1958 | 1960 | 1963 | 1964 | 1966 | 1967 | 1968 | 1969 | 1970 | 1971 | 1972 | 1973 | 1974 | 1975

1958

22.04.1958 - 26.04.1958 The Seventh Congress of the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia (LCY) in Ljubljana adopts a new program, integrating the ideas of “workers’ self-management,” “socialist democracy,” “federalism” and “non-alignment” which the LCY developed after the break with Stalin’s Communist Informationbureau (Kominform) in 1948. The Yugoslav Communists explicitly renew their criticism of “Bureaucratism and Statism” in the Soviet Union. They endorse the idea of “conflict of opinions” inside the Communist party and movement.

1960

10.11.1960 - 12.11.1960 At an annual meeting of the Yugoslav society for Philosophy and Sociology a group of professors from Zagreb and Belgrade University in Bled (Slovenia) criticize dogmatic Marxism and mechanic theories of Dialectical and Historical Materialism. Despite resistance from party officials and other professors they succeed in formulating Humanist Marxism ideas on the basis of the reception of Marx’ “Early Works.”

1963

07.04.1963 A new constitution is proclaimed. Yugoslavia is defined as a “Socialist federative republic.” The right to “self-management” is now universal.

1964

May, 1964 The magazine Perspektive is banned in Ljubljana after accusations of acting against the “Socialist order.” Starting in 1969,  the magazine provided a platform for a group of young intellectuals who criticized the lack of democracy in Yugoslavia. In 1963 they endorsed demands of protesting students at Ljubljana University who criticized the limitation of their studies to technical and practical issues.
October, 1964 The first issue of the magazine Praxis is published. It stands for a pluralist understanding of Marxism. Praxis endorses the general ideas of Socialist self-management in Yugoslavia but is increasingly critical of its reality. In the coming years it will influence the formation of the student movement and critical currents in philosophy, literature, and film. The editorial board of Praxis consists of professors mainly from Zagreb and Belgrade university. Beginning in 1965, an international edition in English, German and French is published. The international Advisory Council of Praxis brings together a most impressive collection of Marxist and critical thinkers of the mid-twentieth century, including Zygmunt Baumann, Norman Birnbaum, Ernst Bloch, Erich Fromm, Lucien Goldmann, Jürgen Habermas, Leszek Kolakowski, Karel Kosik, Henri Lefebvre, George Lukacs, Herbert Marcuse and many others. Many of these intellectuals participate in an annual summer school on the Adriatic island of Korèula which is organized every year in late August between 1963 and 1974. Hundreds of students from Yugoslavia and abroad are able to participate in the Korèula summer school.
07.12.1964 - 13.12.1964 The Eighth Congress of LCY adopts far-reaching reform policies to overcome economic stagnation. Market-based relations between the socially-owned companies are enforced while the role of the state in redistribution is reduced. Economic and political power is decentralized, weakening the center in Belgrade and strengthening the republics and local communities. The goal is a stronger integration into the world economy. The “Gastarbeiter” migration programs begin on a large scale. A “conservative” wing inside the LCY rejects the “liberal” reforms which are pushed through by an alliance of leaders in the republics, particularly in Slovenia and Croatia with Tito’s support.

1966

12.03.1966 - 13.03.1966 The Seventh Conference of the official League of Students of Yugoslavia (LSY) is held in Belgrade. The social consequences of the economic reform program are carefully criticized. The LSY demands better material conditions and more democratic rights for students.
July, 1966 Interior minister and chief of the Secret Service Aleksander Rankoviæ is replaced by Tito. The decision shocks the public and is widely perceived as a victory of the pro-Slovenian and pro-Croatian market reform wing over the party conservatives around the Serbian Rankoviæ. The bitter power struggles inside the LCY opens public debates.
November, 1966 - December, 1966 LSY and other organizations call for mass protests against U.S. imperialism and the war in Vietnam. Demonstrations are held in all major cities.
23.12.1966 After a meeting at Belgrade University to protest the war in Vietnam, a large group of students wants to organize a march to the U.S. embassy. Students and professors criticize LCY leadership for not acting strongly enough against American imperialism. Riot police stop the students using teargas and sticks. Students demolish the U.S. Cultural Center in the city center. Police enter buildings belonging to Belgrade University, violating the institution’s autonomy. The violent protests can be considered the starting point of independent student activism in Yugoslavia.

1967

18.03.1967 Aleksandar Kron, chairman of the LCY committee at the Philosophical Faculty at Belgrade University, is evicted from the party. He is accused of being responsible for the violent protests at the Vietnam War demonstration on 23 December 1966. “Disciplinary measures” are taken against student leaders Jadran Ferlugi and Alija Hodžiæ . In the aftermath of the conflict informal groups of students and professors form a more coherent critical current, especially at the Philosophical Faculty.
May, 1967 The leadership of the LSY adopts a platform calling for a “reorganization” of the Student League and demanding more active and direct engagement of the students. They believe that relationships with the LCY should be more independent.

