Galunggung, Java, Indonesia
Location: 7.3S, 108.1E
Elevation: 7,111 feet (2,168 m)
Galunggung is a stratovolcano on the west side of the island of Java.
The caldera of Galunggung is open to the southeast. Photo by Jack
Lockwood, U.S. Geological Survey, August 17, 1982.
The first historic eruption of Galunggung was in 1822. Since then the
volcano has erupted four times, most recently in 1984. This photo shows
a column of ash rising above the summit during the large (VEI=4)
eruption. Eruption columns at Galunggung reached heights as great as 15
miles (24 km). Photo by Jack Lockwood, U.S. Geological Survey, August
Two eruptions at Galunggung have caused fatalities. During the 1822
eruption (VEI=5), nuee ardentes and mudflows killed 4,011 people and
destroyed 114 villages. The nuee ardentes extended up to 6 miles (10 km)
away from the volcano. During the 1982 eruption (VEI=4) about 68 people
died, mostly from indirect causes (traffic accidents, old age, cold, and
lack of food). Estimated damage was $15 million and 22 villages were
left uninhabitable. The 1984 eruption was phreatic and lasted about two
weeks. This photo shows lightning above the summit and glowing
pyroclasts on the flank of Galunggung. Photo by Jack Lockwood, U.S.
Geological Survey, September 16, 1982.
The April 1982-January 1983 eruption destroyed the 1918 lava dome and
produced a new cinder cone in a new crater. The crater was about 2,000
feet (600m) across and about 1,000 feet (300 m) deep. The cone grew to
250 feet (75 m) and was 650 feet (200 m) in diameter. Photo by Jack
Lockwood, U.S. Geological Survey, July 31, 1982.
View of new cinder cone. As the 1982-1983 eruption waned a crater lake
began to form. The presence of the lake, high rainfall, and the large
volume of exposed pyroclastic material on the volcano have made the
hazard associated with secondary lahars very high. The lahar
deposits have been revegitated and a lahar warning system has been
established. Photo by Jack Lockwood, U.S. Geological Survey, October 30,
During the 1982 eruption two jumbo jets entered the ash clouds at an
altitude of about 6 miles (10 km). Their engines stalled and windshields
were abraded. Fortunately, the pilots were able to restart the engines.
Source of Information:
Lubis, H., Hamidi, S., and Casadevall, T., 1987, Volcanic hazards at
Galunggung, West Java, Indonesia, since the 1982-1982 eruption: Hawaiian
Symposium on How Volcanoes Work, abstract volume, p. 160.
Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience
Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.