PART TWO

STATISTICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL - NEW YORK CANALS.

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CHAPTER III. – BIOGRAPHIES OF ENGINEERS.

Short biographical sketches of the State Engineers to the present time, and of other engineers who have attained to the rank of Assistant Engineer, or higher in the State service (those who have died, and of those who are living only those who have attained to that rank at least twenty-five years ago).

It was intended originally to include in this part of the volume as many biographies as could be collected of the engineers who have attained to the rank of assistant engineer, or higher, in the service of the New York State canals throughout their history, but a complete list would contain the names of nearly eight hundred men, many of them with a prospect of years of active service still before them. Accordingly it was decided to include only those engineers whose careers are nearly or quite completed. {The material collected concerning the younger engineers will be filed in the office of the State Engineer for future reference.} This selection excludes many prominent engineers who have served the State in recent years in various expert capacities, and it also excludes many who have become prominent in other lines of work, but who in earlier years labored on the canals in minor positions. The biographies of some of the best-known of the early engineers could not be secured, no clue to the whereabouts of descendants or relatives being obtainable; the correct addresses of many others were probably learned, but no responses were received to inquiries. As this portion of the book is but a small part of the whole volume, it was not deemed important enough to warrant more effort to secure biographies than might be accomplished by means of a limited correspondence.

Among the engineers who have been employed on the canals there are many instances of long service that merit especial notice. Probably the oldest of the living engineers is Mr. George E. Gray, who entered the service in 1839. Mr. W.H.H. Gere stands first in the length of period within which connection with the canals existed - fifty-six years, but only about half of that time was spent in the service. Mr. David E. Whitford easily ranks first in length of service, having been connected with the department during a period of fifty-four years, fifty of which have been spent in its employ. Then come Morris S. Kimball and John Bisgood, with about forty years of service; L.L. Nichols with thirty-five; O.W. Childs, O.W. Storey, Daniel C. Jenne, Van R. Richmond, Bruce J. Kimball and J. Nelson Tubbs, with about thirty years; Alfred Barrett, J. Platt Goodsell, Thomas Goodsell, Daniel Richmond, Denison Richmond, George Arnoldt and Thomas Evershed, with about a quarter of a century; and Holmes Hutchinson, William J. McAlpine, O.H. Bogardus, William B. Taylor, Howard Soule, Walter W. Jerome, Charles Truesdell, William B. Cooper, Byron Holley, Charles D. Burrus and John R. Kaley, with twenty years or more.

These are the engineers of the earlier generation who have served many years and have achieved some distinction on the canals; there have been others who have risen to prominence but have served fewer years, and still others who have given long and faithful service in the minor positions. Among the more recent men there are many who have already spent ten, twenty or even more years in the State's employ.

In these sketches it will be seen that some of the engineers rose to high rank in their country's service during the Civil War. Among them was the first man to hold the office of State Engineer, but material for his biography was not obtainable. It will be noticed also that one full-blooded Indian is found in the list of engineers - Ely. S. Parker - who later became prominent as Gen. Grant's secretary during the war.

ADAMS, CAMPBELL W., born Dec. 19, 1852, at Utica, N.Y.; educated at Utica Academy.

In 1872, Mr. Adams became an assistant to Wm. H. Christian, City Surveyor of Utica, and in the following year when Mr. Christian's term expired, they formed a partnership and carried on a general surveying business. In 1872 and 1874 Mr. Adams had charge of building the Savage reservoir at the end of Pleasant Street, Utica, for the Utica Water Works Co. From 1875 to 1880 he was a traveling salesman for the firm of Adams Bros., rope manufacturers, resigning to accept an appointment as City Surveyor of Utica, serving until 1885. He was appointed Constructing Engineer for the Delaware and Hudson Canal Co., on the Albany and Susquehanna division, but a year later returned to Utica and served as Assistant City Surveyor during Mayor Kinney's administration. In 1887 was employed as Resident Engineer for the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg R.R., supervising the construction of the branch road from Rochester to Windsor Beach on Lake Ontario; of a viaduct at Harpersville, N.Y., and of a bridge over the Genesee river. He was again appointed Assistant City Surveyor of Utica in 1888 and in 1891 was one of the engineering corps on the Adirondack and St. Lawrence R.R. In 1892 he was appointed City Surveyor of Utica and reappointed in 1893.

Mr. Adams was elected to the office of State Engineer and Surveyor of New York in the fall of 1893, was reelected in 1895 and on account of the change in the term of office continued through 1898. During 1901, 1902 and 1903 he was engaged in building a railway and harbor for the Dunderland Iron Co., Ltd., of London, England, on the west coast of Norway, near the Arctic circle. During 1904 and 1905 he was retained as Superintendent of this work, during which time the plant has been completed for mining, concentrating and briquetting about twenty-five hundred tons daily of iron ore for shipment to England. In December 1905, he was made General Manager of the entire works.

ANDRUS, DANIEL HOLLAND, born Aug. 31, 1835, at Auburn, N.Y.; educated at Auburn and at Geneva, N.Y.; died Sept. 1, 1864.

Mr. Andrus held the position of Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals during 1857 and 1858. He was studying law when the Civil war broke out and left his studies to take the appointment of First Lieutenant, Company A, of the 50th Regiment of Engineers under Col. Charles B. Stuart. Owing to ill health, Mr. Andrus was obliged to resign from the army in the spring of 1863.

ARNOLDT, GEORGE, born Oct. 18, 1820, at Heidelberg, Germany; educated at the University of Heidelberg and the Polytechnic School at Carlsruhe; died April 17, 1893, at Rochester, N.Y.

Having graduated with honors, Mr. Arnoldt obtained a position with the German Government and was employed in the survey and construction of the sections of railroad between Heidelberg and Mannheim and Heidelberg and Frankfort. Arriving in New York about 1848, Mr. Arnoldt remained there one year, then proceeded to Rochester where he found employment with the nursery firm of Elwanger and Barry. He entered the department of the State Engineer of New York a few months later and was engaged on canal work from about 1850 to 1876. During his service with this department he held the positions of Second Assistant Engineer in 1862, Temporary Assistant in 1863, Second Assistant from 1864 to 1866, and Assistant from 1867 to 1876.

AVERILL, HENRY KETCHUM, JR., born March 26, 1830 at Plattsburg, N.Y.; educated at Plattsburg Academy. Member of Plattsburg Institute.

In 1851 Mr. Averill was Assistant Engineer on the Plattsburg and Montreal R.R. The same year he removed to Iowa and laid out a State road of about one hundred and thirty miles in length. For about eight years, beginning with 1852, he was County Surveyor on Clayton and Winnehiek counties, Iowa, and in 1853 was appointed U.S. Dept. Surveyor, and subdivided seven townships of public land. He returned to Plattsburg and opened a surveying office in 1863, and in 1868 made a complete survey of Chazy lake and flow-line, and laid out the dam. In 1869, and subsequently, Mr. Averill made hydrographic surveys for the United States Government on Lake Champlain; he also made many surveys of counties, towns, mines, woodlands and lakes in the Adirondack region, for individuals. He was appointed Topographic Engineer on the survey of the Champlain canal enlargement in 1870 and later Draftsman in the office of the Division Engineer for the eastern division. In 1871 he made the preliminary and location surveys for the Plattsburg waterworks and 1871 and 1872 was Leveler on the survey of the New York and Canada R.R., now the D. & H. In 1878 Mr. Averill was appointed Division Engineer of Adirondack Survey and also Engineer in charge of State land surveys, Clinton County.

BAERMAN, PALMER H., born Aug. 4, 1847, at West Troy, N.Y.; graduated from the Rensselaer Polytechnic, Troy, N.Y., 1867; died Sept. 18, 1897.

After graduating, Mr. Baerman entered the service of the New York and Oswego Midland R.R. where he remained two years; later with the New York Central one year; and then was village Surveyor of West Troy. He held the position of Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals in 1872, and was later Engineer-in-charge of the waterworks of the Hudson River State Hospital at Poughkeepsie, N.Y., for two and one-half years. He became Chief Engineer of the Water Works at West Troy, Johnstown, Richfield Springs, Cooperstown, Norwich, Sherburne and Lansingburg; Assistant Superintendent {original text has "Superintendant".} and Chief Engineer of the Troy Water Works and designed the Water Works for Amsterdam, Greene, Deposit, and Oneonta. In 1889 he was appointed Engineer of the Public Improvement Commission of Troy, N.Y., and served until 1890. His last position was City Engineer of Troy from 1893 to 1894.

BAGG, EGBERT, born Feb. 2, 1820, at Utica, N.Y.; educated at Hobart College, then known as Geneva College; died Nov. 18, 1885.

Mr. Bagg was First and Second Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals in 1853, 1854, 1855, 1861 and 1862, and was Assistant Engineer in 1870. He was First Lieutenant, Captain and Major of the 117th New York State Volunteers from 1862 to 1865, and was brevetted Lieutenant Colonel of United States Volunteers for gallant and meritorious service at Fort Fisher, N.C. Col. Bagg was City Surveyor of Utica, N.Y., for several terms, both before and after the war, and was Landscape Gardener and Superintendent of Forest Hill Cemetery for several years.

BARNES, JAMES, born in 1806, in Massachusetts; graduated from West Point Military Academy in 1829; died Feb. 12, 1869, at Springfield, Mass. Member of American Society of Civil Engineers.

After graduating, Gen. Barnes spend one year as Assistant Teacher at West Point, and from the following year to 1833 was on duty at Fort McHenry, Md., at Charleston, S.C., and at Fortress Monroe, Va. From 1833 to 1836 he was Assistant Instructor of Infantry Tactics at West Point. Retiring from the army, he entered the employ of the Western R.R., now a part of the Boston and Albany R.R., and served as Assistant Engineer, Chief Engineer and Superintendent. During this time he also served as Chief Engineer and Superintendent of the Seaboard and Roanoke R.R. from Norfolk, Va., to Weldon, N.C. About this time he became a member of the firm of Phelps, Mattoon and Barnes, of Springfield, Mass. He was engaged on the New York State Canals as Resident Engineer from 1841 to 1843 and from 1848 to 1859, and as Assistant Engineer 1851 to 1852. From 1853 to 1854 he was retained by the Russian Government as Consulting Engineer of the railroad from St. Petersburg to Moscow. In 1861 he became Colonel of the 18th Massachusetts Infantry and was in command of the defences of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., in the latter part of 1863. March 13, 1865, he was brevetted Major-General of Volunteers and mustered out of service January 15, 1866. He then returned to the service of New York State and was Deputy State Engineer in 1866 and 1867. Gen. Barnes was appointed, 1868, a member of a special U.S. Commission to examine and report on the road and telegraph line of the Union Pacific R.R. Co.

BARRETT, ALFRED, born ----------; died July, 1849, at Montreal, Canada.

Mr. Barrett was a native of New England. As a young man he joined the engineering force of the Erie canal, within a year after the beginning of that great undertaking. He rose rapidly, being ranked as an Engineer in 1821. This position he held, with a few intermissions, till 1837, when he became Resident Engineer, and from 1838 to 1843 he served as Chief Engineer. The most important work on the canal, with which he was connected, was the construction of the Lockport locks. During both the original building and the subsequent enlargement of these structures he held an important position in superintending their construction. Two men, John Bisgood and Thomas Evershed, who served as rodmen under Mr. Barrett at the time of enlarging these locks, later became prominent as engineers on the canals. He was also engaged upon the construction of the Welland canal and upon other works in Canada. He removed to Montreal, Canada, about 1843, where he spent the remainder of his life, being engaged on various public works. Mr. Barrett's son followed in his father's footsteps, being an engineer on the canals; and he in turn was followed by two sons who for years have been engaged on canal work.

BARRETT, ALFRED W., JR., born in 1829, at Lockport, N.Y.; educated at Military and Polytechnic School, Montreal, Canada; died in 1875.

