on ownership issue and its facilities were torn down as the 5.5 hectare Manila Gas property is now being converted into a mixed condominium and commercial tower.
TRANSPORTATION AND FACILITIES
Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA)(Terminals 1, 2 and 3), outside the city proper, serves Manila, the Metro Manila area and the nearby provinces. Over 40 airlines provide daily service to over 26 cities and 19 countries worldwide. Approximately 17 million travellers use NAIA a year, straining what was originally a domestic airport built in the 1930s. A second terminal, Terminal 2 (or the Centennial Terminal) opened in October 1999. The International flag-carrier Philippine Airlines now uses this terminal exclusively for both its domestic and international service while all other international flights use the original NAIA terminal. Air Philippines is in the transition to the newer Terminal 2 alongside PAL. The construction of a third terminal (NAIA Terminal 3) has been completed but has yet to open, pending the outcome of investigations of alleged contract irregularities and the international legal battle between the builders and the Philippine government under the administration of incumbent President Arroyo.
The main carrier serving NAIA is Philippine Airlines, which has the most extensive network in the Philippines. Newly repackaged Cebu Pacific Air, which uses all A320 aircraft and promotes online booking, positions itself as the first true discount airline in the country. Air Philippines, a subsidiary of Philippine Airlines, competes with Cebu Pacific in the budget market and the inter-provinces routes. Asian Spirit and South East Asian Airlines, which use smaller 48-seat planes, are some of the smaller airlines serving the city of Manila.
Another alternative point of embarkation and disembarkation is Diosdado Macapagal International Airport in the Clark Special Economic Zone. As of October 2006, scheduled flights from Singapore, Hong Kong, Macau, Seoul, Kota Kinabalu, and Kuala Lumpur, and chartered flights from Shanghai and Taipei use this small airport because of its cheaper landing and parking fees. A mediocre shuttle system serves Clark and Manila. Travellers depart from this airport will have to pay 500 peso departure tax from end of 2006.[750 peso as of September 2007]
The main roads of Metro Manila are organized around a set of radial and circumferential roads that radiate and circle in and around Manila proper. Roxas Boulevard, easily the most well-known of Manila's streets, line the southern shores of Manila with Manila Bay. The boulevard is part of the Radial Road 1 that leads south to the province of Cavite. Another well-known radial road is España Boulevard (part of Radial Road 7) that starts in Quiapo and ends at the Welcome Rotunda along the border with Quezon City. Pres. Sergio Osmeña Sr. Highway, part of the South Luzon Expressway or Radial Road 3 is the most important highway linking Manila with the provinces of southern Luzon.
The most common types of public transportation are buses and the jeepney. Tricycles and Pedicabs are used for short distances. In some areas, especially in Divisoria, two stroke motors are fitted in the pedicabs and are used for goods transport.
Roxas Bridge (formerly Del Pan Bridge)
There are eight (8) major bridge spans in Manila, more than half of the number of bridges that connects the north and south banks of the Pasig River in Metro Manila. There are two (2) rail bridges that crosses the river, the Light Rail Transit 1 and the Philippine National Railways track. The bridges listed below are in a west to east order, with the first bridge Del Pan, nearest to the mouth of the Pasig River into Manila Bay.
Roxas bridge - formerly called Del Pan (San Nicolas to Port Area)
Jones bridge (Binondo to Ermita)
McArthur bridge (Santa Cruz to Ermita)
LRT 1 (Carriedo station to Central station)
Quezon bridge (Quiapo to Ermita)
Ayala bridge (San Miguel to Ermita)
Mabini bridge - formerly called Nagtahan bridge (Santa Mesa to Pandacan)
Philippine National Railways (Santa Mesa station to Pandacan station)
Padre Zamora bridge (Santa Mesa to Pandacan)
Lambingan bridge (Sta. Ana)
Manila Light Rail Transit station.
Manila is the hub of a railway system on Luzon. The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways is in the Tondo district. Railways extend from this terminal north to the city of San Fernando in Pampanga and south to Legazpi City in Albay, though only the southern railway is currently in operation.
