Style Manuals & Guides


Introduction
Style Manuals in Print
Style Manuals & Guides on the Web
Citing Electronic Information Sources
Citing Articles from Databases



Introduction

Documentation of sources has always been a problem for students because of the different styles required by academic disciplines. Once a certain style is established, however, students can use the style manual to model citation formats. Always use the most recent edition or version available and be consistent within that style. Finding an exact citation model in the manuals sometimes is problematic, however. Frequent use of the manual makes finding models easier, but there will always be the “exception” to deal with. In those cases, one should fall back on the basic models of citation and common sense.

Style manuals cover the most common print and non-print sources, but often are spotty on electronic sources. The major manuals--APA, MLA, and Chicago--have been revised to include the most popular electronic sources, but even the latest editions often fail to address problems presented by evolving technology. Many print publications provide web sites for changes and updates. The purpose of this site is to provide a current list of style manuals used by various academic disciplines on campus that are available in the U of M Libraries or on the web.

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Style Manuals in Print

American College of Sports Medicine. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.
[Periodicals. Loose Issues] Information for authors inside cover of every Feb. and Aug. issue.

American Institute of Physics. AIP Style Manual: For Guidance in Writing, Editing, and Preparing Physics
Manuscripts for Publication. 4th ed. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1990.
[Reference Desk: QC5.45.A45] [Math QA41.M34x 1984]

American Management Association. The AMA Style Guide for Business Writing. New York : AMACOM,1996.
Print copy is missing, but it is now available as an e-book in NetLibrary
[access restricted; need U of M UUID and ph password when using commercial ISP]
This book is a "collection of guidelines....specifically for business managers." The AMA editors state that "Our purpose is to provide
an easy-to-use and comprehensive guide to style and clarity in communication."

American Mathematical Society. The AMS Author Handbook. Providence, R.I.: American Mathematical
Society, 1996. [Ref QA41.M34x 1996]

American Medical Association. Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams &
Wilkins, 1998. [Reference Desk R119.A533 1998]

American National Standard for Information Sciences--Scientific and Technical Reports : Organization,
Preparation, and Production . New York: ANSI, 1987. [Z479 N34 1987 Oversize]

American Sociological Association. American Sociological Review. [Periodicals. Loose Issues]
Inside cover of any issue.

Associated Press Staff. The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley,
1992. [Reference PN4783 A83 1992] Note: The 1994 edition is currently missing. The 35th edition (2000)
has been requested.

Bates, Robert L., Rex Buchanan, and Marla Adkins-Heljeson, eds. Geowriting: A Guide to Writing, Editing, and
Printing in Earth Science. 5th ed. Alexandria: American Geological Institute, 1995.
[Earth Sciences Lib. QE48.85 G44 1995]

The Bluebook : A Uniform System of Citation. 17th edition. Cambridge: Harvard Law Review Association, 2000.
[KF245 B58 2000] [The Law Library has the 16th ed. (1996) KF245.U54 1996]
Compiled by the editors of the Columbia Law Review, the Harvard Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review,
and the Yale Law Journal.

The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. [Reference Desk: Z253.C57]

Council of Biology Editors. Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.
6th ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. [Reference Desk: T11.S386]

Dodd, Janet S., ed. The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors. Washington, D.C.: The American
Chemical Society, 1997 [Reference QD8.5.A25 1997] [Chemistry Library has1986 edition].

Fleischer, Eugene B. A Style Manual for Citing Microform and Nonprint Media. Chicago: American
Library Association, 1978.[Reference Desk: PN171.F56F57]

Garner, Diane L., and Diane H. Smith. The Complete Guide to Citing Government Information Resources : A
Manual for Writers & Librarians. Revised edition for the Government Documents Round Table,
American Library Association. Bethesda, MD: Congressional Information Service, 1993.
[Reference Desk: J9.5 G37x. Also Gov. Publications Dept.]

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations. 5th ed. New York:
The Modern Language Association, 1999. [Reference Desk: LB2369.G53 1999]
This publication is primarily for high school and undergraduate college students.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 2nd ed. New York: The Modern
Language Association, 1998. [Reference Desk: PN147.G444 1998]
Provides practical advice for graduate students, faculty and scholars who are preparing for publication.

Gray, Wood. Historian’s Handbook: A Key to the Study and Writing of History. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin, 1991.[Ref D13 G78 1991]

Hacker, Diana. A Writer’s Reference. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1998. [Reference Desk: PE1408.H2778]
Basically a general handbook for grammar and composition, it includes a chapter on the MLA style and
a shorter section on APA style.

Hansen, Wallace R., ed. Suggestions to Authors of the Reports of the United States Geological Survey, 7th ed.
Washington, D.C. : U.S. G.P.O., 1991. [Earth Sciences QE48.85.S84]

Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger. Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources. . New York :
St. Martin's, 1998. [Reference Desk TK5105.875.I57 H364 1998]
Provides models for citing and documenting Internet sources in MLA, APA, CBE and Chicago styles.
Includes a directory of Internet sources in the major academic disciplines.

