DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> The Socio-Economic Impact of International Fur Farming

The Socio-Economic Impact of International Fur Farming

Contents
1. Where does fur come from?
2. Worldwide Fur Farming
3. World fur sector figures (2002)
4. A brief history of fur farming
5. From farm to consumer
6. From farm to consumer – a truly international trade
7. The economic importance of the international fur farming sector
8. Regulation
9. Wild or farmed – animal welfare is paramount
10. The Fur Renaissance
11. FUR – FAST FACTS
12. Glossary of common fur-bearers referred to in this website
13. About IFTF


1. Where does fur come from?

Fur is obtained from both farmed and wild species of fur bearing animals. 85% of the world’s fur trade originates from farmed species that have been domesticated.

The main farmed species are mink (Mustela vison); silver fox (Vulpes vulpes); blue fox (Alopex lagopus); sable (Martes zibellina); black fitch/polecat (Mustela putorius) and white fitch/polecat (Mustela eversmanni); finn raccoon (Nyctereutes procyonoides); chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) and nutria (Myocastor coypus).

Most of the world’s farmed fur is produced in Europe, accounting for 70% of global mink production (EU = 64%) and 63% of fox production (EU = 47%). North America and Russia/the Baltic States account for 13% and 11% respectively of global mink production, while Russia/the Baltic States and China account respectively for 11% and 27% of fox production. Denmark and Finland are the world’s largest producers and exporters of mink and fox skins respectively. Mink and fox provide the fur industry with its staple raw material.

The majority of wild species used by the fur trade are not taken specifically for their fur, but as part of wildlife management programmes. These are necessary for the maintenance of biodiversity and healthy eco-systems, population and disease control and the protection of public lands and private property. The international fur trade does not handle any endangered species and to this end supports the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

Many abundant wild fur species are used in the trade, but those in most common use are: grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus and Pseudalopex griseus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes); nutria (Myocastor coypus)(mainly from South and North America); North American beaver (Castor canadensis); coyote (Canis latrans); marten (Martes americana); mink (Mustela vison); raccoon (Procyon lotor); musquash (Ondatra zibethica); Russian sable (Martes zibellina); Russian and Chinese squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris); ermine (Mustela erminea); kolinski (Mustela sibirica); Chinese weasel (Mustela nivalis) and New Zealand Opossum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

Skins from goats and a variety of sheep also enter the fur trade, including the Karakul lamb (Ovis aries) which is raised in Afghanistan, central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union, and Namibia.

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2. Worldwide Fur Farming

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3. World fur sector figures (2002)

 
Number of
   
 

full time employees in EU
part time

  106,000
108,000

 
Number of
   
    full time employees in North America
part time

  101,000
154,000

 
Number of
   
    full time employees in other countries
part time

  895,000
658,000

 
Value of fur sales in EU
   
    1999/2000
2000/2001
2001/2002

  US $4,119 million
US $4,341 million
US $4,652 million

 
Value of fur sales in North America
   
    1999/2000
2000/2001
2001/2002

  US $1,315 million
US $1,930 million
US $1,780 million

 
Total fur sales world-wide
   
    1999/2000
2000/2001
2001/2002

  US $9,143 million
US $9,838 million
US $10,905 million

 
Number of fur sector enterprises (retailers,dressers, auction houses, brokers, etc.) in
   
    EU
North America
Other

  40,000
2,300
75,000

 
Number of fur farms in
   
    EU Member States
EU-applicant countries
North America
Russia/Baltic states

  6,000
500
1,135
150

 
Amount of animal by-products fed yearly to fur animals in EU
   
    poultry processing
fish and fish processing
slaughterhouse
  220,000 tonnes
365,000 tonnes
62,000 tonnes
  Amount of animal by-products fed yearly to fur animals in North America
  200,000 tonnes
       

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4. A brief history of fur farming

Fur farming started in the USA in the 1860s (“Nature’s Jewels – a history of mink farming in the United States”, Bruce William Smith, 1981). However, the historical starting point of modern fur farming is considered to be 1895 when three Canadians started breeding silver foxes on Prince Edward Island.

Fox farming began in Europe when the first pair of silver foxes were introduced to Norway in 1914. Production grew rapidly and, by 1939, Norway was producing some 348,000 silver foxes. Today, Finland is the world’s largest producer of foxes.