1968

January, 1968 The editorial board of the weekly Student newspaper in Belgrade is changed and more critical journalists take over. The same process is going on in the student paper Tribuna in Ljubljana, Studentski list in Zagreb and Naši dani in Sarajevo.
March, 1968 The organization of the LSY at the Philosophical Faculty at Belgrade University adopts a platform which calls for a ”new activism”.
April, 1968 Students of the department of Sociology at Belgrade University write a letter expressing solidarity with protesting students in Poland. They collect 1500 signatures from the University. The letter calls for support for the “struggle for the democratization of the Polish society” and harshly criticizes police violence and anti-Semitism within the Polish party leadership. The leadership of the YSL and LCY condemn the solidarity letter and argue Yugoslav students should not interfere internal conflicts of other Socialist countries. The student press takes up the debate. Professors of Praxis group and students in Ljubljana defend the initiative of the students. The controversy around the letter grows into a conflict of democratic rights.
11.05.1968 Hundreds of students stage a sit-in in front of the West German embassy to protest the bill about the “Notstandsgesetze” in Federal Republic of Germany. Students blockade the street in front of the embassy all night and into the morning hours.
11.05.1968 - 12.05.1968 The Eighth Conference of the YSL occurs in Skopje (Macedonia). The delegates adopt resolutions demanding, among other things, the improvement of the material situation at the University and democratization of University institutions. YSL calls the government to take immediate steps to reduce the problem of youth unemployment which increased after the introduction of economic reforms in 1964.
02.06.1968 Student riots outside a concert hall in the suburbs of New Belgrade. The students are not allowed to enter a concert for members of a Communist youth organization. After fistfights between students and security personnel the police intervene and violence escalates. Police open fire on unarmed students. Students seize a police water cannon and drive with it through the nearby neighborhood where thousands of students live in hostels. Many students are injured; rumors about dead students spread quickly.
03.06.1968 In the morning a neighborhood student action committee is formed. It calls for a demonstration against police violence in the city center in front of parliament. Several thousands students take part in the demonstration which is again brutally attacked by the police. High-ranking politicians try to calm the situation but fail. In the afternoon about 10,000 students occupy all Faculties of Belgrade University, proclaiming a strike and the “Red University Karl Marx.”  The students use loudspeakers to address people in the streets. The committee of the LCY on the University supports the strike. Professors and students gather in meetings.
04.06.1968 LCY leadership is shocked about the events at Belgrade University. At a meeting of the inner circle of the Party leadership an intervention of the army is considered necessary if the demonstration continues. Striking students and professors stay inside the occupied faculties surrounded by police units. The protests spread to Zagreb, Ljubljana und Sarajevo where students and some professors support the demands of Belgrade students. In Sarajevo a demonstration with 2,000 participants is attacked by police who again use firearms.
05.06.1968 - 08.06.1968 Protests in Belgrade, Zagreb and Ljubljana continue. Students and professors in Belgrade adopt a Political Action Program calling for freedom of press and demonstration, democratization of society and social equality. The party leadership is denounced as “red bourgeoisie.” Well-known actors, writers, filmmakers and other intellectuals express their support of the students coming into the occupied faculties. Delegations of factory workers in Belgrade express support to the students. Members of LCY get mobilized to prevent contacts between students and workers.
08.06.1968 In Zagreb professors Gajo Petroviæ, Mladen Èaldaroviæ of the Praxis-group and student Šime Vraniæ are labeled as extremists and expelled from the LCY.
09.06.1968 In a meeting of the inner circle of party leadership, Tito warns of the possibility of serious destabilization of the situation and calls for unity. In the evening Tito appears on national television and gives his support to the social demands of the students’ action program. He announces that he will resign if he cannot create a solution to the students’ demands. The majority of the students go back to their studies. Students at the Faculties of Sociology and Philosophy continue their protests.
26.06.1968 At the Trade Union Federation’s congress Tito attacks the extremists of the Praxis group as the factor behind the student protests. He calls for action against all sorts of enemies of the existing order.
19.07.1968 The public campaign against extremists and enemies reaches it first peak. The party organizations at the departments of Philosophy and Sociology at Belgrade University are collectively expelled from the LCY due to their support of the strike.
21.08.1968 After military intervention of Warsaw Pact nations in Czechoslovakia, the Yugoslav leadership declares the Yugoslav People’s Army on alert. Fear of a Soviet-led intervention in Yugoslavia spreads. In the tense atmosphere the purge against extremists and enemies continues.
December, 1968 Despite attempts of LCY functionaries to change the critical editorial board of Student in Belgrade and to control branches of the YSL, student activism goes on. Vladimir Mijanoviæ, leader of the June 1968 strike, is elected chairman of the YSL branch at the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade.

1969

03.06.1969 Students in Belgrade try to organize debates and protests on the anniversary of the strike of June 1968 while LCY mobilizes party forces to stop them. A student committee issues a “manifesto of 3000 words,”  a harsh critique of social and political reality in Yugoslavia. During 1969 students in Belgrade, Ljubljana and Zagreb organize constant protest and cultural activities.