For a time Mr. Barrett assisted his father on the public works of Canada. At some time in the early 'fifties he was one of a party of engineers on the survey of the Adirondacks. In 1854 he was appointed Second Assistant Engineer on the western division of the New York State canals and remained on that division until his death.

BARTOW, ANDREW ABRAMSE, born 1773, at Westchester, Westchester Co., N.Y.; died May 21, 1861 at West Farms, Westchester Co., N.Y.

Mr. Bartow was Engineer on the canals of New York State from 1817 to 1825. It has been claimed that he made the first discovery of "water lime" in this country, although the discovery of "water lime" or hydraulic cement was claimed by Canvass White and patented by him in 1820. The incidents attending this discovery are related elsewhere in this volume in connection with the building of the Erie canal.

BATES, DAVID STANHOPE, born June 10, 1777, near Morristown, N.J.; took an academic course under Rev. Mr. Witherspoon; died Nov. 28, 1839, at Rochester, N.Y.

Mr. Bates was Engineer on the New York State canals from 1817 to 1828, on the construction of the important work across the Irondequoit valley, the aqueduct over the Genesee river at Rochester, the combined locks at Lockport, and other works. He was appointed Principal Engineer of the canals of Ohio, and served from 1825 to 1839; at the same time he was Chief Engineer of the Louisville and Portland Canal Company. In 1829 he was appointed Chief Engineer in charge of the survey and location of the Chenango canal from Utica to Binghamton, and in 1830, to make the surveys for a canal from Rochester to Olean, now known as the Genesee Valley canal. In 1831 he made a preliminary survey for a railroad from Canandaigua to Rochester, and later constructed upon this route the Auburn and Rochester R.R.; he also located and constructed a railroad from Rochester to Carthage. His next appointment was as Engineer of the Niagara River Hydraulic Company. In 1834 Mr. Bates was engaged as Engineer-in-Chief by the State of Michigan to make examinations and surveys for the Erie and Kalamazoo R.R.

BEACH, CHARLES A., born May 26, 1823, at Pompey, N.Y.; educated at Pompey Academy; died Nov. 22, 1898.

Mr. Beach entered the State Engineer's Department at Syracuse in 1854, and remained in the service, with a few intermissions, till 1871. He was in charge of the construction of the De Ruyter reservoir in 1861. After this he was engaged for a time on the Chenango canal extension, and then became City Engineer of Binghamton. In 1882 Mr. Beach was appointed Division Engineer of the eastern division. He was inspector for the State during the construction of the New York, West Shore and Buffalo Railroad, and from 1893 to 1895 was Engineer-in-Charge on the construction of the Woodlawn reservoir, Syracuse, N.Y.

BEACH, CHAS. H., born 1819, at Kingsbury, Washington county, N.Y.; educated under the Rev. Dr. Eastman and at the Salem Academy; died in 1901, at Sandy Hill, N.Y.

Mr. Beach was first engaged on the New York State canals in 1848, and was Second Assistant Engineer from 1850 to 1852 and First Assistant Engineer from 1854 to 1856. Later he was clerk in the Commissary Department under Captain (afterwards Colonel) Martindale. From this office he went to the Paymaster General's office at Washington, and later was transferred to the U.S. Treasury and remained in the Treasury Department until 1869, when he was obliged to retire on account of ill health.

BEACH, HENRY THOMPSON, born June 25, 1844, at Salina (now Syracuse), N.Y.; educated at the Delaware Literary Institute, Franklin, N.Y.

Mr. Beach was in the service of New York State successively as Rodman, from 1869 to 1872, Leveler in 1873, Assistant Engineer from 1874 to 1875, and Assistant Engineer-in-charge from 1876 to 1880. In 1880 he was Assistant Engineer on the West Shore R.R. and in 1881 was Resident Engineer on the West Point residency of that road; the following year he was Assistant Engineer on the Jersey Shore, Pine Creek & Buffalo R.R., now part of the N.Y. Central, and Chief Engineer for the C.B.C. Mining Co. from 1883 to 1886. Mr. Beach was again in the State service as Resident Engineer from 1885 to 1888 and as Division Engineer from 1888 to 1892, retiring to private engineering practice from 1892 to 1896. He was appointed by the City Engineer of Syracuse as Assistant Engineer and served from 1896 to 1901, when he became Consulting Engineer in that Department, - the position he now holds.

BEACH, NELSON J., born Sept. 21, 1800, at Hebron, Conn.; educated at Litchfield, Conn., and at Lowville, N.Y.; died Feb. 22, 1876, at Watson, Lewis county, N.Y.

Mr. Beach's engineering career was begun in the survey of lands for several large land owners in northern New York. The earliest public work that he was engaged on was the survey of a highway through the wilderness, projected to run from Crown Point on Lake Champlain to Carthage, Jefferson county. He was one of the most active citizens favoring the building of the Black River canal and furnished the statistics on which the bill for its construction was based. In1846, he was elected to the Assembly and in the following year to the Senate, where he was distinguished as an advocate of the resumption of public works. He served as Canal Commissioner in 1848-1849, and in 1850 and 1851 as Canal Appraiser. While Commissioner he rendered efficient service in enlarging the Erie canal. In 1854 Mr. Beach was appointed Vice-President and Superintendent of Construction of the Hudson River R.R., from which position he resigned in 1855 to accept the appointment of Resident Engineer on the eastern division of the New York State canals, remaining on the canal work for two years, when he took charge of the abandoned Rome and Ogdensburg R.R. and close up its affairs. In 1862 he was appointed by Abraham Lincoln as Assessor of Internal Revenue for the counties of Jefferson, Lewis and Herkimer, continuing in this office for several years. Mr. Beach was appointed Canal Agent in 1873, and only a few weeks before his death prepared an exhaustive report to be embodied in the Canal Commissioner's annual report.

BEHN, J. FREDERICK, born Sept. 18, 1831, at Hamburg, Germany; educated at Polytechnic School, Carlsruhe, Germany, graduating with the degree of Mechanical and Civil Engineer.

Mr. Behn arrived at New York, November 11, 1853, and was Draftsman and Assistant Engineer from April 22, 1854, to March 31, 1856, and from 1860 to 1872 was Assistant Engineer in the New York State canal office at Buffalo. He was Division Engineer of the western division from February 1, 1872 to February 9, 1874. Mr. Behn has now retired from practice.

BISGOOD, JOHN, born in 1823 in Ireland; educated at Maynooth College, Dublin, Ireland; died at Rochester, N.Y., in 1885.

Mr. Bisgood served the State as an engineer for about forty years. He came to America in 1847 and for a few years was Superintendent of some public improvements at Des Moines, Ia. Later he was employed by the Leighton Bridge Works. In 1850 he was appointed Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals; from 1878 to 1890 he was Resident Engineer on the western division and from 1890 to the time of his death he was Division Engineer on the same division. The only break in Mr. Bisgood's long service on the State canals was during the Civil War, when he was with Company A, Third New York Cavalry.

BOGARDUS, OVA HOYT, born April, 1827, at De Witt, N.Y.; died January 13, 1895.

Mr. Bogardus began work on the New York State canals in 1844 and continued on the work about twenty years. He was connected with the construction of the D.L. & W.R.R., and was later Assistant Engineer on the Chicago and Southern R.R. From the beginning to the close of the work he was on the New York State Triangulation survey. He was employed by the Syracuse Water Board in building the intake works and the State dam at Skaneateles lake, from 1892 to 1894. From this time until his death Mr. Bogardus was again employed on New York State canal work.

BOGART, JOHN, born Feb. 8, 1836, at Albany, N.Y.; educated at the Albany Academy and at Rutgers College, graduating in 1853, with the degree of M.A. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers; also of Institution of Civil Engineers, London.

During his earlier years Mr. Bogart was engaged as engineer on the New York Central R.R.; he was on the enlargement of the Erie canal of New York State as Second Assistant Engineer from 1856 to 1858; and was Assistant Engineer on the construction of Central Park, New York City. From December, 1861 to July, 1866, he was in engineering service with the U.S. Army. During this time he was stationed at Fortress Monroe and was in charge of the fort at the Rip Raps, Va., besides seeing service at other points. In 1866 Mr. Bogart was Engineer in charge of construction, in 1870 Chief Engineer of the Park Commission of Brooklyn, N.Y., and from 1872 to 1877 was Chief Engineer of the Department of Public Parks, New York City.

Since 1877 he has been engaged as Engineer for many important enterprises, some of the more important being: the municipal works at New Orleans, Chicago, Nashville and Baltimore; designs of the parks at Albany, N.Y., the Public State Grounds at Nashville, the West Side parks of Chicago and the park system of Essex county, N.Y. He was Constructing Engineer of Washington Bridge, New York City; Consulting Engineer of the Niagara Falls Power Co., of the Atlantic Electric and Water Power Co., of the Rapid Transit Commission and of the New York State Board of Health.

During 1886 and 1887, Mr. Bogart was Deputy State Engineer under Elnathan Sweet. He was elected to the office of State Engineer and Surveyor of New York in the fall of 1887 and re-elected in 1889, serving four years. He is now general Consulting Engineer in New York City, and has been Consulting, Advisory or Expert Engineer for a number of railways and in various cases before the Courts. He is a member of various boards; was a delegate of the U.S. Government to the Congress of Navigation in Germany, 1902; member of permanent board for U.S. International Navigation Congresses; Lieutenant-General and Chief Engineer of the National Guard of New York.

BOND, EDWARD A., born April 22, 1849, at Dexter, Michigan; educated in the public schools of Michigan and at the Business College of Utica. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

From 1867 to 1870 Mr. Bond was in the employ of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western R.R. between Utica and Binghamton. In 1875 he was appointed Assistant to Chief Engineer Thomas W. Spencer of the Utica and Black River R.R., whom he succeeded as Chief Engineer upon the resignation of Mr. Spencer, which position he held until 1886. While Chief Engineer, Mr. Bond had charge of the building of the railroad from Louisville to Clayton and Ogdensburg. In 1886 he was appointed Chief Engineer and General Manager of the Carthage and Adirondack R.R. from Carthage to Benson Mines and the Oswegatchie river. Removing to Watertown, N.Y., in 1889, he became a member of the engineering firm of Hinds and Bond, and designed and executed many important engineering and public works in this and other states. Mr. Bond held the office of State Engineer and Surveyor from 1899 until May 10, 1904, when he resigned to accept his present position, Chairman of the Advisory Board of Consulting Engineers for the improvement of the New York State canals.

BREVOORT, B.H., born in 1847, in the town of East Fishkill, Dutchess county, N.Y.; educated at the Dutchess Academy, and at College Hill, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.

Mr. Brevoort at the age of fifteen was employed as Transitman on preliminary survey for the Boston, Hartford and Erie R.R. In 1867 he was employed on a division of the Croton Aqueduct, Department of New York City; next he was Assistant City Engineer of St. Paul, Minn., and leaving that office, accepted a position with the St. Paul and Chicago R.R. From 1869 to 1874, Mr. Brevoort was Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals. Later he entered the law office of Wm. C. Whitney and was admitted to the bar in 1886 and was afterwards appointed to a position in the office of the Corporation Counsel, for which he resigned to accept a position on the New York Aqueduct. Towards the completion of the work he located at Poughkeepsie and supervised street paving, and while engaged in this work, was appointed Chief Engineer of the Rosendale Water Company, constructing their works. He also made surveys and plans for the waterworks and for a stone arch bridge for F.W. Vanderbilt of Hyde Park, N.Y. He was chosen Chief Engineer of the Clove Valley R.R., and of the rehabilitating of the Clove Branch R.R.

BROADHEAD, CHARLES C., born Nov. 10, 1772, at New Paltz, Ulster county, N.Y.; died Sept. 10, 1852, at Utica, N.Y.