The first mink farms arrived in Scandinavia in the 1920s. By the mid-1940s, mink production had assumed some significance, especially in the USA. Shortly after the Second World War, Europe became the most important mink producer, especially the Nordic countries. Today Denmark is the largest mink producer.

Both scientists and governments agree that after more than 100 generations, farmed fur animals are effectively domesticated. In a statement to the Dutch Government in 1999, the Danish Justice Ministry noted that “The farmed mink’s temperament, for instance, has changed from being a nervous, agitated animal fleeing to its nesting cage upon approach of human beings, to now often reacting curious and examining.”

Farmed fur animals have adjusted well to the modern farm environment. They breed successfully, in accordance with the animals’ one-year natural lifecycle, are healthy, and generally docile.

Mink kept on the farm can be considered as domestic animals. It is “erroneous” to suggest mink are not domesticated. The great inquisitiveness of farm mink and the ease of handling these mink emphasise a clear form of domestication.
Professor P R Wiepkema, Advice regarding the husbandry of fur animals, May 1994, study for Dutch government.

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5. From farm to consumer

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6. From farm to consumer – a truly international trade

 

After a university degree in Art History and a stint in advertising, the romance of fur brought me back to work with my father in our family manufacturing business.

I love the range of experience my work brings: in a single day I may be planning a new collection with our designer, developing promotional campaigns or organising a marketing trip to the USA or Europe.

Christina Nacos, fur manufacturer, Canada

 
 
1. Christina Nacos, fur manufacturer, Canada
2. Fur Dressing/Dyeing

The fur sector is complex and international with the fur pelt produced by the farmer normally passing through several countries and undergoing various processes before it reaches the final consumer. Although fur is largely produced in countries with cold climates, the end product is worn all over the world.

To produce a pelt, the farmer cannot work alone. The farmer’s network includes links with, for example, feed kitchens, specialised auction houses, veterinarians, and seasonal workers.

Although some skins are sold privately or through local collectors, the majority of farmed fur is sold through auction. The world’s largest auction houses are in Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo, Saint Petersburg, Seattle and Toronto. Buyers attend from all over the world and bid for furs, which are traditionally sold in graded and assorted bundles.

From the auction houses, collectors and merchants, the pelts are consigned for dressing (cleaning, softening, preserving and drying) and, in many cases, dyeing. The pelts are then ready for grading into colour, size, length of hair and texture. The main centres for these processes are in the Baltic States, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy and Russia. The pelts are then ready to be manufactured into a fur garment, incorporated into a textile garment or used to make accessories.

Manufacturing

Manufacture of full fur garments, combination fur garments and garments with fur trim takes place worldwide. However, the most important manufacturing centres are in Canada, China and Hong Kong, Greece and Russia. In addition, there is still manufacturing in many other countries including France, Germany, Italy, Korea, Japan, Spain, Turkey, the Ukraine and the USA.

Manufacturing of fur is a highly qualified profession, and many businesses are family-run, passing on traditional skills from generation to generation. This tradition is being carried on in newer markets where a wave of young people is joining the trade and learning these skills, as well as the latest technological developments.

In Canada, there are about 120 manufacturing companies, supported by 8 major dressers and dyers. More than 85% of manufacturing production is in Montreal, the remaining 15% is largely located in the Toronto region. Although all types of fur are used, Canadian manufacturers are renowned for wild fur garments. Beaver, especially sheared and worked in a range of treatments, is the single most important Canadian fur garment category. Approximately 90% of Canadian fur garment exports go to the USA, the balance is sold in Europe, Russia and Asia (especially Japan).

Over the past 50 years, Hong Kong has established itself as one of the leading fur manufacturing centres of the world, consuming almost 60% of global raw fur production (mainly mink and fox).

 
 
 

1

 

2

 

 

1. International Fur Trade Fair
2. Fur fashion boutique

The Hong Kong fur industry remains largely family-owned, but new entrepreneurs continue to enter the market, adding a constant vitality to the wealth of existing experience. Much of the manufacturing process is carried out in Hong Kong-owned factories located in China, primarily in Guangdong Province in the south but also in the north. The average Hong Kong fur manufacturer employs between 200 and 500 workers; several have a workforce in excess of 1,000.

Not only is Hong Kong’s pre-eminence partly due to the parallel development of both dressing and manufacturing, but Hong Kong has some of the largest dressing operations in the world, each employing between 200 and 600 workers.