1970

05.05.1970 The satirical student paper Frontisterion is banned in Belgrade.
22.06.1970 A group of students including Vladimir Mijanoviæ and the popular actor Zoran Radmiloviæ starts a hunger strike in solidarity with the striking miners in Kakanj, Bosnia-Hercegovina. They demand better working conditions.
21.09.1970 After months of intimidation and the arrest of numerous YSL committee members from the Philosophical Faculty in Belgrade, a court process begins against the chairman of the student organization, Vladimir Mijanoviæ. The process is interpreted as a symbolic effort against the whole student movement. On October 20 1970 Mijanoviæ is sentenced to twenty months of “severe arrest” because of enemy propaganda. He begins a hunger strike.
21.10.1970 Around 6,000 students at Belgrade University start a strike against the repression of Mijanoviæ and all other student activists who were arrested and often physically intimidated by governmental forces. The striking students demand  public discussion about the lack of realization of the demands of the Political Action Program of June 1968. After ten days on strike the students have to back down. Mijanoviæ stays in prison. In spite of the growing repression against the student movement activities go ahead.

1971

20.04.1971 - 21.04.1971 The general assembly of the students at the Philosophical Faculty in Belgrade rejects amendments to the constitution proposed by LCY leadership. Students criticize the lack of public discussion about the measures. In a resolution they warn that the proposed “confederalization” of the state could enforce already existing nationalism. Instead they demand democratization and a struggle against privileges and bureaucratic structures. The Political Action Program of June 1968 is reaffirmed. Party organs ban publication of the debate in a special edition of Student.
30.04.1971 The public prosecutor bans the publication of the debate on 20-21 April in a extra edition of Student.
25.06.1971 - 02.06.1971 Students at the Philosophical Faculty in Ljubljana occupy their university building and declare a strike. They protest against growing repression against student activists at Ljubljana University.
23.10.1971 At a student meeting at the University of Ljubljana, editor of the student paper Tribuna Jaša Zlobec proposes the formation of a Communist League. Through this organization the student movement would become more disciplined and effective. The idea spreads also to Belgrade University. Small clandestine Maoist and Trotzkyite groups are formed by a number of leading student activists.
November, 1971 - December, 1971 At Zagreb University several thousand striking students occupy faculty buildings. They demand more national self-determination rights for ethnic Croats and the Croatian Republic. The strike in Zagreb is the climax of the so called “Croatian Spring” which started in 1970. Under the leadership of the Croatian Communist Party the population was mobilized with an increasingly nationalist program. While activists of the New Left student movement harshly criticize the politics of the Croatian Communist Party a group of nationalist students at Zagreb University is empowered by the party to take over the Croatian Student League during 1971. During the strike the alliance between nationalist students and the party leadership breaks down. After a meeting of the LCY inner circle  Tito decides to conduct a purge against the activists of the Croatian spring. After December 12 around 500 persons are arrested. The leadership of the Croatian party resigns and many party members are expelled from the LCY.

1972

18.04.1972 After the repression against the Croatian Spring there are increasing arrests and court processes against the activists of the New Left student movement. For example, Belgrade student activists Milan Nikoliæ, Pavluško Imširoviæ and Jelka Klajiæ are accused of having formed the illegal organization “Initiative group for a revolutionary workers party.” They are further accused of having built up contacts to international Trotskyite organizations between 1970 and January 1972 when they were arrested by the police. On July 21 1972 all three are sentenced to “severe arrest” for one to two years.
29.11.1972 Božidar Jakšiæ is accused by the prosecutor in Sarajevo of propaganda against the state. Jakšiæ worked as a assistant at Sarajevo University and supported the student protests. He published a series of critical articles in several newspapers and magazines like Praxis. He is imprisoned for two years.

1973

19.06.1973 Student activist Lilijana Mijanoviæ-Joviæ is accused by the prosecutor in Podgorica of enemy propaganda. She is accused of having said in the presence of other persons that Yugoslav society was “heading into direction of capitalism” and there was “not enough democracy” and she called Tito a pig. She is sentenced to six month of prison.

1974

31.01.1974 Despite repression, students from the Faculties of Philosophy in Belgrade, Zagreb and Ljubljana start to form a network of activists. In Ljubljana they adopt a resolution calling for a “democratic socialist” reform of society.
06.06.1974 Student activists Miodrag Stojanoviæ (Belgrade), Zoran Djindjiæ (Belgrade, the later prime minister of Serbia), Lino Veljak (Zagreb), Mario Rubbi (Zagreb), Darko Štrajn (Ljubljana) and Vinko Zalar (Ljubljana) are arrested because of the resolution from January 1974.

1975

February, 1975 After a long campaign against the Praxis group the magazine is stopped in autumn 1974. The Serbian parliament adopts a law which allows the expulsion of eight professors of the Praxis group in Belgrade University. The measures against Praxis professors triggers a last moment of student protests.