Mr. Broadhead began surveying under the instruction of W. Cockburn. In 1793 he laid out a large tract of land on the Black river for Desjardins and Pharoux, agents of a French company known as the Castorland Company. In 1816 he was appointed one of the three engineers in charge of preliminary surveys for the Erie canal, and was entrusted with the surveys of the eastern section, extending from Albany to Rome. Mr. Broadhead was one of the Commissioners who in 1817 with Wm. Jones, Morris S. Miller, E.S. Cozier and E.S. Barnum, ran the lines of the town of Utica, when it was set off from Whitestown. After this he retired to private life.

BROOKS, MELVIN MAIN, born July 14, 1851, at Clear Creek, Cattaraugus Co., N.Y.; educated at Ellington Academy, Chautauqua Co., N.Y.; died Jan. 11, 1895.

Mr. Brooks' first engineering work was on the Allegheny Valley R.R., begun April 6, 1869. In 1871 he was employed on the Syracuse and Chenango Valley R.R. Later in the year he entered the State service, being appointed Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals in 1874. He resigned from the service of the State during the latter part of 1876 and resumed railroad engineering.

BROWN, HURLBURT E., born July 2, 1831, at Portageville, Wyoming Co., N.Y.; educated at the Nunda Literary Institute, Nunda, N.Y.

Mr. Brown was engaged on the Erie R.R. and held the position of Second Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals from 1852 to 1861.

BURRUS, CHARLES D., born Dec. 13, 1834, at West Troy (now Watervliet), N.Y.; educated at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.

Mr. Burrus was Assistant in the City Engineer's office at Troy, N.Y., from 1856 to 1865. In 1866 he was Draftsman on the New York State canal survey of the upper Hudson and from 1867 to 1869 on the enlargement maps of the Eastern Division; from 1872 to 1873 he was Assistant Engineer, and Division Engineer's clerk from 1874 to 1875; from 1876 to 1878, he was employed in the office of the City Engineer at Albany. In 1879 Mr. Burrus was Assistant Engineer on the Adirondack Survey. From 1882 to 1885, Land Clerk in the State Engineer's office and from 1886 to 1888 Draftsman on maps of lands under water for the Land Commission. In 1890 Mr. Burrus was appointed Draftsman for the Troy Public Works Improvement Commission and served until 1892. The two years following he was Draftsman for the Gravity Supply survey for the Troy Waterways Commission and for the Troy Park Commission. From 1896 to 1900 he was again Draftsman on the New York State canal work and from 1901 to date on maps of land under water.

CHILDS, NOADIAH MOODY, born Dec. 20, 1806, at Stillwater, Saratoga Co., N.Y.; died Nov. 19, 1896, at Syracuse, N.Y.

In 1828 Mr. Childs began his career on the New York State canals, being engaged on the construction of the Oswego canal; in 1829 he was on the Oneida River Improvement, and in 1835 on the Chenango canal. He was then appointed Superintendent of the Oswego canal, which office he held until 1839, when he was appointed Resident Engineer on the Erie canal enlargement from Syracuse to Lyons, holding this position until 1841.

CHILDS, ORVILLE WHITMORE, born 1803 at Saratoga Springs, N.Y.; died Sept. 6, 1870, at East Philadelphia, Pa.

Mr. Childs began engineering work as a Chainman in 1820, steadily rising until he became one of the best-known of the early canal engineers. He was Engineer from 1828 to 1838 and Chief Engineer from 1838 to 1849 on the New York State canals, serving upon the construction of the Champlain and Oswego canals and upon the enlargement of the Erie canal, from the commencement to nearly the close of that work, with the exception of a few years, when he was engaged on a survey for a ship canal across the Isthmus of Nicaragua. In 1861 he removed from Syracuse to Philadelphia, Pa., and engaged in the building of sleeping-cars. Soon after his removal Mr. Childs was elected to the presidency of the Central Transportation Railway Company, in which position he remained until the time of is death.

CLARK, FRANK B., born Nov. 4, 1870, at Brookline, Mass.; graduated from Cornell University, receiving the degree of B.S.; died Oct. 29, 1899, in Nicaragua.

For several years Mr. Clark was engaged on the State land survey in northern New York. He was Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals in 1897 and 1898. Retiring from the service of the State, he opened an office at Fulton, N.Y., and a little later received an appointment with the Isthmian Canal Commission, being made chief of his party. He was drowned October 29, 1899, at Machuchu rapids, Nicaragua.

CLAUHARTY, OSCAR M., born Feb. 7, 1829, at Havana (now Montour Falls), N.Y.; educated at Montour Falls, N.Y.; received State Normal School certificate; died June 6, 1899, at Montour Falls, N.Y.

For a time, Mr. Clauharty was teacher in the public schools, and in 1861 began work on the New York State canals, being appointed to the position of Assistant Engineer in 1864, and remaining in the Department of the State Engineer and Surveyor until 1870. He next entered the U.S. Customs {original text has "Custom".} House at New York City and continued in the service of the Government until his death.

COOPER, JOHN ALDER, born in 1830, at Gloucester, England; educated at Gloucester, England.

Mr. Cooper came to this country in 1854 and entered the Division Engineer's office at Utica as Draftsman, and later became Assistant Engineer, serving as such from 1859 to 1869. In 1872 he was appointed Deputy State Engineer under Wm. G. Taylor, and after the expiration of his term of two years, entered the service of the Central Railroad of New Jersey.

COOPER, WILLIAM BRANTLEY, born Aug. 4, 1830, at Tallahassee, Fla.; educated at Hamilton College, graduating with the degree of A.B.; died Nov. 6, 1886.

Mr. Cooper entered the State Engineer's Department upon graduation, becoming First Assistant Engineer in 1854, and Resident Engineer of the eastern division in 1861. He held this position till 1865, when he went to Mexico and was in charge of the projected Vera Cruz, Mexico City R.R. He returned to the United States about two years later at the death of Emperor Maximilian, and again entered the service of the State, being Assistant Engineer till 1872, when he was appointed Division Engineer of the eastern division, serving as such for three years. Mr. Cooper was the patentee and manufacturer of "Cooper's Tubular Iron Bridges."

CROCKER, E.H., born Oct. 27, 1825, Laurens Co., S.C.; educated at Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., receiving the degree of C.E. and also a classical degree; died Jan. 4, 1897.

Mr. Crocker was Engineer in charge of a division on the construction of the Mobile and Ohio R.R. from 1852 to 1855. He held the position of Second Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals from 1856 to 1859 and 1863, First Assistant from 1860 to 1862 and 1867, and was appointed Division Engineer of the eastern division in 1868, which position he resigned February 2, 1872.

DUNNING, WILLIAM D., born Feb. 11, 1837, at Whitesboro, N.Y.; educated at the Utica Free Academy.

Mr. Dunning began work on the Erie canal at Rome, N.Y., in the spring of 1856 as Axeman under Thomas H. Bates, Resident Engineer; in the same year he was transferred to the Black River Improvement under E.W. Butler, Resident Engineer, and promoted to the rank of Rodman. In 1857 he was transferred to the Division Engineer's office at Albany, remaining until 1864, when he went to Syracuse on the middle division. From 1863 till 1874 he was an Assistant Engineer, but left the State's employ at the end of that time to engage in his present foundry business at Syracuse.

EVERSHED, THOMAS, born Feb. 30 {per original text.}, 1817, in Sussex, England; died Feb. 9, 1890.

Mr. Evershed came to this country in early youth and was soon afterward engaged upon the enlargement of the Erie canal. In 1849 he went to California and while there built a levee around the City of Sacramento in addition to constructing other works in California. On his return to the East he was engaged on the construction of the Rochester and Niagara Falls R.R., on the Erie canal, and also on the Grand Trunk R.R. in Canada, where, together with other works of importance, he built the celebrated high bridge across the Credit Valley. Returning to the United States, he was engaged in many railroad enterprises as engineer and contractor.

He was Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals in 1871, 1872 and 1875, Resident Engineer in 1852 and 1877, and in 1878 was appointed Division Engineer on the western division of the canals, retaining this office until his death. Mr. Evershed was the originator of the great Hydraulic Tunnel of Niagara falls. He was an artist of considerable talent and won many commendations for his paintings.

FARNUM, HENRY HARRISON, born May 10, 1808, at Litchfield, Conn.; educated at Albany Academy; died Oct. 11, 1879, at Port Jervis.

Mr. Farnum began engineering on the construction of the Delaware and Hudson canal and upon its completion was appointed Superintendent of the section which he had helped to build. Later he was appointed Assistant Engineer and remained with the company until 1838. From 1839 to 1843 he held the position of Resident Engineer on the New York State canals.

FAY, JOHN DOANE, born April 20, 1815 at Northampton, N.Y.; educated at Lowville, N.Y.; died June 6, 1895 at Rochester, N.Y.

At an early age Mr. Fay was associated with his brother-in-law, Alanson Sumner, and Hon. Stephen Clark of Albany, in constructing the Long Bridge over the Potomac. He was Resident Engineer on the New York State canals from 1841 to 1849. With O.W. Childs, in 1850, he was sent by Commodore Vanderbilt to make a survey for the proposed Nicaragua canal, which survey occupied one and one-half years. Mr. Fay held the office of Division Engineer on the western division of the State canals from 1852 to 1853, 1856 to 1860, and 1874 to 1875. From 1867 to 1873 he held the office of Canal Commissioner. He made the survey for the direct line of railroad from Rochester to Syracuse, and also made surveys for several railroads in the West.

FISHER, CHARLES HENRY, born June 10, 1835, at Lansingburg, Rensselaer County, N.Y.; died, Jan. 18, 1888. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Fisher was educated at the Lansingburg Academy and afterwards took a partial course at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, receiving the honorary degree of C.E. in June, 1882, in recognition of his successful service for nearly thirty years on the New York Central R.R. In 1853 he was employed on the Racine, Janesville and Milwaukee R.R.; from 1854 to 1857 on the enlargement of the Erie canal, being Second Assistant Engineer in 1856 and 1857. In 1858 Mr. Fisher became Principal of the Lansingburg Academy. Resigning in 1859 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the New York Central R.R. and served till 1868. In 1869 he became Chief Engineer of the Oswego and Lake Ontario Shore R.R., which position he held until January, 1869, when he was again appointed Chief Engineer of the New York Central R.R. In 1885 the company retired him on half pay, although he remained nominal Chief Engineer until his death. While in charge of this road the two additional tracks from Albany to Buffalo, the Geneva and Lyons R.R., the Syracuse Junction R.R., and the Buffalo Junction R.R., the depots at Albany, Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo, the Buffalo Stock Yards, the De Witt yards and shops and the Broadway crossing in Albany were constructed. Mr. Fisher was also Consulting Engineer for the Cantilever Bridge at Niagara.

FULLER, CHARLES L., born Sept. 15, 1830, at Ballston, N.Y.; studied engineering with his father, Col. Wm. Fuller; died Sept. 14, 1901.

Mr. Fuller removed from Ballston to Troy in 1851 and was in the employ of Wm. Barton. He entered the employ of Benjamin Turner, City Engineer of Troy, two years later. In 1856 he was Second Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals. He served three times as City Engineer of Troy, first, from 1859 to March, 1870; second, from May 1870 to 1875 and third from Nov. 1883 to June 1892. He was also Consulting Engineer for Cohoes, Watervliet, Lansingburg, Waterford and Green Island.

GEDDES, GEORGE, born at Fairmount, Onondaga Co., N.Y., Feb. 14, 1809; graduated at the Middletown, Conn., military school; died Oct. 8, 1883; son of James Geddes, the engineer making the first surveys for the Erie canal.

Although Mr. Geddes studied law, he did not apply for admission to the bar, preferring the profession of civil engineering. Among his first positions was that of Consulting Engineer on the Syracuse and Oswego railroad. In 1851, he made a survey, for the State, of the Cayuga marshes and in the next few years he made plans and had charge of the work of draining these marshes. He also made a geological survey of Onondaga county, built reservoirs in Syracuse and elsewhere, and devoted much time and study to investigating the subject of steam as a motive power on the canals. He engaged in various engineering enterprises in New York and other cities, and was an original member of the State Survey Commission, which position he filled until his death.