In recent years, Hong Kong furriers have continuously improved their craftsmanship, while exploring new techniques. Products now carry their own brand names and are produced with different characteristics and styles to suit a wide range of different markets. 95% of fur products made in Hong Kong are exported all over the world, to countries including Italy, Japan, Korea, Russia, Spain and the USA.

Greece is the main manufacturing centre in Europe, with 4,000 Greek businesses involved in the fur trade. The sector dominates the economies of two areas – Kastoria and Siatista – where opportunities outside the fur trade are very limited.

Russia is divided into 89 territorial regions. Every second region has a fur processing factory and each region has small factories and workshops for making up fur garments. The largest fur processing centres include Moscow and the surrounding region, Tatarstan, Kirov, Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, and the Stavropol region. There are some 20,000 large, medium and small enterprises throughout the country engaged in processing fur skins, producing ready-made garments and retailing. Russia is the biggest producer and consumer of fur hats.

Trade Shows

Retailers from all over the world attend trade shows held each year in Beijing, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Istanbul, Kastoria, Madrid, Milan, Montreal and Moscow. These shows enable even a small local furrier or boutique to see the most up-to-date fur fashions and to buy the latest trends for the coming season.

Retail

Today, fur garments and accessories reach the final consumer via a wide range of retail outlets: specialised fur shops, department stores and fashion boutiques.

Sales of full fur and fur trim worldwide in 2002 were estimated at US $10,905 million. They have been increasing since the mid-1990s due in large measure to product development – eg. lighter furs, sheared furs, knitted furs and “combination” garments (ie. fur combined with other materials) and the prominence of fur in fashion today.

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7. The economic importance of the international fur farming sector

 
 
 

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

1. Sorting furs for auction
2. Fur auction
3. Sorting fur for design
4. Working with fur

Producing over 12 million mink skins, fur farming was worth Euro 514 million to Danish farmers in 2002, making it the country’s third largest agricultural export product after bacon and cheese. In Finland, where over 2 million foxes were produced in 2002, the annual value of fur production at Euro 250 million is greater than that of beef. Fur farming is also important in the Netherlands where 3 million skins were produced in 2002, and in some of the Central and Eastern European countries that have applied for EU membership – Latvia, Poland, Lithuania and Estonia. In Poland, the production figures for mink and fox skins in 2002 were 600,000 and 260,000 respectively.

In Canada and the United States, there are some 1135 fur farms producing mainly mink, but also some fox and chinchilla. In Canada, approximately 1.5 million mink pelts are produced by fur farms annually. In the United States, some 330 mink farms across 28 states produce around 2.6 million pelts annually – worth around US$86 million. The majority of American mink farms are family-run, depending exclusively on fur farming for their livelihood, with everyone from the grandparents to grandchildren providing the labour.

In South America, both mink and chinchilla continue to be farmed in Argentina, producing approximately 10,000 mink and 27,000 chinchilla skins per annum.

It is estimated that China produces over 1 million mink and fox skins respectively, while the production in Russia in 2002 was 2.7 million mink and about 400,000 fox skins. Russian fur farming is concentrated in the regions of Kaliningrad, Moscow, Leningrad, Tver, Smolensk regions, Stavropol Territory, and the Republics of Kabardino-Balkaria, Tatarstan and Siberia.

Revenue from fur farming allows many farmers, particularly in Europe, to supplement income from other agricultural activities. Fur farming also allows farming to remain economically viable in rural areas where climatic conditions limit the production options available. In Finland, an estimated 50% of fur farmers rely exclusively on fur farming for their incomes. Even where climatic limitations are not an issue, other factors can limit the alternative possibilities open to farmers, eg. quotas for products such as beef, milk or environmental and planning restrictions.

Fur farming provides an efficient use for animal by-products that are purchased from fish and poultry processors. In the EU, fur animals consume on an annual basis 220,000 tonnes of by-products from poultry processing, 62,000 tonnes of slaughterhouse by-products and 365,000 tonnes of fish and fish processing by-products. In North America, 200,000 tonnes of animal by-products are fed each year to fur farmed animals. The consumption by fur animals of these by-products not intended for human use helps to keep down the actual cost of human food production.

Fur farmers respect the importance of maintaining a clean environment. The small amount of manure that is produced is disposed of in a responsible way. Manure makes a good organic fertilizer for other agricultural sectors, while mink fat can be recycled as an important ingredient in hypoallergenic soaps and hair products.

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8. Regulation

 

We operate under strict European laws that ensure the highest welfare for our animals. I wouldn’t want it any other way. The animals are an important part of our life; my family have managed this fur farm for generations. It’s not just our past but also our future.

