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Nepenthes Maxima From Celebes Go International
By trubuson
Tuesday, March 11, 2008 14:19:48 Klik: 785 Kirim-kirim Print version
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'During the journey to Sulawesi, I saw 2 different exceptional shapes of nepenthes maxima,' said Stewart McPherson in his email to Trubus on September 22nd, 2007. Hundreds plants of one uniform shape can be found in Sesean Mountain, Central Sulawesi, while the other shape plants are in the south east part of savannah in Lore Lindu National Park, at the same province.

The performances of both N. maxima are indeed different. The shape of maxima which grows in the middle of the mountain is very spectacular. 'The leaves wave is very excellent unlike nepenthes in general,' said that man who was born in Britain. The waves on the leaves margin are easily visible, resembling anthurium wave of love.

The dark brown leaves are in contrast with the veins of the leaf. The performance is even more fantastic due to the big green brown spotted pitchers, around 20 cm long. In addition, there are also flawless green maxima pitchers, eventhough they are directly exposed to the sun ray.

The N. maxima which grows on the savannah performs the other way round. 'They are small,' Stewart said. The length of the pitcher is not more than 3 cm. It is due to the fact that kobe-kobe-nepenthes term in Papua- evolves to adjust to its dry habitat. Unlike the shape of the previous nepenthes, its leaves margin is flat and small.

The maxima distinctive feature is that the upper pitcher is always in the shape of a funnel curve, it never resembles a bowl. The performance resembles to N. fusca, N. klossii, and N. eymae. The last two species are almost the same maxima from the angle of long indumentum-furry, 2 flowers in 1 stalk, has an additional pitcher lid, and the leaves shape.

The difference is at the pitcher mouth of N. klossii which looks like a spoon snake head and the upper pitcher of N. eymae resembles a sitting closet in a bath room. Whereas N. fusca, the maxima is only different in the pitcher lid aspect. Fusca pitcher lid is flatter than maxima.


Sulawesi is the stockhouse of N. maxima. It is acknowledged by Ch'ien Ch'ien Lee. 'The best nepenthes maxima that I have ever seen is in Sulawesi. The colour is beautiful and the size is big unlike the other maxima,' expressed the hobbyist from the United States who likes nepenthes since 15 years ago. Besides Sulawesi, N. maxima can also be found in Maluku and Papua.

Trubus reporter, Dian Adijaya Susanto, and Sardi Duryatmo, found N. maxima in Habema, Jayawijaya Regency, Papua, on 1.800 m above sea level elevation. Tens of red with green spotted nepenthes and green nepenthes grow among tall, coarse grass. The pitcher length can reach up to 20 cm. Indeed, N. maxima growing range is the widest.

Out in nature, the Nepenthaceae family member grows on 200-2.100 m above sea level elevation. Obviously maxima is categorized as a very adaptive nepenthes to the climate change and density. It is very easy to be cultivated either on the lowland or highland.

Frankie Handoyo, a hobbyist in Jakarta, initially took care of 400-500 N. maxima originated from Sulawesi in Cidahu, Sukabumi. There entuyut grows well. The red pitcher is 18-19 cm long. When it was brought to Jakarta, maxima can still be alive despite of the appearance has changed. The pitcher became small, green, and 10-12 cm long.


Trubus saw hundreds pots of N. maxima in one of 7 greenhouses which belonged to Borneo Exotics in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka, on 1.884 m above sea level elevation. Robert Cantley, the managing director of Borneo Exotics did not only cultivate species but also maxima hybrids such as N. Lady Pauline (the crossing of N. talangensis x N. maxima) and N. verticosa x N. maxima). DeRose Belgia in Belgia possesses N. Gentle (N. maxima x N. fusca) and N. Miranda (N. northiana x N. maxima) x N. maxima. In Australia, Exotica Plant also developed tens of maxima hybrids.

M Apriza Suska in Bogor collects crossings of maxima, which is not less interesting. Among of which are N. ventricosa x N. maxima, N. bicalcarata-red x N. maxima, N. maxima x N. thorelli, N. maxima-dark x N. truncata, and N. Lady Pauline.

Maxima hybrid is not only developed in Asia. Frankie once saw N. mixta (N. northiana x N. maxima) while he was strolling around in a small town near Den Haag, Holland. According to Jacques Besnard, from International Carnivorous Plants Society, the maxima hybrid are sold in florists shops in Paris with the price 15-35 euro. The various shapes and pitcher colours, it is obvious if N. maxima always captures attention just as Stewart relished. (Rosy Nur Apriyanti)

Trubus 456, 66-67
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