GEDDES, JAMES, born July 22, 1763, near Carlisle, Pa.; received his education in mathematics under a Mr. Oliver; died Aug. 19, 1838, at Geddes, N.Y.

In 1808 Mr. Geddes was intrusted by the Surveyor-General of New York State to explore the line of the proposed canal, and from that time till near the close of his life he was more or less continuously employed on the State canals. In 1816 he was appointed Engineer upon the Erie canal to take charge of the preliminary surveys from the Seneca river to within eleven miles of the mouth of Tonawanda creek; a year later he was directed to superintend the location of the middle division between Rome and Utica and was made Chief Engineer of the Champlain canal. Mr. Geddes was employed in 1822 by the State of Ohio to make the survey for a canal from the Ohio river to Lake Erie, and a year later was called by the State of Maine to survey the route of a canal from Sebago pond to tide-water at Westbrook. In 1827 he was employed by the General Government (associated with Mr. Roberts) in the location of the Chesapeake and Ohio canal and in 1828 was engaged upon the canals of Pennsylvania.

GERE, W.H.H., born Aug. 14, 1829, in Onondaga Co., N.Y.; educated at Syracuse and Homer.

Mr. Gere's connection with the State canals covers one of the longest periods on record, extending from 1848 to 1904, but his actual employment on the work was for about half of that time. During this period he was associated with much important work, gaining an enviable reputation early in his career by his construction of the Montezuma aqueduct. He was Second Assistant Engineer in 1851 and 1852, Assistant Engineer in 1854 and 1855, Resident Engineer in 1855 and 1856 on the western division, and from 1860 to 1866 on the middle division, Division Engineer from 1866 to 1868 and from 1894 to 1904 on the middle division. Besides his services for the State, he was employed by the Erie R.R. on the work of building double tracks from Deposit to Susquehanna; on the Great Western R.R., Suspension Bridge to Hamilton; on the original surveys of the Syracuse and Binghamton R.R., and he was for two years City Engineer of Syracuse. Since 1904 he has retired to private life.

GOODSELL, J. PLATT, born at Utica, Oneida Co., N.Y.; educated at the Utica Academy, completed studies in Mass.; died Nov. 1869. Member of New York State Institute of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Goodsell was first employed by the State under Holmes Hutchinson, on the enlargement of the Erie canal in 1840. He was appointed Second Assistant Engineer to 1846, and from 1850 to 1853 held the position of Resident Engineer. From 1853 to 1856 he was Chief Engineer of the Cape Fear and Deep River R.R. of North Carolina. From 1856 to 1860 Mr. Goodsell was Division Engineer on the eastern division of the New York State canals and from 1862 to 1866 held the same office on the middle division. Mr. Goodsell was elected State Engineer and Surveyor of New York State in the fall of 1865 and held office during 1866 and 1867.

GOODSELL, THOMAS, born at Whitestown, Oneida Co., N.Y.; educated at the Utica Academy; prepared for college at the Clinton Academy; died Sept. 1901, more than eighty years of age.

Mr. Goodsell's services on the canals of New York State were in the positions of Second Assistant Engineer, 1850 to 1852; First Assistant, 1855 to 1859; Second Assistant, 1860 and 1864; Assistant, 1867 to 1871; Resident Engineer of the middle division, 1872 to 1874; and Assistant again in 1875. He was also City Engineer of Syracuse; Resident Engineer on the Cape Fear and Deep River R.R. of North Carolina; Engineer and Manager of the Mariposa gold mine of California and of the Miridota copper mine of Lake Superior.

GRAY, GEORGE EDWARD, born Sept. 12, 1818, at Verona, Oneida Co., N.Y.; educated in the common schools and under private tutor. Honorary Member of American Society of Civil Engineers. Life Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, Eng.

Probably Mr. Gray's connection with the New York canals dates back farther than any other engineer now living. He commenced his engineering career on the Black River canal of New York in 1839. From 1850 to 1853 he was Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals. During his early years Mr. Gray held the positions of Assistant Engineer on the construction of the New York and Harlem R.R. from White Plains to Dover Plains, on the Utica and Schenectady R.R., and on the Mohawk Valley R.R. From May 1853, to May, 1865, he was Chief Engineer of the New York Central R.R. and has also been Chief Engineer of the Albany bridge; Consulting Engineer of the Central Pacific R.R. of California; Chief Engineer of the Southern Pacific R.R. of California, Arizona and New Mexico, and or the Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio R.R. to El Paso, Texas. He is now a consulting engineer and San Francisco, Cal.

GREENE, DAVID MAXSON, born July 8, 1832, in Brunswick, Rensselaer County, N.Y.; educated at the district schools, Adams Seminary and at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, at Troy, N.Y., graduating in 1851 with the degree of C.E.; died November 9, 1905, at Adams, Jefferson County, N.Y. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society of Naval Engineers, the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the International Association of Navigation, and a number of others.

Immediately upon graduation, Mr. Greene was appointed Assistant Instructor and later Professor of Geodesy and Topographical drawing in the Institute. He resigned his position in the spring of 1852, having been appointed Chainman on the enlargement of the Erie canal. In September, 1853, he was engaged as Assistant and as Division Engineer on railroads in Ohio and Indiana. On account of illness he returned east in 1854, and in 1855 again became an instructor in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. In 1861 he was appointed Third Assistant Engineer in the U.S. Navy, where he participated in several engagements and was also, during his term of service, Assistant Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy and Instructor in Steam Engineering at the U.S. Academy at Newport. Resigning from the Navy in 1869, he returned to Troy and engaged in general engineering practice. About 1871 he was elected Engineer of the New York State Commission to test devices to substitute steam for animal power on the canals. In January, 1874, Mr. Greene was appointed Division Engineer of the eastern division of the canals and in July of the same year was appointed Deputy State Engineer, holding office until 1877, when he again returned to Troy and resumed general practice. In August, 1878, he was elected a Director of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, which position he held until he resigned in 1891. During that time he was engaged in general engineering practice extending through eleven states, the District of Columbia and Canada and served as an expert witness on hydraulic and steam engineering in various courts. Mr. Greene was the author of a number of text books pertaining to his profession.

HALL, GEORGE THOMAS, born April 6, 1845, at Malta, Saratoga Co., N.Y.; graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy in 1868 with the degree of C.E.; died June 2, 1881, at New York City. Member of American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Hall commenced his engineering career as Transitman on the New York, New Haven and Willimantic R.R. under George E.W. Serrel, Chief Engineer. He left this company to go to Canada, where he held a responsible position in the building of one hundred and eighty miles of the North Shore R.R. under General Stuart. Later he was engaged in making the first surveys for the Gilbert Elevated R.R. Mr. Hall was appointed Assistant Engineer on the Champlain canal, holding the position from 1874 to 1876. At the end of his association with State work he went to New York as Division Engineer of the Manhattan Elevated Railway Company, retaining this position until his death.

HANKS, BYRON MURRAY, born May 29, 1826, at Henrietta, Monroe county, N.Y.; educated at Monroe Academy, Genesee Wesleyan Seminary and Dartmouth College, graduating from Dartmouth in 1849 and receiving the degree of M.A. several years later; died May 21, 1877, at Albion, N.Y.

Mr. Hanks began his engineering career on the Genesee Valley canal, and later studied law with J.D. Husbands, of Rochester, being admitted to the Bar in 1852. He removed to Fond du Lac, Wis., where he remained one year and then resumed engineering in the employ of the Covington and Louisville R.R. Returning to Rochester in 1855, he reentered the service of the State, holding the positions of Second Assistant Engineer in 1855, First and Second Assistant in 1856, First Assistant from 1857 to 1860, and Resident Engineer on the Chenango canal extension from 1866 to 1868. He was Resident Engineer on the western division of the Erie canal from 1872 until his death and was Acting Division Engineer for a time in 1875.

HARTWELL, DANIEL R., born in 1816, at Stillwater, Saratoga Co., N.Y.; educated at the Lansingburg Academy, Lansingburg, Rensselaer Co., N.Y.; died Feb., 1903, at Saranac, Mich.

Mr. Hartwell entered the State canal service in the early 'forties. He was Second Assistant Engineer 1850-53, First Assistant 1854-59, and Second Assistant again in 1860. After leaving the canals, he removed to Michigan where he was engaged in farming for many years.

HARTWELL, ORVILLE C., born in 1813, at Stillwater, Saratoga Co., N.Y.; educated at the Jonesville Academy, Jonesville, Saratoga Co., N.Y.; died Sept. 15, 1859 at Saranac, Mich.

Mr. Hartwell began work on the New York State canals about 1840. While in this service he was First Assistant Engineer 1850-52, Resident Engineer 1852-54, and Division Engineer 1856-57, all on the middle division. In 1854 he was Chief Engineer of the Southern Central R.R. - at that time called the Lake Ontario, Auburn and New York R.R. After leaving the State work, he removed to Michigan, where he soon died.

HARTWELL, REUBEN A., born in Saratoga Co., in 1835.

In 1853 Mr. Hartwell was Chainman on the Auburn, Sodus Bay and Ithaca R.R., and in 1856 was Rodman on the Fayetteville and Orvill feeders, middle division, Erie canal. Later he was transferred to the Erie canal, being on a section from Higginsville to Chittenango, and in 1858 he served as Transitman with a final survey party, Charles Truesdell in charge. In 1859 he went west. Returning to New York State, he was appointed Leveler on the Chenango canal extension in 1864, resigning this position in 1867 to accept one as Assistant in charge of a division of the B.H.E.R.R. In 1870 he was Transitman on the Owasco lake survey and after its completion he went west again; in 1881 he was in the employ of the B.H.E.R.R. In 1882 he became an Assistant Engineer on the Champlain canal, continuing there during Silas Seymour's term of office, and in 1895 he received the appointment of inspector on contract No. 24, at Mohawk, of the $9,000,000 improvement.

HASBROUCK, ROBERT M., born 1824 at Albany, N.Y.; educated at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa.; received the degree of A.M. and C.E.; died in 1887.

Mr. Hasbrouck began his work as a civil engineer on High Bridge at New York City and followed his profession continuously until his death. In 1875 he held the position of Assistant Engineer and in 1884 of Division Engineer on the eastern division of the New York State canals. For nearly eleven years Mr. Hasbrouck was City Engineer of Troy, N.Y.

HERSEY, JOHN C., born Aug. 26, 1847, at Lowell, Mass; educated at Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University, receiving the degree of B.S. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers until compelled by ill health to give up scientific work.

Mr. Hersey was Assistant Engineer on exploration and construction of the Northern Pacific R.R. and on preliminary survey, location and construction of the Ware River R.R., now a branch of the Boston and Albany. From 1872 to 1876 he was Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals and later was Engineer for contractors on the Welland canal construction. Being incapacitated for active work by a stroke of paralysis Mr. Hersey entered the Customs Department of the United States and for a number of years has been Chief Clerk in charge of a division and Acting Deputy Naval officer.

HUTCHINSON, HOLMES, born January 5, 1794, at Port Dickinson, Broome Co., N.Y.; died suddenly February 21, 1865, at Utica, N.Y.

Mr. Hutchinson was appointed an Enginner on the Erie canal of New York State in 1819. He held this position until 1835, when he was made Chief Engineer, performing the duties of this office during the enlargement of the canal, until 1841. He surveyed and made the original "blue line" maps for the Erie, Champlain, Oswego, Black River, Chenango, Crooked Lake, and Chemung canals. The Chemung canal was completed under Mr. Hutchinson's direction for an amount less that his estimates. His plans for locks on the Chenango and on the enlarged Erie were used in their construction. He had charge of the Cumberland and Oxford canals in Maine, and of the Blackstone in Rhode Island and Massachusetts, and was frequently employed in locating and defining valuable tracts of land in Oneida and other counties of New York State. In 1825 Mr. Hutchinson was engaged as Chief Engineer by the Connecticut River Company, upon the recommendation of Gov. De Witt Clinton of New York, to survey a route of water communication from Barnet, in the State of Vermont, to the City of Hartford, Conn., a distance of two hundred and nineteen miles. He was one of the directors of the Utica and Syracuse R.R. until its consolidation the New York Central R.R.; he was also a director of the Syracuse and Oswego R.R., of which he was for some years President, and had a managing interest in the Ontario and St. Lawrence Steamboat Company, and in the Bank of Utica.