And protecting our future means sharing our knowledge as well as introducing new methods and technology where they are scientifically proved to be an improvement.

Heinrick Vest, fur farmer, Denmark

 
 
1. Heinrick Vest, fur farmer, Denmark
2. Handling mink
 
 
1. Distributing straw on a fur farm
2. US fur farmer summer school

Fur farming is well-regulated under international, national or regional laws and guidelines.

The EU Directive 98/58 on the welfare of farm animals specifically includes fur farming. Directive 93/119 deals with permitted killing methods for individual species (including fur farmed animals). Additionally, fur farming is covered by the common market organisation established by Regulation 827/68. European fur farmers abide by a European Code of Practice, which incorporates the revised Recommendation on the keeping of fur animals adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999. The Recommendation is legally binding in Germany, has been incorporated into national law in Finland and Norway and is expected to be national law in Denmark shortly. In addition, fur farming is covered by the same EU environmental laws that apply to all EU agricultural sectors.

In Russia, fur farming has a long tradition and is an important agricultural sector. It is covered by agricultural and company legislation. In addition, there are two specific laws covering fur farming: the law on protection of selection achievements, which covers both plant varieties and animal breeds, and the law on pedigree husbandry. There is also legislation governing technologies used for fur animal breeding and individual genotype assessment.

North American fur farmers operate under State and Provincial laws and Codes of Practice covering animal welfare, developed with veterinarians, scientists, government officials and farmers. In the United States, farming standards are guided by those of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). In addition, fur farmers operate under federal environmental standards, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act, and federal labour legislation. In Canada, the Recommended Code of Practice for the Care & Handling of Mink was developed under the auspices of Agriculture Canada and in conjunction with the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies.

In Argentina, fur farmers operate under government legislation (Resolution 495), with annual inspections of farms carried out by the Fauna and Agriculture Ministry.

Many producer countries have national authority or self-regulated industry inspection and reporting schemes, involving veterinary or other official scrutiny. For example, in Norway, a scheme is in place that involves 30 inspection groups who travel round the country visiting fur farmers. A veterinarian is assigned to each group. Conditions on farms are thoroughly checked and advice on improvements given when required. A similar self-supervision scheme operates in Finland, while in Denmark all farms are controlled every second year by the local department responsible for the environment.

In the Nordic countries, the veterinarians also inspect farms with particular regard to the use of medicines and vaccines. At a European level, a monitoring programme has been introduced by the European Fur Breeders’ Association and International Fur Trade Federation. Launched in 1999, fur farms in Germany, Ireland, Italy and Spain have been checked and advised on the requirements of the Council of Europe.

In the United States, a Merit Award programme has been introduced by the fur trade in consultation with veterinarians, animal scientists, wildlife biologists and farmers. The Award covers standards for the humane production of fur bearing animals and is achieved only after an independent inspection of the farm. It is one of the first formalised humane care certification programmes in US agriculture and recognises:

Vigilant attention to nutritional needs
Clean, safe and appropriate housing
Prompt veterinary care
Consideration for the animals’ disposition and reproductive needs
Elimination of outside stress

Nearly 95% of US mink production comes from farms certified under the Merit Award programme.

In addition, US farmers are kept up-to-date on the latest welfare, nutrition and breeding research findings through the circulation of newsletters and summer schools co-sponsored by the fur sector.

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9. Wild or farmed – animal welfare is paramount

 
 

1

 

 

2

 

 

1. Fur farming research
2. Veterinary care

The welfare of wild or farmed fur species is of paramount interest to the fur sector.

For over twenty years, the International Fur Trade Federation has been a major supporter of research into the most humane methods of taking wild fur-bearers, in close co-operation with producer governments. This work has contributed not only to improved trapping methods but has added to the knowledge of furbearers and their habitats.

The IFTF has also lent its support to on-going research on the welfare of farmed fur animals to ensure the highest standards of care on farms. In 1999, the spending by government and fur sector contributors on fur farming research in four of the main producing countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and The Netherlands) exceeded Euro 1,600,000.

Since 1999, the European Fur Breeders’ Association and the International Fur Trade Federation have been supporting the work of the Fur Animal Welfare Research Committee (FAWRC), an independent committee which reports to the Council of Europe. Four projects have been exploring whether farmed mink need swimming water and the potential effect of swimming water on animal welfare. Three projects are looking into behavioural and welfare aspects of farmed foxes.

