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   The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  2000.

Appendix I

Indo-European Roots
DEFINITION:To be strong, be lively. Oldest form *we-, becoming *weg- in centum languages.
Derivatives include watch, vigilante, reveille, and velocity.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *wog--. wake1, from Old English wacan, to wake up, arise, and wacian, to be awake, from Germanic *wakn. 2. Suffixed o-grade form *wog-no-. waken, from Old English wæcnan, wæcnian, to awake, from Germanic *waknan. 3. watch, from Old English wæccan, to be awake, from Germanic *wakjan. 4. Suffixed form *weg-yo-. Wicca, wicked, witch; bewitch, from Old English wicca, sorcerer, wizard (feminine wicce, witch), from Germanic *wikkjaz, necromancer (< “one who wakes the dead”). 5. bivouac, from Old High German wahta, watch, vigil, from Germanic *wahtw. 6a. wait, from Old North French waitier, to watch; b. waft, from Middle Dutch and Middle Low German wachten, to watch, guard. Both a and b from Germanic *waht-. 7. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *wog-eyo-. vegetable, from Latin vegre, to be lively. 8. Suffixed (stative) form *weg--. vigor; ravigote, from Latin vigre, to be lively. 9. Suffixed form *weg-(e)li-. vedette, vigil, vigilant, vigilante; reveille, surveillant, from Latin vigil, watchful, awake. 10. Suffixed form *weg-slo-. velocity, from Latin vlx, fast, “lively.” (Pokorny e- 1117.)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by the Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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