JERVIS, JOHN BLOOMFIELD, born Dec. 14, 1795, at Huntington, L.I.; died Jan. 12, 1885, at Rome, N.Y. Member of American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Jervis began his career in 1817 under Benjamin Wright on the Erie canal and in 1819 was promoted to the position of Resident Engineer, remaining on the canal till near its completion. He served as Assistant Engineer with the Delaware and Hudson Canal Co. in 1825 and became Engineer-in-Chief in 1827. In 1830 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Albany and Schenectady R.R. and later of the Schenectady and Saratoga R.R., retiring to accept a position as Chief Engineer of the Chenango canal. In 1835 he made preliminary surveys and estimates for enlarging the Erie canal. Mr. Jervis became Chief Engineer of the Croton aqueduct in 1836; in 1846 he was Consulting Engineer of the Cochituate Water Works; in 1847 he was made Chief Engineer of the Hudson River R.R.; in 1850 of the Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana R.R.; in 1851 Engineer of the Chicago and Rock Island R.R., and in 1854, its President. He returned to Rome in 1858 and lived a retired life for three years, from which he emerged to become Superintendent and Engineer of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago R.R. Retiring in 1866 from active railroad management, Mr. Jervis aided in organizing the Merchant Iron Mill at Rome in 1868. In 1872 he was elected Secretary and held the office of Trustee of this company until death.

JUDAH, THEODORE DEHONE, born March 4, 1828, at Bridgeport, Conn.; educated at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.; died Nov. 2, 1863, at New York. Member of American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Judah's first work was under S.W. Hall of the Troy and Schenectady Railroad Co. He afterwards was engaged, under James Laurie, on the New York, New Haven, Hartford and Springfield R.R., and on the Connecticut River R.R. In 1850 Mr. Judah was appointed First Assistant Engineer on the middle division of the New York State canals and served until 1852; later he was Engineer of the railroad down the gorge of the Niagara river to Lewiston, a work that was considered a remarkable feat in those days and resulted in his engagement as Chief Engineer of the first California railroad - the Central Pacific. It was on this railroad that he achieved his greatest reputation, not only as an engineer but as a promoter. At the time of his engagement with the Central Pacific R.R. he was in the employ of the Buffalo and New York R.R.

KALEY, JOHN R., born at Albany, N.Y.; graduated from Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N.J., in 1870; took special course at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y., class of 1873.

In 1873-4 Mr. Kaley was Leveler on construction of the four tracks, N.Y.C. & H.R.R.R. In 1875 he entered the New York State service as Chainman; he was soon promoted to Rodman and in 1876 to Assistant Engineer, acting as such till 1880. In 1880 he was on construction work on the Texas Pacific R.R., and in 1882-3 was employed as Engineer in charge of constructing dam, canal and foundations for the Hudson River Water Power Co., at Mechanicville, N.Y. In 1884 he again entered the State service, being Assistant Engineer, Resident Engineer (acting) and Division Engineer on the eastern division till 1888. In 1889 he was Special Agent in the State Department of Public Works; in 1889-90 Assistant Engineer and Engineer-in-charge for the Troy Public Improvement Commission; in 1891 making survey and estimates for a railroad from Canaan, Conn., to Mill River, Mass.; and in 1891-2 member of the Troy Engineering Co.

From 1892 till the present time Mr. Kaley has been connected with the State engineering department, serving as Assistant Engineer in 1892-6 and 1903-4, as First Assistant in 1897-1902 and as Resident Engineer since 1904. Nearly all of Mr. Kaley's work on the canals has been in the eastern division, especially along the Champlain canal.

KELLY, JOHN P., born Aug. 10, 1854, at Troy, N.Y.; educated at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, graduating with degree C.E.; died Sept. 24, 1898.

Shortly after Mr. Kelly's graduation he became Assistant City Engineer of Troy which position he held for two years; he then became Assistant Engineer in the Federal employ at Clarendon on the White river, and later became U.S. Department Surveyor. After several years in the West he returned East and entered the service of New York State, being an Assistant Engineer from 1886 to 1888, Resident Engineer of the eastern division from 1888 to 1891, and Division Engineer of the same division from 1891 to 1894. After leaving the State service Mr. Kelly became interested in contract work.

KIMBALL, BRUCE JEROME, born March 21, 1828, at Rutland, Jefferson Co., N.Y.; educated at the Watertown Academy; died March 4, 1891, at Fulton, Oswego Co., N.Y.

At the age of nineteen Mr. Kimball began the study of engineering under the direction of his brother, Morris S. Kimball, at Fulton. With the exception of about six years, he was connected with the Oswego canal in various positions from 1847 to 1876, being Assistant Engineer from 1871 to 1876.

KIMBALL, MORRIS SYLVESTER, born April 25, 1815, at Rutland, Jefferson Co., N.Y.; educated at Rutland and Watertown; died Oct. 26, 1875.

Mr. Kimball entered the employ of the State in 1836, at the age of 21, and continued in its service, with the exception of less than a month, to the day of his death. He held the position of First Assistant Engineer from 1850 to 1851; Resident Engineer from 1851 to 1863; Assistant Engineer from 1863 to 1868 and from 1872 to 1875; Division Engineer from 1868 to 1872, most of the time on the middle division. His first work was on the Genesee canal, next on the Chenango canal, but the greater part of his work was connected with the Oswego canal, where the good condition of the locks and dams still attests his care and ability as an engineer.

LASHER, WINFIELD SCOTT, born Nov. 22, 1849, at Germantown, N.Y.; graduated from Rutgers College in 1871; died Oct. 16, 1899, in New York City.

Mr. Lasher was employed on the New York State canals from 1872 to 1882, being Assistant Engineer from 1876 to 1878, Resident Engineer of the eastern division from 1878 to 1880, and Division Engineer of the same division in 1880 and 1881. Afterward, for a period of twelve years, he was one of the Assistant Engineers in the Dock Department of New York City.

LATIMER, EDEN BYRON, born May 2, 1833, at Amenia, Dutchess Co., N.Y.; educated at Poughkeepsie, N.Y.; died March 7, 1891.

Mr. Latimer served as Second Assistant Engineer on the Erie canal from1854 to 1857. At a later date he was employed upon railroad construction in central New York, but his health failing he was finally compelled to give up engineering.

LEDLIE, JAMES HEWETT, born April 14, 1832, at Utica, N.Y.; educated at Union College; died August 15, 1882, at New Brighton, Staten Island.

Gen. Ledlie served on the New York State canals as Second Assistant Engineer in 1854 and First Assistant during 1855 and 1856. At the beginning of the Civil war, he was commissioned Major of the 19th New York Infantry, which in the autumn of 1861 became an artillery regiment. In 1862 he was made Chief of Artillery on the staff of Gen. John G. Foster and on December 24, was promoted to Brigadier-General of Volunteers. Declining a commission in the regular army, he resigned from the volunteers on January 23, 1865, to reenter his profession, taking the entire contract for the construction of bridges, trestles and snow-sheds on the Union Pacific R.R. At a later date he built the breakwater of Chicago harbor and was engaged in railroad construction in the West and South. At the time of his death Gen. Ledlie was Chief Engineer of railways in California and Nevada and President of the Baltimore, Cincinnati and Western Railroad Construction Co.

LEUTZÉ, TREVOR McCLURG, born at Dusseldorf, Germany, in 1851; died at Albany, N.Y., October 14, 1901. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Coming to America at an early age, Mr. Leutzé engaged in civil engineering. In 1886 he became connected with the New York State engineering department, being an Assistant Engineer from 1887 to 1895, First Assistant from 1896 till April 1, 1899, when he was appointed Division Engineer of the eastern division continuing in that position until his death. From April, 1900, to February, 1901, he served also as one of the two Consulting Engineers in directing the preliminary surveys for the Barge canal.

LIGHTHALL, JOHN A., born Sept. 8, 1833, at Albany, N.Y.; educated at the Albany Academy.

Mr. Lighthall began work on the New York State canals in 1850, but resigned in 1852 to take a position on the construction of the Illinois Central R.R. He was also engaged on the preliminary survey of what is now the line of the New York, Ontario and Western R.R. In 1853 and from 1854 to 1855 he was engaged in the construction of the second track of the direct line of the N.Y.C.R.R., from Syracuse to Rochester. Mr. Lighthall returned to the service of the State in 1855, being Second Assistant Engineer from 1855 to 1857 and First Assistant in 1857 and 1858. He had charge of the work on the Cayuga and Seneca canal through Seneca Falls and at the foot of Cayuga lake until 1858, when the work was stopped for lack of funds. Mr. Lighthall then resigned his position and went into business in Chicago. He is now engaged in business at Syracuse, N.Y., where he has been for many years.

LUDDINGTON, EDSON L., born 1844, at De Witt, Onondaga Co., N.Y.; graduated from San Jose Institute, California, with the degree of C.E.; died July 15, 1885, at Tower, Minn.

Mr. Luddington was Assistant Engineer on the canals of New York State from 1868 to 1875. In 1875 he was appointed City Engineer of Syracuse, N.Y., and served until 1882. For two years, Mr. Luddington held an appointment under the U.S. Government and was engaged at various times in surveys of public lands in Arizona, Minnesota and Dakota.

McAPLINE, CHARLES LEGRAND, born ----------, Albany, N.Y.; educated at Albany Academy; died January 11, 1884, in New York City. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

For many years Mr. McAlpine was in the engineering department of the State of New York and filled various positions of responsibility in the reconstruction and enlargement of the Erie and other canals of the State. From 1869 to 1872 he held the position of Resident Engineer, being in charge of the construction of the Chenango canal extension. He was also in charge of the construction of several railroads, and his last active work was the direction of location and construction of the Albemarle and Raleigh Railroad in North Carolina, now a part of the Atlantic Coast line.

McAPLINE, WILLIAM JARVIS, born April 30, 1812, at New York City; died February 16, 1890. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. First American elected to membership in the Institution of Civil Engineers of Great Britain. A member of the New York Chamber of Commerce and of nearly all the scientific societies in America.

In 1827, Mr. McAlpine began civil engineering as a pupil of John B. Jervis, with whom he remained until 1836. While with Mr. Jervis, he was Assistant Engineer on the Mohawk and Hudson R.R. and the Schenectady R.R. from 1830 to 1831 and for the St. Lawrence Improvement Company in 1832. From 1833 he was engaged on the Chenango canal and the enlargement of the Erie canal, and succeeded Mr. Jervis as the Chief Engineer of the eastern division of the New York State canals, holding the position of Resident Engineer from 1838 to 1846. From 1846 to 1849 he was Chief Engineer of the dry dock at the Brooklyn navy yard; he also designed and built the Albany water works in 1850 and 1851, and the Chicago water works from 1851 to 1854.

Mr. McAlpine was elected to the office of State Engineer and Surveyor in the fall of 1851 and continued in office until August 1, 1853. From 1850 to 1857 he served as Railroad Commissioner. On his retirement from this office he became Chief Engineer and Assistant to the President of the Erie R.R., resigning from this position to accept an appointment as Chief Engineer and Vice-President of the Galena and Chicago R.R. He was also a member of the Board of Engineers which reported on the improvement of the Montreal harbor and in 1860 he became Chief Engineer of the Third Ave. bridge over the Harlem river in New York City. From 1860 to 1886 he was engaged on many important public works consisting principally of railroads, bridges and city water-supply systems.