In North America, the fur industry works with suppliers of medicines and feedstuffs to fund disease and nutritional research. In the United States, the industry has supported university research programmes since the 1950s, through the Mink Farmers Research Foundation and now its successor, the Research Committee of Fur Commission USA. In Canada, research initiated by Canada Mink Breeders Association has resulted in the development of vaccines to protect mink from disease as well as a test for Aleutian disease.

Since the late 1930s, independent research has been ongoing in Russia on farmed mink and foxes. This work has largely focused on the domestication process in farmed fur animals.

Results from the various research programmes have in many instances been incorporated into law and/or farm practices to benefit farmed fur animals in areas such as:

 

housing (eg. the introduction of nest boxes for mink and observation platforms for foxes)
disease prevention (eg. Aleutian disease)
breeding and selection (eg. selection for more confident animals)
husbandry (eg. promotion of early handling of kits)
nutrition (eg. composition, hygiene and control of feed)

 

There are two key reasons that fur farmers attach such importance to supporting scientific research. First, they want to ensure that farming systems continue to have a high standard of animal welfare. Second, they want to ensure that any rules or regulations governing the sector continue to be based on sound scientific fact.

Finland has always been in favour of high standards of animal welfare. All the scientific data which we have shows that there is no difference in the well-being of animals kept for farmed fur products compared to those kept for other purposes.
Mr Kimmo Sasi, Finnish Minister of Trade, in a press statement in London – 10.2.00.

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10. The Fur Renaissance

In the last five years fur has undergone a renaissance in the fashion world, with in excess of 300 leading international fashion designers working with fur in their collections.

Fur is not confined to exclusive or expensive clothing or to full fur garments, it is also used for trim and accessories. It is versatile, light and comfortable to wear, providing warmth in a wide range of temperatures from 60°F to well below zero.

This popularity of fur among designers and consumers has been greatly helped by product development: the production of lighter furs, sheared furs, knitted furs. There has also been a dramatic increase in “combination” garments (eg. coats lined with fur, wool jackets worked with fur and textile garments with fur trim) as well as a revival of the full fur garment with a modern edge.

Demand for fur garments exists worldwide, but the largest consuming markets are China, Germany, Italy, Korea, Japan, Russia and many of the former Soviet Republics, Spain and the USA.

To help inform consumers about the fur they are buying, the International Fur Trade Federation changed its constitution in August 2002 to require all members to introduce a labelling system on all fur garments and products sold at retail, if this does not already exist . The label must state the common name for the species, in English and/or the local language. Use of the scientific Latin name is strongly recommended.

“Fur is back. For good. Previously a luxury, it’s everywhere this winter.” ELLE France, 2 December 2002

“What’s different this time is the market – younger, more creative people are buying fur.” Financial Times, United Kingdom, 16 November 2002

“They [designers] also combined fur with other materials, like denim, corduroy and brocade. The new styles have helped bring down the average age of a fur customer to 35, from 48 just two years ago.” Newsweek, 16 December 2002

“Fur… harks back to a bygone era where things were made by hand, with care and individuality. That makes them incredibly covetable in today’s over-manufactured, mass-marketed world.” Female magazine, Singapore, November 2002

Fur is transforming itself from dark, heavy pelts worn only in the winter into light, bright fabrics worn the year round.” The Star, Malaysia, 9 February 2003

“Fur has made a noticeable comeback. Designers are finding new ways to make fur wearable. Coats, jackets and vests are sportier and there’s fur trim on children’s coats. And fur is not just being worn in northern climates.” The Leader Post, Canada, 25 February 2003

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11. FUR – FAST FACTS


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Fur is an authentic, natural product, based on the sustainable use of renewable resources.

Fur Farming


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Is well regulated under international, national or regional laws and guidelines.


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Is an established, natural part of the agricultural sector in many countries.


• 


Provides high standards of care for animal health and animal welfare.


• 


Is a valuable link in the food and recycling chain.


• 


Provides an efficient use of 647,000 tonnes of animal by-products each year from the fishing and meat industries in the EU alone.


• 


Provides manure for organic fertiliser.


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Mink provides fat for hypoallergenic soaps and hair products.

Economics


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Over 1 million people are employed full-time in the fur trade worldwide.


• 


Fur sales worldwide totalled some US$ 11 billion in 2001/02.


• 


Nearly 117,000 enterprises exist worldwide – retailers, dressers, brokers, etc.


