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Summary (131K PDF)
Chapter 1 - Introduction: Motivation and Conceptual Framework (146K PDF)
Ch. 2- Different Lives: Inequality in Latin America & the Caribbean (423K PDF)
Ch. 3: Group-Based Inequalities: The Roles of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender (158K PDF)
Ch. 4: Historical Roots of Inequality in Latin America (23K PDF)
Ch. 5: State-Society Interactions as Sources of Persistence and Change in Inequality (159K PDF)
Ch. 6: Economic Mechanisms for the Persistence of High Inequality in Latin America (3.6MB PDF)
Ch. 7: Policies on Assets and Services (233K PDF)
Ch. 8: Policies on Markets and Institutions (174K PDF)
Ch. 9: Taxation, Public Expenditures, and Transfers (220K PDF)
Statistical Appendix (445K PDF)
Bibliography (170K PDF)
Summary Spanish (320K PDF) (new) | Portuguese (533K PDF) PDF) .
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Inequality in Latin America & the Caribbean: Breaking with History?
MEXICO CITY, October 7, 2003 — To break with the long history of inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean, societies need to undertake deep reforms of political, social and economic institutions, improve access by the poor to vital services and assets - especially education - deliver income transfers to poor families, and adopt specific policies to help indigenous people and Afro-descendants, a new World Bank study says.
Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean: Breaking with History?, released here today, is the World Bank's major annual research study on Latin America and Caribbean. It explores why the region suffers from such persistent inequality, identifies how it hampers development, and suggests ways to achieve greater equity in the distribution of wealth, incomes and opportunities.
"Latin America and the Caribbean is one of the regions of the world with the greatest inequality," said David de Ferranti, World Bank Vice President for Latin America and the Caribbean who, with Guillermo Perry, Francisco H.G. Ferreira and Michael Walton, guided the team that produced the report. "Latin America is highly unequal with respect to incomes, and also exhibits unequal access to education, health, water and electricity, as well as huge disparities in voice, assets and opportunities. This inequality slows the pace of poverty reduction, and undermines the development process itself."
The richest one-tenth of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean earn 48 percent of total income, while the poorest tenth earn only 1.6 percent, the research team found. In industrialized countries, by contrast, the top tenth receive 29.1 percent, while the bottom tenth earn 2.5 percent. Using the "Gini Index" of inequality in the distribution of income and consumption, the researchers found that Latin America and the Caribbean, from the 1970s through the 1990s, measured nearly 10 points more unequal than Asia, 17.5 points more unequal than the 30 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and 20.4 points more unequal than Eastern Europe.
The data show that inequality in the least unequal LAC country - Uruguay - is higher than in the most unequal country in Eastern Europe and the industrialized countries. On average, income inequality has tended to worsen slightly in the region, though experiences have varied. Some relatively equal countries, including Argentina, Uruguay and Venezuela have experienced rises in inequality - Argentina dramatically so. By contrast Brazil, historically the most unequal country in the region, experienced a modest, but significant improvement. Mexico may also have enjoyed a small improvement.
The report singles out race and ethnicity as enduring determinants of one's opportunities and welfare in Latin America. Indigenous and Afro-descended people are "at a considerable disadvantage with respect to whites," the report says, with the latter earning the highest wages in the region. Focusing on seven countries - Brazil, Guyana, Guatemala, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico and Peru - the study found that indigenous men earn 35-65 percent less than white men. The disparity between white women and non-white women was in the same range. In Brazil, men and women of African descent earn about 45 percent of the wages of their white counterparts.
In Guatemala, Bolivia and Brazil, three countries where ethnic and racial categories are significant, over 50 percent of households headed by white men or women have access to sewerage as compared to 30 percent for those headed by indigenous men and 37 percent for those headed by indigenous women. Among Brazilians, 50 percent of households headed by white women have sewerage, versus 40.5 percent for non-white males and 45.1 percent for non-white females. Across the region, citizens who are both female and of indigenous or African descent are at the bottom of all asset-distribution scales.
In contrast to enduring gaps correlated to racial and ethnic differences, Latin America has experienced progress in narrowing gender differentials in income and education. In much of the region, girls and young women are actually overtaking boys and young men in educational attainment.
Inequality is as deeply rooted as it is complex. The World Bank's research team drew data from 20 countries based on household surveys covering 3.6 million people, and reviewed extensive economic, sociological and political science studies on inequality in Latin America. The team found that the unequal distribution of resources that characterizes the region today follows a pattern set with specific traits of European colonization in the region.
In modern times as in the early colonial periods, elite populations shaped institutions and policies to serve their interests first, the report found. For instance, most LAC countries did not achieve high levels of literacy until well into the 20th century. Low levels of support for basic education contrasted with generous financing for universities, where the children of the elite were trained. Political institutions in the region, typically, have been weak. And while transitions to democracy have brought valuable gains, patterns of influence remain highly unequal, with traditions of clientelism and patronage often continuing despite national and local elections.