MILLS, FREDERICK C., born Nov., 1804, in Saratoga Co., N.Y.; received his education in the Public Schools; died in 1850.

Mr. Mills was engaged on the New York, Pennsylvania and the Delaware canals. He was Engineer on the New York State canals from 1830 to 1835, and Chief Engineer from1835 to 1843, making the preliminary surveys on one division for the Erie canal enlargement, besides doing other important work in connection with this and the lateral canals that were being built during his service with the State.

MILLS, HIRAM P., born Jan. 2, 1806, in Saratoga Co., N.Y.; educated in the Public Schools; died Jan. 6, 1902, at Mount Morris, N.Y.

Mr. Mills held the position of Resident Engineer on the New York State canals from 1837 to 1842.

MORSE, JAMES OTIS, born 1818, at Cherry Valley, N.Y.; graduated from Hamilton College, 1836; died March 8, 1883. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Morse's first engineering work was on the Genesee Valley canal and later he was on the Utica division of the enlargement of the Erie canal, holding office as Resident Engineer in 1848. He was employed on the location of the New York and Erie R.R. between Port Jervis and Binghamton; was First Assistant to W.J. McAlpine {Original text has "McAlpin".} in building a dry dock at the Brooklyn navy yard, which was completed in 1851; and in building the Savannah water works. Mr. Morse purchased the business of Walworth, Nason and Guild, 76 John Street, New York City, and continued the engineering department of this business in connection with that of heating and ventilating. Among the works constructed under his superintendence were the pipe bridge at the Croton dam, the Watertown gasworks, the Willoughby street bridge, Brooklyn, and the Spring street bridge, Saratoga.

NEARING, W. SCOTT, born Oct., 1829, in Onondaga Co., N.Y.; educated in the town of Clay, Onondaga Co.

In the spring of 1848 Mr. Nearing began his career as Chainman on Surveys for a railroad from Syracuse to Rochester, and from 1849 to 1852 he was Surveyor for a proposed railroad from Sodus Bay to Auburn and Binghamton. He entered the State Engineer's department in 1849 and served on the New York State canals in the Syracuse office until 1852, when he resigned his position as Second Assistant Engineer to act as Assistant Engineer on the Syracuse and Binghamton Railroad and from 1853 to 1854 on the Utica and Black River R.R. He returned to the service of the State and served as First Assistant Engineer on the Erie canal between Canajoharie and Herkimer, from 1854 to 1856, when he again resigned and served on the improvement of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, Wisconsin, from 1856 to 1859. From January, 1864, to the present time, Mr. Nearing has been Superintendent of the coal mines at Morris Run, Pa., and during the years of 1883, 1884 and 1885, was Chief Engineer on the building of the Beech Creek, Clearfield and Southwestern R.R.

NEWKIRK, WILLIAM H., born March 17, 1842, at Amsterdam, N.Y.; received his education at an Academy and at a private school.

From 1860 to 1861 Mr. Newkirk was engaged on the Erie canal as Rodman. Leaving the service of the State, he was employed on the survey, estimates, etc., of the Albany and Troy Horse R.R. in 1862; in the engineering department of the New York Central R.R. in 1863, and on the improvement of the Mexican railroad between Vera Cruz and the City of Mexico in 1865. From 1868 to 1871 he was in the Division Engineer's office at Albany, from which he was transferred to the Erie canal office at West Troy, being Assistant Engineer from 1873 to 1874. Mr. Newkirk was with the U.S. Engineering Department under Gen. Wilson at Oswego in 1874. He has also been engaged on estimates for proposed N.Y. State ship canals, on the New York Central R.R. between Rochester and Buffalo, on the West Shore R.R., on a railroad in Kentucky, and in private work in Syracuse and other places.

NORTHWAY, WILLIAM RUFUS, born Nov. 3, 1834, at Utica, N.Y.; educated at Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., graduating with the degree of C.E. Member of American Society of Civil Engineers and of Western Society of Engineers.

Mr. Northway was engaged on the Black River and Utica R.R. from 1853 to 1854, resigning to accept a position as Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals, from which he retired in 1857 to serve with the Dubuque and Pacific R.R. In 1858 and 1859 he was on the Hannibal and St. Joseph R.R. From 1861 to 1867 he was Engineer in the Quartermaster's Dept. of the U.S. Army. Retiring from the army in 1867, he was employed on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas R.R., until 1871. In 1872 he was in charge of the double-tracking of the Mexican Central R.R. and in 1873 was employed on the New York Central R.R. From 1874 to 1876 Mr. Northway was engaged on the construction of the Rochester, N.Y., waterworks; from 1878 to 1879 on the Wabash R.R.; and from 1880 to 1890 with the City Engineering Dep't of Chicago, serving three years of this time as City Engineer. Most of the time from 1890 to 1898 he spent in private practice and from 1898 to the present time has been with the Engineering Dep't of Chicago.

NORTON, JOHN V., born Nov. 7, 1840, at Plainville, Onondaga Co., N.Y.; graduated from Union College in 1862 with the degree of C.E.; died Feb. 11, 1879.

In 1863-4 Mr. Norton was in the army as Assistant Paymaster. In 1870 he was appointed Assistant Engineer on the middle division of the New York State canals, from which he retired in 1872 to go to Peru with Chas. A. Sweet, and engage in the construction of the Simond Oroya railroad up the Andes mountains. Mr. Norton returned to the United States in 1873 and was reappointed Assistant Engineer on the New York canals in 1875, serving as such until 1876. In 1878 Mr. Norton went to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to construct a large dry dock. He contracted yellow fever and died while engaged in this work.

PARKER, ELY SAMUEL, born 1828, on the Indian reservation at Tonawanda, N.Y.

Mr. Parker was a full-blooded Seneca Indian and was Chief of the Six Nations. After receiving a thorough common-school education he took a course in civil engineering and removed to Galena, Ill., where he formed an intimate personal acquaintance with Ulysses S. Grant. He was in the service of the eastern and western divisions of the New York State canals, as Second Assistant Engineer from 1850 to 1851 and First Assistant from 1851 to 1855. After the Civil war broke out, he joined the Federal forces, becoming a member of Gen. Grant's Staff, and was appointed Asst. Adjutant-General with the rank of Captain in May, 1863; subsequently he acted as Secretary to Gen. Grant until the close of the war. While serving as Secretary, he was present at Lee's surrender and prepared the first engrossed copy of the terms of capitulation. After the close of the war, 1866, he received a commission as First Lieutenant U.S. Cavalry and was promoted through the several grades until he became Brigadier General of the United States Army, March 2, 1867. Resigning in 1869, Gen. Parker was appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs, from which he retired in 1871 to resume his profession of civil engineering.

PERKINS, GEORGE ROBERTS, born, May 3, 1812, Otsego Co., N.Y.; died Aug 22, 1876, at New Hartford, Conn.

Mr. Perkins was self-educated. In 1830 he was employed on the slack-water survey of the Susquehanna river. He was teacher of mathematics at Clinton, N.Y., from 1831 to 1838, when he became Principal of Utica Academy. On the opening of the New York State Normal School in 1844, he was chosen Professor of Mathematics, and in 1848 became Principal. Mr. Perkins resigned his position as Principal in 1852, on being assigned to superintend the Dudley Observatory. From 1858 to 1862 he was Deputy State Engineer of New York, and in the latter year (1862) was elected a Regent of the University of the State of New York.

PHELPS, CHAUNCEY L., born Feb. 13, 1820, at Remsen, Oneida Co., N.Y.; died April 2, 1903.

Mr. Phelps was on the original surveys for the following reservoirs: North lake, South lake, Woodhull, Twin lake and Forestport, and was also engaged on the original survey for the Black River canal feeder. He held the positions of Assistant Engineer in the years 1869, 1870, 1871, 1875, 1879, 1880 and 1882, and was Resident Engineer in 1881, - all on the eastern division. Mr. Phelps was also with the Michigan Land and Iron Company of Marquette, Mich., and a land surveyor in the Black river country.

POWELL, ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, born July 25, 1813, at Schenectady, N.Y.; educated at Hobart College, Geneva, N.Y.; died Sept. 10, 1884, at Syracuse, N.Y.

Mr. Powell held the position of Resident Engineer on the New York State canals from 1839 to 1846. For many years he was in business in Syracuse.

RAMSAY, HENRY, born 1808, at Guilderland, Albany Co., N.Y.; educated at the Lancaster School and at the Albany Academy; died in 1886.

Upon finishing his education, Mr. Ramsay became a teacher in Albany. After some years spent in various duties, he became a proficient Draftsman, Map Maker and Civil Engineer, and in 1842 was appointed Chief Engineer of the Mohawk and Hudson R.R. between Albany and Schenectady, and laid out the present course of the N.Y.C.R.R. at Schenectady, to avoid the inclined plane at that terminus. Subsequently he became Assistant Engineer on the Erie canal enlargement, and in 1853 was appointed State Engineer and Surveyor, to fill the unexpired term after the resignation of William J. McAlpine. After his retirement from that office he was occupied in several important surveys of a public nature, and finally, after spending his last few years in quiet release from all public duties, he died in 1886.

RICHMOND, DENISON, born Sept. 11, 1839, at Lyons, N.Y.; educated at the old Lyons Academy; died Oct. 4, 1888.

Mr. Richmond was the eldest son of State Engineer Van Rensselaer Richmond. He received an appointment to the western division in 1861, and excepting a brief period in the Pennsylvania oil fields, remained with the State until his death. In 1868 he entered the middle division, where he rose from Draftsman to Resident Engineer in 1874, filling that office till he became Division Engineer in 1883, - a position he held until his death. Mr. Richmond patented several devices for hauling boats into locks, which are still in daily use on the canals.

RICHMOND, VAN RENSSELAER, born Jan., 1812, at Oxford, N.Y.; educated at Oxford Academy.

In 1833, at the age of twenty-one, Mr. Richmond entered the service of the State as Chainman on the Chenango canal. He served as Resident Engineer from 1837 to 1849; First Assistant Engineer in 1859, and Division Engineer of the middle division from 1852 to 1856. He prepared plans for the enlarged canal from Jordan to the Cayuga marshes, including the aqueduct across the Seneca river, which for many years thereafter was known as the "Richmond aqueduct." After finishing these plans in 1850, he resigned to accept the position of Division Engineer of the Syracuse and Rochester (direct) railroad. He accomplished a noteworthy feat while he was with this company - the building of a bridge, nineteen hundred feet long, across these same marshes and but a short distance from the canal aqueduct. The piers for this bridge were build upon a foundation formed by a raft of heavy logs, stretching for some eighteen or nineteen hundred feet across the marsh. This was probably the first structure of any size built in the country upon such a plan of foundation. For over fifty years the bridge has been in successful operation. Both the aqueduct and the bridge were considered engineering achievements for their day.

Mr. Richmond was elected to the office of State Engineer and Surveyor of New York State in the fall of 1857 and re-elected in 1859. He was again elected to the office in 1867 and re-elected in 1869, thus serving as State Engineer for eight years - the longest period for any man holding that office.

ROBERTS, DE WITT C., born 1818 at Whitesboro, N.Y.; educated at Union College, Schenectady, N.Y.; died 1871.

Mr. Roberts was Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals in 1852, having served earlier with his father, Nathan S. Roberts, on the enlargement of the Erie canal.

ROBERTS, NATHAN S., born July 28, 1776, at Piles Grove, N.Y.; self-educated; died Nov. 24, 1852, at Lenox, Madison Co., N.Y.

In 1816, Mr. Roberts, in company with Judge Wright of Rome, surveyed and located the section of the Erie canal from Rome to Montezuma. He served as Resident Engineer in charge of the work from Rome to Syracuse in 1818; located the Erie canal between Clyde and Rochester from 1819 to 1822; located and constructed the canal down the Clyde river and through the Cayuga marshes; and was in charge of constructing the locks at Lockport and the canal from Lockport to Lake Erie from 1822 to 1825. He also made a survey of a route for a ship canal around the falls of Niagara.