Holoman, D. Kern, ed. Writing about Music: A Style Sheet from the Editors of 19th-Century Music.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. [Music Lib. Reserve]

Li, Xia, and Nancy B. Crane. Electronic Styles : A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information, 2nd ed.
Medford, N.J.: Information Today, Inc., 1996. [Reference Desk: PN171 F56 L5]
Note: Currently missing; replacement has been requested.

Linguistic Society of America. LSA Bulletin. [Periodicals. Loose issues] “LSA Style Sheet” published in the
December issue.

National Association of Social Workers. Writing for the NASW Press: Information for Authors. 2nd ed.
Washington: NASW Press, 1995. [Ref HV41.W75 1995. Also in circulation, HV41.W75 1995 Oversize]

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 5th. ed. Washington, D.C.: American
Psychological Association, 2001. [Reference Desk: BF76.7.P83. Also at Audio Speech Pathology Lib.]

Rubens, Philip, ed. Science and Technical Writing: A Manual of Style. New York: Holt, 1994.
[T11.S378 1994] Note: The 2nd ed. (2001) has been requested.

Slade, Carole. Form and Style: Theses, Reports, Term Papers. 10th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
[Reference Desk: LB2369.C3]
This is the manual many know as “Campbell and Ballou,” the names of the earlier editors. It is a
good manual to use for the whole research process--selecting a topic, research, composition and typing
the finished product. Its table of contents allows you to select the part you need. It has separate chapters
on each of the three most frequently used style sheets: Chicago Manual, MLA and APA. Each section is
based on the latest edition of the style sheets. The bright orange side bars make it easy to find these three
style sections and to quickly find examples of citations for various kinds of materials. If there is no
preference of style, use the Chicago Manual section: it is more extensive and retains the side-by-side
footnote/endnote and bibliography formats chart of the former editions. It also has more examples of
electronic sources.

Turabian, Kate. L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1996.[Reference Desk: LB2369.T8]

Walker, Janice R., and Todd Taylor. The Columbia Guide to Online Style. Columbia UP, 1998.
[Reference Desk: PN171.F56W35 1998]
A good guide for locating, translating, and using the elements of citation for both a humanities
style (i.e., MLA and Chicago) and a scientific style (APA and CBE) for electronically-accessed sources.
Also presents standards for creating web sites. Information and updates on web site
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html.

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Style Manuals & Guides on the Web

American Anthropological Association.
AAA Style Guide. January 2003.
< http://www.aaanet.org/pubs/style_guide.pdf > [23 January 2003].
The AAA uses The Chicago Manual of Style and Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary
in cases not specified by their guide. (14-page document in pdf format)

American Psychological Association. APA Style Electronic References. 2003.
< http://www.apa.org/journals/webref.html > [23 January 2003].
This online guide is excerpted from the 5th edition of the Publication Manual. "The material provided covers
commonly asked questions regarding how to cite electronic media."

Crouse, Maurice Citing Electronic Information in History Papers. 27 March 2003.
< http://www.people.memphis.edu/~mcrouse/elcite.html > [15 April 2003].
Dr. Crouse, professor of history at the University of Memphis, discusses past and current style
guides and provides a rationale for his recommendations. He provides detailed explanations and examples
and an extensive bibliography.

Government Documents Department, University of Memphis Libraries Brief Guide to Citing Government
Publications. 16 July 2002. < http://exlibris.memphis.edu/govpubs/citeweb.htm > [23 January 2003].

Hacker, Diane, and Barbara Fister. Research and Documentation Online. [30 January 2002].
< http://www.bedfordbooks.com/rd/index.html > [23 Janaury 2003].
Presents guides for finding and documenting sources in the humanities (MLA), social sciences (APA),
history (Chicago), and sciences (CBE). Also shows sample papers using each style.

Harnack, Andrew, and Gene Kleppinger. Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources . 2001.
< http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online > [23 January 2003].
Covers MLA, APA, Chicago, CBE and others.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO 690:1987: Information and Documentation --
Bibliographic References - Content, Form and Structure. Excerpts Regarding Citations. 15 August 2002.
< http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/iso/tc46sc9/standard/690-1e.htm> [23 Janaury 2003].
Excerpts from ISO 690 which "specifies the elements to be included in bibliographic
references to published monographs and serials, to chapters, articles, etc. in such publications
and to patent documents. It sets out a prescribed order for the elements of the reference
and establishes conventions for the transcription and presentation of information derived from
the source publication.

Library of Congress. The Learning Page of the Library of Congress: Citing Electronic Resources. 26 September 2002.
< http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/resources/cite/index.html> [15 April 2003].
Shows how to cite films, legal documents, maps, recorded sound, photographs and drawings, special presentations, and texts
(materials available on LC websites) with the MLA and Turabian format.