In a global economy, where "human capital" is critical to competitiveness, inequalities which result in a failure to develop people's skills and knowledge to optimum levels, among other factors, can actually slow down the rate of economic growth, and weaken the poverty-reducing impact of the growth that does occur.
To address the deep historical roots of inequality in Latin America, and the powerful contemporary economic, political and social mechanisms that sustain it, the World Bank report outlines four broad areas for action by governments and civil society groups to build coalitions to break this destructive pattern. They are:
"The key to reducing inequality in Latin America is institutional reform," said Guillermo Perry, the Bank's Chief Economist for Latin America and the Caribbean, and co-author of the study. "To overcome the inequality that undermines their efforts to get out of poverty, poor people must gain influence within political and social institutions, including educational, health and public services institutions. To enable them to achieve such influence, the institutions must be truly open, transparent, democratic, participatory - and strong."
- Build more open political and social institutions, that allow the poor and historically subordinate groups, such as Afro-descendants and indigenous people, to gain a greater share of agency, voice and power in society.
- Ensure that economic institutions and policies seek greater equity, through sound macroeconomic management and equitable, efficient crisis resolution institutions, that avoid the large regressive redistributions that occur during crises, and that allow for saving in good times to enhance access by the poor to social safety nets in bad times.
- Increase access by the poor to high-quality public services, especially education, health, water and electricity, as well as access to farmland and the rural services the poor need to make it productive. Protect and enforce the property rights of the urban poor.
- Reform income transfer programs so that they reach the poorest families, including use of measures that are conditional on keeping children in school and attending health services, so as to improve their lifelong income-earning capacity.
Perry and fellow research team leaders Francisco H. G. Ferreira and Michael Walton concluded that success in "breaking with the long history of inequality in Latin America" depends on "strong leadership and broad coalitions" to achieve progress in the first area for action, namely to mobilize "the political agency of progressive governments and the poor."
As institutional reform proceeds, allowing poor people to gain purchase on decision-making, policies to reduce inequality are more likely to be adopted. Based on a review of policy experiences in Latin America, the World Bank research team identified three areas where specific reforms would have most impact in reducing inequality.
The first of these refers to fiscal and financial institutions. They should ensure that governments pursue a sound macroeconomic path and that a solid financial system is developed, so as to reduce the probability of crisis. Because crises will not be fully avoidable, however, institutions for equitable and efficient crisis resolution also need to be in place. In this way, countries may avoid indulging in large regressive redistributions, as has happened in past crises.
Also, sound fiscal institutions should facilitate saving in good times to enhance access by the poor to social safety nets and credit in bad times. It also includes building sound financial and legal institutions that would make it easier for entrepreneurs to set up small businesses in the formal sector, and protect the property rights of small-scale farmers which, in turn, helps them gain access to credit.
Second, by broadening access to public services such as education, health, water and electricity and other infrastructure, as well as land and rural services, governments can improve a country's "physical and human capital" and improve the lifelong earning capacity of the poor, along with overall national growth prospects.
"Education is the most important productive asset most people will ever own," said the report's co-author Michael Walton. "Most governments agree in principle, and have made access to primary education nearly universal. But the quality of public education remains low in Latin America, and there is an urgent need to improve both coverage and raise quality in secondary education, as well as developing mechanisms to open up access to tertiary education beyond higher income groups."
Finally, the report calls for reform of Latin America's "truncated, elitist welfare state", so that social security and social assistance actually reaches the poor and households dependent on the informal sector. In addressing this complex agenda, the report focuses on a specific set of measures as an illustration of what is possible. For example, targeted income transfers conditioned on keeping children in school and attending health services could be an important part of a more equitable welfare state. In making the case for expanded use of conditional cash transfers, the research team cites as examples of success programs such as those underway in Mexico, Brazil and Nicaragua.
Mexico's "Oportunidades" (formerly PROGRESA) program helps poor families finance educational and health costs, and Brazil's "Programa Nacional de Bolsa Escola," and "Programa Bolsa Alimentação," offer education and nutrition subsidies, respectively. Results from Mexico, where Oportunidades covered 4.2 million rural and urban families at the end of 2002, show enrolments in middle schools increasing from 67 percent to about 75 percent for girls, and from 73 percent to about 78 percent for boys as a consequence of the program. Health and nutrition results are even more striking. Height growth among infants in the crucial 12-36-month range increased by about 1 cm per year - in an environment in which the incidence of stunting was at 44 percent of the infant population before the program began. And, as a result of increased visits to medical providers, illness among newborns decreased by 25 percent, among infants aged under two by 19 percent and among children aged three to five by 22 percent.
These promising results, and similar ones in Brazil and Central American countries where such programs have been implemented, indicate that the long history of inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean can be broken, the report says.
"If well-designed and integrated with expansion of basic services to reach the poor, such conditional cash transfers may provide the basis for a truly progressive social protection and risk management system in Latin America," said report co-author Francisco H. G. Ferreira.