Mr. Roberts was appointed Chief Engineer of the canal from Pittsburg to Kiskiminetas {original text has "Kaskiminetas".} in Pennsylvania and of the Pennsylvania canal. In 1828 he received an appointment from the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company as a member of the Board of Engineers. Later he built the bridge across the Potomac at Harpers Ferry. He was in the employ of the Federal Government from 1830 to 1832 as Chief Engineer in charge of an examination of the Muscle Shoals of the Tennessee river in Alabama, with the view of opening a ship canal around the shoals. From 1835 to 1841 he was associated with John B. Jervis and Holmes Hutchinson on the enlargement of the Erie canal, ranking as Chief Engineer.

ROGERS, ALBERT BRAINERD, born May 28, 1829, at Orleans, Mass,; graduated from Yale Scientific School in 1853; died May 4, 1889 at Waterville, Minn. Member of American Society of Civil Engineers.

The year following his graduation, Mr. Rogers was instructor in engineering at the Yale Scientific School. He was appointed Assistant Engineer in 1855 and second Assistant from 1856 to 1857 on the eastern division of the New York State canals. In 1861 he took charge of the construction of the Iowa and Minnesota division of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul R.R., building from Calmar to Algona, Iowa, and from Mason City to Austin. He was also on the Hastings and Dakota road. From 1863 to 1872 Mr. Rogers was Resident and Assistant Engineer on the various lines now owned by the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Company. As Chief Engineer he had charge of the building of the Minneapolis and St. Louis R.R. to Albert Lea. From 1878 to 1880 he was Chief Engineer of the Hastings and Dakota R.R. In 1881 he began explorations for the Rocky Mountain division of the Canadian Pacific R.R., of which division he had charge until its completion in 1885, when he again engaged in exploration in Montana and Wyoming.

SCHENCK, MARTIN, born Jan. 24, 1848, at Palatine Bridge, N.Y.; educated at Union College, Schenectady, graduating with the degree of C.E. Member of Municipal Engineering Association of New York city.

Mr. Schenck began his engineering career in 1869 with the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway in Kansas and the Indian Territory, as Rodman and Leveler. From 1871 to 1872 he was engaged in general engineering; in 1873 was Leveler on the N.Y.C. & H.R.R.R.; from 1874 to 1881 was engaged in general engineering and contracting; in 1882 was Engineer for one of the contractors on the West Shore R.R.; from 1883 to 1885 he was Inspector and Leveler in the New York State canal department; from 1886 to 1891 Assistant Engineer in charge of the Hudson river improvement and of canal lock lengthening. Mr. Schenck was State Engineer and Surveyor of the State of New York from 1892 to 1894, and after his term of office, he became Consulting Engineer to the State Board of Health. From 1895 to 1899 he filled the position of City Engineer of Troy, N.Y. On his retirement from the position of City Enginner of Troy to the present time, Mr. Schenck has been Chief Engineer of the Department of Parks of New York City.

SEARLES, WILLIAM HENRY, born June 4, 1837, at Cincinnati, O.; graduated in 1860 from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N.Y., with the degree of C.E. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers and of the Engineers Club of Cleveland.

In 1860, after graduation, Mr. Searles became Assistant Engineer on the location of the Marietta and Cincinnati R.R., resigning in 1861 to become Assistant Engineer in the Military Service Department of Ohio. From 1862 to 1864 he was Professor of Geodesy and Railroad Engineering at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, from which position he retired to accept a position as Assistant Engineer on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago R.R. and the Allegheny river bridge, etc.; from 1865 to 1866, and from 1866 to 1867 as principal Assistant Engineer of location and construction on the Allegheny Valley R.R. Mr. Searles was Chief Engineer of the Ind. N. & S. Ry. from 1870 to 1871. Leaving the employ of this road he was appointed Chief Engineer, Corps No. 7, on the location of the New York, West Shore and Chicago R.R., serving in 1872 and 1873. Later he became a Consulting Engineer, with an office in New York. In 1876 he was appointed Division Engineer on the western division of the Erie canal, having charge of re-survey, new bridges and repairs to Bird Island pier. Retiring from State work after 1878, he became Consulting Engineer to American Pier and Column Co. of New York from 1879 to 1880. From 1880 to 1882 he was Division Engineer of West Shore R.R., on construction of the West Point tunnel and the line from Haverstraw to Poughkeepsie. From 1883 to 1884 he was Chief Engineer of the Williamsport & Clearfield R.R., and also of the Beech Creek R.R.; from 1885 to 1891, Consulting Engineer at Cleveland, O.; and from 1891 to 1892, General Manager of the Essex Iron Co. Mines, Port Henry, N.Y. Mr. Searles is the author of "Field Engineering' and "Railroad Spiral."

SEYMOUR, HORATIO, JR., born Jan 8. 1844, at Utica, N.Y.; graduate of Sheffield Scientific School, of Yale University, Class 1867, the degree of M.A. being conferred some years later. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Seymour began engineering work with the City Surveyor of Utica, N.Y., and was on the survey of the Canastota and Cazenovia R.R. in Madison county, N.Y. In 1871 he was appointed Assistant Engineer of the Seneca Falls and Sodus Bay R.R., and afterwards held the position of Assistant Engineer on the Wellsboro and Lawrenceville R.R., and Chief Engineer of the Cowanesque Valley R.R. In 1873 he made a survey of the Antrim mine of the Fall Brook Coal Co., and in 1874 a topographic survey of the lands of the Buffalo Coal Co., in Pennsylvania.

Mr. Seymour was appointed Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals December 1, 1874, and was elected to the office of State Engineer and Surveyor of New York State in the fall of 1877, and reelected in 1879. In 1882 he went West to take charge of lands of the Michigan Land and Iron Company in Michigan. Mr. Seymour is at present a general practising enginner at Utica, N.Y.

(Since the preparation of this sketch, Mr. Seymour has died - Feb. 21, 1901.)

SEYMOUR, NORMAN, born ----------, at Stillwater, Saratoga Co., N.Y.; died in 1860, at Stillwater, N.Y.

Mr. Seymour was engaged for several years in laying out the Erie railroad along the Delaware river from Port Jervis to Deposit, under the direction of Hezekiah C. Seymour and Gen. Silas Seymour. On account of ill health he was compelled to retire and engage in farming and land surveying in his native town. He was expert authority on the location of the lines of the Saratoga, Kayaderosseras and Apple patents, and testified in important actions where such lines were in question. Mr. Seymour was First Assistant Engineer on the eastern division of the New York State canals in 1857 and 1858 and later was Superintendent of the Champlain canal.

SEYMOUR, SILAS, born June 20, 1817, at Stillwater, Saratoga County, N.Y.; educated at the Fredonia Academy.

In the spring of 1835 Mr. Seymour obtained a situation as Axman on one of the engineering parties engaged in making the first surveys for the New York and Erie R.R.; soon after he was promoted Rodman in another party and in the latter part of the year was appointed Assistant Engineer in charge of a part of the work; in 1838 he was made Division Engineer. He organized and became Chief Engineer of the Dunkirk and State Line R.R. About 1851 he became Chief Engineer and was for some time General Superintendent of the Buffalo and New York City R.R., extending from Hornellsville to Buffalo, and he designed and constructed the bridge across the Genesee river at Portage. Subsequently he became connected with the construction and equipment of some of the most important railroads in the country.

Mr. Seymour was elected State Engineer and Surveyor of the State of New York in 1855 and again in 1881, serving through the years of 1856, 1857, 1882 and 1883. In 1858 he established himself as Consulting Engineer in New York City. He was appointed Chief Engineer of the Washington and Alexandria R.R. and constructed a bridge across the Potomac. In 1863 he was appointed Consulting Engineer of the Washington aqueduct and afterward Chief Engineer, and in the winter of 1863-4 was Consulting Engineer of the Union Pacific R.R. The High Bridge over Dale Creek Canon, near the summit of the Black Hill range of the Rocky Mountains, was designed by Mr. Seymour. He was also connected as Consulting Engineer with several important railroads.

SMALLEY, EDWARD DELAVAN, born Aug. 24, 1842, in Saratoga Co., N.Y.; educated at the Troy High School.

In 1861 Mr. Smalley obtained a position on the Albany and Susquehanna R.R., then in process of construction, and continued on the work and other railroads for six years. In 1867 he accepted the position of Division Engineer on the Ionia and Lansing R.R. in Michigan. Upon the completion of this road he was engaged in locating the Marshall and Coldwater R.R., and in constructing the Detroit and Bay City R.R. The following year, 1872, he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Grand Rapids, Greenville and Alpine road. When work was suspended on that road, he removed to Utica, N.Y., and was engaged as an Engineering Expert in several important suits. In 1875 he was called to verify certain measurements and estimates of Horatio Seymour, Jr., the engineer in charge of the canals at Utica. In 1877, having formed a partnership with G. Edward Cooper, architect, the firm of Cooper and Smalley designed and erected several large public buildings in central New York. Mr. Smalley was appointed Deputy State Engineer and Surveyor by Horatio Seymour, Jr., in 1878, serving through the four years of Mr. Seymour's administration, and in 1882 he was retained in office by Silas Seymour, and served two years with him. Since leaving the State's employ, Mr. Smalley has been engaged on waterworks, sewers, and private work, and is at present located at Matteawan, N.Y.

SMITH, DE WITT C., born 1852, at St. Johnsville, N.Y.; graduated from Union College in 1875, with the degree of C.E.; died Oct. 6, 1901.

Mr. Smith was engaged in private practice until 1880, when he became engineer on the construction of the West Shore R.R., remaining until 1882 when he returned to private practice, which in 1890 he gave up in order to design and construct a system of sewers for Fort Plain, N.Y. From 1892 to 1893 he was Engineer for the General Electric Company of Schenectady, N.Y., and in 1893 was appointed City Engineer of Schenectady. In 1894 Mr. Smith became Resident Engineer on the eastern division of the New York State canals and was promoted to Division Engineer in the same year, which position he held until 1899. He was a member of the Board of Water Commissioners of the City of Schenectady from1896 to 1901.

SOULE, HOWARD, born Dec. 8, 1829, at Sennett, Cayuga Co., N.Y.; received a common school and academic education at Auburn, N.Y. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers since 1866.

Mr. Soule was engaged on preliminary surveys of railways from Auburn to Ithaca and Lake Ontario, and on the surveys for draining the Cayuga marshes, from 1847 to 1853, and was Second Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals from 1854 to 1856. From 1856 to 1858 he was in charge of railway construction from Auburn to Lake Ontario; from 1858 to 1861 in charge of the work of draining the Cayuga marshes; in 1862 and 1863 he made a survey for gunboat locks on the middle division of the Erie canal, serving from 1863 to 1866 as Assistant Engineer on the canals. Mr. Soule also served as Resident Engineer of the middle division from 1866 to 1872, and as Division Engineer from 1872 to 1874. In 1874 he was appointed City Engineer of Syracuse, N.Y., serving two years, and afterwards, for twelve years, he was a contractor in designing and constructing iron bridges, in constructing about seventy miles of the West Shore R.R., in raising the locks and banks of the Welland canal in Canada, and in lengthening locks on the Erie canal. He was Consulting and Designing Engineer on the construction of the Syracuse waterworks from 1890 to 1894, and from 1894 to 1902 he was in private practice as a Consulting Engineer. Mr. Soule retired from practice in 1902.

SPRAGUE, JOSEPH WHITE, born Jan. 18, 1831, at Salem, Mass; prepared for college at the Latin Grammar School of Salem under Oliver Carlton; graduated from Harvard in 1852 with the degree of A.B., supplemented in 1855 by the degree of A.M.; died May 22, 1900, at Vallombrosa, Italy.