Manila is also serviced by the Manila Light Rail Transit System (separate from Manila Metro Rail Transit System), a national priority project designed to address the overwhelming traffic that congests the national capital. Development of the system began with its inception in the 1970s under the Marcos administration, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia. Recently, the system saw a massive multi-billion dollar expansion in correlation with the rising population of the city; its purpose: to create an alternative form of transportation to solve the demand of an increasingly mobile workforce. After three decades in service, the project has enjoyed an insurmountable success, with favorable opinions from commuters, mainly because of its extremely low fares that is subsidized by the national government. Two lines service the city dwellers and they run along the length of Taft Avenue (R-2) and Rizal Avenue (R-9). A second line runs along Ramon Magsaysay Blvd (R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon City, up to Santolan in Pasig City.
These are the major rail systems, with their station within Manila:
LRT 1: R. Papa, J. Abad Santos, Blumentritt, Tayuman, Bambang, D. Jose, Carriedo, Central Station, UN Ave., P. Gil, Quirino Ave, and Vito Cruz
LRT 2: C.M. Recto, Legarda, Pureza, and V. Mapa
PNR: Vito Cruz, Herran, Pandacan, Sta. Mesa, España, Laong Laan, Blumentritt and Tutuban.
Places of worship
The cosmopolitan atmosphere and cultural diversity of Manila is reflected in the number of places of worship scattered around the city. The freedom of worship in the Philippines, which have existed since the creation of the republic, allowed the diverse population to build their sacred sites without the fear of persecution. People of different denominations are represented here with the presence of Christian churches, Buddhist temples, Jewish synagogues, and Islamic mosques.
Abbey of Our Lady of Montserrat (Benedictine Chapel inside San Beda College)
Archdiocesan Shrine of St. Jude Thaddeus
Basilica Minore de San Lorenzo Ruiz (Binondo Church)
Basilica Minore de San Sebastian (San Sebastian Church), the only all-steel church in Gothic style in Asia (Built 1891)
Basilica Minore de la Immaculada Concepcion (Manila Cathedral)
Basilica Minore del Nazareno Negro (Quiapo Church)
Buddhist Temple (Malate, Manila)
Cathedral of the Child Jesus - Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Aglipayan)
Chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament (De La Salle University-Manila Main Chapel)(Built 1938)
Chinese Temple (Binondo, Manila)
Hindu Temple (Paco, Manila)
Iglesia de la Parroquia de Santo Niño (Pandacan, Manila)
Iglesia de Santa Cruz
Iglesia ni Cristo (Cruzada Street, Quiapo)
Iglesia ni Cristo (Solis, Tondo)
Mosque del Globo de Oro (Quiapo, Manila)
Nuestra Señora de Guia Church (Ermita Church)
National Shrine of St. Michael and the Archangels (San Miguel, Manila)
Nuestra Señora de Remedios Church (Malate Church)
Parroquia de San Fernando de Dilao (Paco, Manila)
San Agustin Church, Intramuros -Oldest Catholic Church in the Philippines (Built in the 15th century)- Only Church in Intramuros that survived the destruction of Intramuris during the February 1945 Liberation of Manila
Sto. Niño de Tondo Church (Tondo, Manila)
Rizal Memorial Sports Complex (RMSC), Vito Cruz Street, Malate (Built-1934)
Rizal Memorial Coliseum
Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium
Rizal Memorial Baseball Stadium
Ninoy Aquino Stadium
San Andres Gym (formerly Mail and More Arena, the home of the defunct Manila Metrostars.)
Dapitan Sports Complez
Intramuros Light and Sound Museum
Museo ng Maynila (Museum of Manila)(Pre-War Army-Navy Club Bldg.), Rizal Park
National Museum of the Filipino People, Rizal Park
Main National Museum, Padre Burgos Street
Museo Pambata (Children's Museum)(Pre-War Elk's Club Bldg.), Rizal Park
Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned - Sta. Ana (pre-Spanish artifacts)
Plaza San Luis, Intramuros
San Agustin Church Museum, Intramuros
The Museum - De La Salle University-Manila, Taft Avenue, Malate
UST Museum of Arts and Sciences
Manila Chinese Cemetery
La Loma Cemetery
Manila North Cemetery
Manila South Cemetery
Manila has five sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI):
Los Angeles, California, USA
Sacramento, California, USA
San Francisco, California, USA
Honolulu City and County, Hawaii, USA
Maui County, Hawaii, USA
Other sister cities include:
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
New Delhi, India
Santa Barbara, California, USA
Montreal, Quebec, Canada