Modern Language Association. Modern Language Association: MLA Style. 29 April 2002.
< http://www.mla.org > [23 January 2003].
The MLA site states that "These guidelines on MLA documentation style are the only ones
available on the Internet that are authorized by the Modern Language Association of America."
Few guidelines are given, however. Users are generally directed to the print manuals.

Palmer, Pamela. Academic Writers’ Net Source. 24 July 2002.
< http://www.people.memphis.edu/~prpalmer > [23 January 2003].
Dr. Palmer, a Reference Librarian at the U of M, has compiled a number of useful links “From style
manuals to how-to sources” on the Internet which “writers at colleges and universities can use.”

Taylor, Todd. “Basic CGOS Style.” Columbia Guide to Online Style. 18 November 2002.
< http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html > [23 January 2003].
This site updates Janice Walker's earlier work, MLA_Style Citations of Electronic Sources
(http://www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/mla.html) which was endorsed by the Alliance for Computers and
Writing and consequently referred to as the ACW Style. It also provides information about and updates
the print publication, The Columbia Guide to Online Style, co-authored by Janice Walker and Todd
Taylor and published in 1998 by Columbia University Press.

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center. Writer's Handbook: Documentation Styles. 2003.
< http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/Documentation.html > [23 January 2003].
Faculty and staff of the UW-Madison Writing Center give an overview of documentation with links to specific guidelines
and examples for the major documentary styles: American Political Science Association (APSA), American Psychological
Association (APA), Chicago/Turabian, Council of Biology Editors (CBE), and Modern Language Association (MLA).

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Citing Electronic Information Sources

Most style manuals have been revised, often with web updates, to include the citation of electronic sources. The Columbia Guide to Online Style is derived from Janice Walker’s often-referenced web site, which was adopted by the Alliance for Computers and Writing and consequently known as the ACW style. Below is a modified excerpt from the Columbia Guide to Online Style (CGOS) web site.

The primary elements of a bibliographic reference are the same for most styles of documentation, although the order in which they are presented may vary. These elements include:

  • name of the author,
  • the title,
  • the place of publication,
  • the publisher's name,
  • the date of publication,
  • and a designation of the location, or page number, of a reference.
Many styles also include a designation of the publication medium. For electronic sources, however, some elements may be missing or must be translated into elements that make sense in a new era of publishing. For example, in place of an author's name, online authors may only use login names or aliases. Instead of a title, there may only be a file name. The place of publication and the name of the publisher are replaced online by the protocol and address, and, rather than a date of publication, the date you access the site may be the only means of designating the specific "edition" of an online work. On the WWW, a given site is always one page, regardless of its length. Pagination is thus an element of print publication that has little or no meaning in electronic documents or files. Since most Web browsers, word processing packages, and text editors allow the reader to search for specific words or phrases within a document, designating the location of a specific reference within an electronic document or file may be redundant.

When in doubt, it is better to give too much information than too little. For more information, see The Columbia Guide to Online Style (Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor, Columbia University Press, 1998).

The following citations demonstrate the various ways this excerpt could be cited, based on my interpretation of the style guide recommendations. Since there was no exact model, I had to improvise while maintaining the integrity of the chosen style.

Humanities Style (MLA and Chicago) recommended by the Columbia Guide:
Taylor, Todd. “The Elements of Citation” Basic CGOS Style. Columbia University Press. 15 May 2002.

http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html (23 May 2002).

Scientific Style (APA and CBE) recommended by the Columbia Guide:
Taylor, T. (15 May 2002). The elements of citation. Basic CGOS style.Columbia University Press.
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html (23 May 2002).

APA Style:
Taylor, T. (15 May 2002). The elements of citation. Basic CGOS Style. Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 15, 2002 from the
World Wide Web: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html.

MLA Style:
Taylor, Todd. “The Elements of Citation” Basic CGOS Style. Columbia University Press. 15 May 2002.
23 May 2002 < http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html >.

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Citing Articles from Databases

There is a distinction in citing articles retrieved directly from a publisher's web site and in citing articles retrieved indirectly through a periodical index database. In the first instance, one would cite the article with the URL of the publisher's web site. In the second, one would cite the name of the database which provided the article and any other information that would enable another person to follow the same path to the article. Unfortunately, this distinction is not always clear in the recommendations of all style manuals.

APA
The fifth edition of the APA style manual made several changes to provide clearer guidance for citing documents retrieved through electronic media. The APA web site has also been updated to show some of these changes. It now states: "When referencing material obtained by searching an aggregated database, follow the format appropriate to the work retrieved and add a retrieval statement that gives the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database." This is the recommended citation for an electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from a database: (
APA website accessed January 23, 2003):

MLA
The web site for the Modern Language Association states: "For a work from a subscription service, the name of the service and--if a library is the subscriber--the name and city (and state abbreviation, if necessary) of the library."
This is the MLA example (Under "Work from a Subscription Service") [26 September 2002]


To see further examples, check the print style manuals.


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Created by Janell Rudolph ©May 1999. Updated Thursday, June 26, 2003 4:49:44 PM.