• 


In Denmark, fur farming was worth Euro 514 million in 2002, the country’s third largest export after bacon and cheese.


• 


In Finland, the annual fur production value is Euro 250 million, greater than that of beef, with over 50% of fur farmers relying on fur farming as their sole source of income.


• 


In Canada, the fur trade contributes Can$ 800 million to the Canadian economy, employing over 75,000 Canadians in total.


• 


In USA, the value of the fur industry at retail level was US$ 1.53 billion in 2001/2. There are more than 100 manufacturers of fur garments and nearly 1,400 retail outlets of finished fur garments.


• 


Hong Kong is the world’s largest importer of farmed fur skins and remains the leading exporter of fur garments to the value of more than US$ 320 million annually.


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In Russia, the value of the fur trade is over US$ 2.5 billion, contributing around 0.6% – 0.8% of the turnover of all consumer goods.


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In the UK, fur brokers are responsible for buying the majority of the world’s fur traded at raw or wholesale level, with a turnover of some US$ 750 million per annum.

Animal Welfare and Conservation


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Over the last 20 years, the IFTF alone has contributed more than US$ 5 million in support of a wide range of animal welfare and conservation projects.


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The European fur sector and national governments spent over Euro 1.6 million in 1999 on fur farming research.


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European fur farmers helped to establish the Fur Animal Welfare Research Committee (FAWRC) in 1999, which reports to the Council of Europe’s Standing Committee on farm animal welfare.


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The European Fur Breeders Association (EFBA) has its own Code of Practice, which incorporates the Council of Europe recommendations, with its own further “best practice”.


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North American fur breeders have Codes of Practice that include recommended methods of care from birth to death of mink and foxes.


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The IFTF is a voting member of the World Conservation Union and supports the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

Public Opinion


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In the USA, 86% of Americans support an individual’s freedom to choose whether to wear fur. (1996)


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69% of Finnish people have a positive attitude to fur farming. (1998)


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In the UK, 62% of people consider that it is environmentally sound to use natural fibres such as wool, silk, fur and leather. (2000)


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71% of Dutch people agree with the statement, “it makes in principle no difference for what reason you keep animals as long as you take care of their welfare”. (2000)


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67% of Dutch people believe individuals should have a free choice to wear fur. (2000)


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67% of Scottish people strongly agree with the statement “in principle, I find it acceptable that animals are kept on farms for any purpose, provided there is good animal welfare.” (2001)


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68% of Canadians know that the fur trade helps to support the livelihoods and cultures of people living in close harmony with the land. (2001)


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In Norway, two thirds of people support fur farming (Sentio Norsk statistikk/Nationen). (2003)

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12. Glossary of common fur-bearers referred to in this website

Farmed species

Common name
Chinchilla
Finn raccoon
Black fitch/polecat
White fitch/polecat
Silver fox
Blue fox
Mink
Nutria
Sable

Karakul lamb


Scientific name
Chinchilla lanigera
Nyctereutes procyonoides
Mustela putorius
Mustela eversmanni
Vulpes vulpes
Alopex lagopus
Mustela vison
Myocastor coypus
Martes zibellina

Ovis aries
Wild species

Common name
N American/
Canadian beaver
Coyote
Ermine
N American grey fox
S American grey fox
Red fox
Kolinski
N American/
Canadian marten
Mink
Musquash
Australian/
New Zealand Opossum
Nutria
N American/
Canadian Raccoon
Sable
Squirrel (from Russia/China)
Weasel

(alphabetical order)


Scientific name

Castor canadensis
Canis latrans
Mustela erminea
Urocyon cinereoargenteus
Pseudalopex griseus
Vulpes vulpes
Mustela sibirica

Martes americana
Mustela vison
Ondatra zibethica

Trichosurus vulpecula
Myocastor coypus

Procyon lotor
Martes zibellina
Sciurus vulgaris
Mustela nivalis



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13. About IFTF

First established in 1949, the International Fur Trade Federation (IFTF) is a federation of 34 national fur trade
associations and organisations from 28 countries.

Through its work and the activities of members, IFTF seeks to protect fur trade interests and encourage a factual image of today's fur trade.

IFTF is fully committed to maintaining high standards of care, habitat, health and welfare for fur animals, established under international, national and regional laws, agreements and codes of practice.

The international fur trade does not handle any endangered species and to this end supports the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

For further information and updates, please visit our websites at:
http://www.iftf.com

 

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