Before graduating Mr. Sprague was for a short time engaged in making solar calculations for the United States Nautical Almanac and for one year was Instructor in the highest mathematics in the engineering department. From 1854 to 1862 he acted as Engineer on the enlargement of the Erie canal with the exception of the time required to make the preliminary survey for the Chesapeake and Albemarle canal, through a portion of the Dismal Swamp of Virginia. Mr. Sprague served as Second Assistant Engineer on the New York canals from 1858 to 1862. In 1858, representing the Board of Trade of St. Louis, he investigated the obstructions of navigation of the Mississippi river caused by the pier of the railroad bridge at Rock Island. Retiring from the employ of the State in 1862 he became Civil Engineer on the Ohio and Mississippi R.R., with which he remained until elected, in 1866, President of the Ohio Falls Car and Locomotive Company of Jeffersonville, Ind., which position he left in 1888 and the remainder of his life was spent in traveling in Europe and Asia.

SWEET, CHARLES ADELBERT, born Dec. 10, 1838, at Hinmansville, Oswego Co., N.Y.; educated at Falley Seminary, Fulton, N.Y. Member American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Sweet was employed on a preliminary survey of the Marquette and Ontonagon R.R. in 1858. In 1860 he entered the service of the State of New York and worked on the enlargement of the Cayuga and Seneca canal. In 1863 he was Assistant Engineer on the gunboat lock survey of the New York State canals, and in 1864 he was appointed Assistant to Chief Engineer McDougall on the survey for an interoceanic ship canal from San Blas and Bayano river, Isthmus of Panama. Returning from the Isthmus in June of the same year, he reentered the service of the State on the Chenango canal extension. In 1865 he accepted the post of Division Engineer in the location and construction of the Imperial Mexican R.R. from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. At the collapse of the government of Emperor Maximilian Mr. Sweet returned to this country, and in 1867 was appointed Assistant Engineer on the middle division of the New York State canals, remaining until 1871. Later, in 1871, he became Assistant Chief Engineer of the Callao, Lima and Oroya R.R. over the Peruvian Andes. In 1874 he again entered the service of the State as Division Engineer of the middle division, retiring in 1878 to accept the position of Consulting Engineer to the Emperor of Brazil. In 1881 he became Chief Engineer of the Mexican Central Railway; in 1884 Chief Engineer of the Beach Creek and Coal Mountain Company; in 1886 Assistant Engineer of the Kansas City and Sabine Pass RR., and in 1889 of the Victoria and Temuco R.R. for the Chilian Government. After being engaged for a year on this work, which failed for want of capital, he was appointed Chief Engineer to build a railroad for the Chilian Government, but owing to the revolution under President Balmaceda this effort also failed, and Mr. Sweet returned to the United States and accepted a position as Assistant City Engineer of the City of Syracuse, later being appointed City Engineer. On account of poor health, he has now retired from active practice.

SWEET, ELNATHAN, born Nov. 20, 1837, at Cheshire, Berkshire Co., Mass.; graduated from Union College, Schenectady, in 1859, with the degree of C.E.; died Jan. 26, 1903, at Albany, N.Y. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Sweet's first work in engineering was performed as Deputy Surveyor under Ward B. Burnett, Surveyor-General of Nebraska. He soon returned to his home in New York State and was employed as Assistant Engineer in various railway enterprises in the vicinity of Stephentown, Rensselaer Co. During 1864-68 Mr. Sweet was at Franklin, Pa., engaged in the engineering development of oil wells, coal mines, etc. Removing to Chicago in 1869, he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Rock Island and Quincy R.R., now a part of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy system. In 1871 he was made Superintendent, as well as Chief Engineer; and at this same time he was Consulting Engineer for the Rockford Central and the Cairo and St. Louis railways. From 1872 to 1875 he was engaged with James R. Young in railway construction.

In 1875 Mr. Sweet was appointed by Gov. Tilden, of New York, as Expert Engineer to the Commission to investigate alleged canal frauds. He was appointed Division Engineer on the eastern division of the New York State canals in 1876; resigning in 1880, he was again engaged in railway construction with his former partner, James R. Young. In the fall of 1883 he was elected to the office of State Engineer and Surveyor of New York and reelected in 1885. Upon retiring from office after 1887, he practiced as a Consulting Engineer, as was soon made President of the Canton Bridge Co., and at one time was Receiver of the Lebanon Springs R.R. Co. In 1900 he again served the State, being President of the Advisory Commission of Engineers, appointed by State Engineer Bond to advise in the conduct of surveys for a thousand-ton barge canal. Mr. Sweet's last and most important public service was as a member of the New York Water Storage Commission.

SWEET, SYLVANUS HOWE, born Aug. 8, 1830, and Hinmansville, Oswego county, NY.; graduated from Falley Seminary, Fulton, N.Y., 1850; died Nov. 17, 1899.

Soon after his graduation, Mr. Sweet was appointed assistant under Col. Orville W. Childs on a survey for an interoceanic ship canal through Nicaragua. Returning he accepted a position upon the New York State canals and in 1853 was appointed Second Assistant Engineer. From 1854 to 1859 he was First Assistant Engineer and in 1861 was Principal Assistant Engineer on the New York Harbor Encroachment Survey. Mr. Sweet was appointed Deputy State Engineer under Wm. B. Taylor in 1862 and again under Van Rensselaer Richmond in 1868, serving from 1862 to 1864 and from 1868 to 1871. In 1873 he was elected State Engineer and Surveyor of New York State, holding office during 1874 and 1875. He was also the Chief Engineer for the State on the Hudson River improvement, Engineer of the Commission for the construction of the Capitol at Albany, Chief Engineer of the Albany waterworks, of the projected Maryland and Delaware ship canal, and of the Commission for the construction of the Broadway Arcade Railway. He was Consulting Engineer on many other important enterprises. Mr. Sweet was the author of the Documentary History of the Canals.

TAINTOR, WILLIAM NOYES, born May 8, 1870, at New York City; educated at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and Columbia University School of Mines, graduating from the latter in 1894; died April 8, 1898, at New York.

In 1896, Mr. Taintor made preliminary surveys and estimates and prepared plans for the improvement of the first section of the Oswego canal. He was appointed Assistant Engineer in September, 1897, on the canal improvement work and assigned as Engineer in charge of contract No. 21, middle division, which was eight and one-half miles in length and in the vicinity of Oneida. He was also Engineer in charge of the construction of the Canaseraga culvert of the Erie canal in December, 1897.

TALCOTT, WILLIAM HUBBARD, born April 7, 1809, at Hebron, Conn.; studied engineering with John B. Jervis; died Dec. 8, 1868, at Jersey City. One of the founders of the American Society of Civil Engineers and was on the Board of Direction until his death.

From 1830 to 1837 Mr. Talcott was engaged on surveys for railroads, becoming Engineer and Superintendent of the Mohawk and Hudson R.R. In 1837 he entered upon canal engineering in New York State, and for four years was Constructing Engineer of the Genesee Valley canal. He was also Resident Engineer on the Erie canal enlargement at Fort Plain for four years. In 1845 Mr. Talcott accepted a position as Superintendent and Engineer of the western division of the Morris canal in New Jersey and in 1846 became Chief Engineer and Superintendent of the whole canal, continuing as such for the rest of his life; he was elected President of the company in 1864. He was a director of the Second National Bank and of the Provident Institution for Savings of Jersey City, and for many years was President of the Patent Water and Gas Pipe Co., and was one of the founders and a director of the Thomas Iron Co. of Pennsylvania.

TAYLOR, WILLIAM BURDICK, born Feb. 27, 1824, at Manchester, N.Y.; educated at Utica, N.Y.; studied engineering in his brother's office; died Feb. 1, 1895.

Mr. Taylor was appointed Leveler on the Erie canal of New York State in 1848, was made Second Assistant Engineer in 1850, First Assistant in 1852, and two years later was appointed Resident Engineer, serving in that capacity till 1860. From 1860 to 1862 he held the position of Division Engineer on the eastern division of the canals. In the fall of 1861 Mr. Taylor was elected to the office of State Engineer and Surveyor of New York, was re-elected in 1863, and was again elected to the office in 1871, thus filling the position for six years. After 1874 he severed his connection with the State canal work. He also served two terms as City Surveyor of Utica, N.Y.

THOMAS, DAVID, born 1776, in Montgomery County, Pa.; died 1859 in Cayuga County, N.Y.

Mr. Thomas removed to the vicinity of Aurora, Cayuga County, in 1805. He began work on the State canals in 1817 and became prominent among the early engineers. He was appointed Chief Engineer of the Erie Canal west of Rochester and remained in the State service until 1830. He subsequently became principal Engineer of the Welland canal, Canada. Mr. Thomas was distinguished as a florist and pomologist, and by his writings rendered great service to scientific agriculture.

TRACY, JAMES G., born Oct. 4, 1837, at Albany, N.Y.; educated at Syracuse and at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.; died Sept. 13, 1903.

After graduating at Troy, Mr. Tracy engaged in railroad work and was associated, as Division Engineer, with railroads in Kentucky, Indiana and Minnesota. He was engaged upon the New York State canals as Second Assistant Engineer in 1861, and again upon the improvements during the years 1896, 1897 and 1898. A large part of Mr. Tracy's work was in private practice at Syracuse, N.Y.

TRUESDELL, CHARLES, born 1833, at Camillus, Onondaga Co., N.Y.; educated at the academies of Onondaga and Madison counties; died April 23, 1894, at Germantown, Pa. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

At the age of eighteen Mr. Truesdell began his professional career under the late John McNair in locating a railroad from Fort Niagara to Chippewa on the Canadian frontier, and in the construction of the railroad from Lewiston to Niagara Falls. He was next associated with George Geddes in the service of New York State on surveys for the removal of the bar in the Seneca river at Jack's reef. In 1853 he was engaged upon the enlargement of the Erie canal, subsequently having charge of some important works on the canals, among them new channel for Canandaigua river outlet, extensive dredging of Seneca river, the high embankment across the Montezuma marshes and the Seneca river aqueduct. He continued in the service of the State for many years, holding the position of Second Assistant Engineer during the period 1856-62, Assistant Engineer, 1863, 1867-8 and 1874-7, and was appointed by the Governor to superintend the development of the salt wells of Montezuma. As Assistant Engineer Mr. Truesdell was in charge, 1874-7, of the construction of the State dam at the outlet of Cazenovia lake, of the completion of the New Oneida Lake canal, and of repairs to dams on the Oswego river and Chenango canal reservoirs and feeders. Mr. Truesdell was Engineer for several corporations and railroads in this state and in other states of the Union. In 1891 he was appointed Assistant Engineer upon the extensive improvement of the harbor of Philadelphia under Major C.W. Raymond, retaining this position until his death.

TUBBS, JOSEPH NELSON, born Sept. 24, 1832, at Esperance, Schoharie Co., N.Y.; educated at the State Normal College, Albany, N.Y.. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, of the American Water-Works Association, of the New England Water-Works Association.

For twenty-eight years Mr. Tubbs was connected with the New York State canals, either as Engineer or as General Inspector. From 1856 to 1869 he was Assistant Engineer and from 1869 to 1872 he was Resident Engineer of the western division. For a number of years and until recently he was General Inspector for the Superintendent of Public Works. Mr. Tubbs spend eighteen years in designing and operating waterworks at Rochester, N.Y., and for five years he was Consulting Engineer and expert at Syracuse, Genesee, Albion, Dryden, Geneva and many other places in this and in other states.

VAN ALSTYNE, HENRY ARTHUR, born Oct. 9, 1869, at North Chatham, Columbia Co., N.Y.; educated at Nassau Academy, Marshall Seminary Preparatory School and Union University, being graduated in 1893, with the degree of C.E. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

During 1892 and 1893 Mr. Van Alstyne was employed as Assistant City Engineer of Schenectady, N.Y., and in 1893-4 he was Engineer-in-charge of constructing a system of sewers in Fort Plain, N.Y. In 1894 he entered the State engineering department, serving as Leveler and Assistant Engineer. Leaving the State's employ in 1897, he accepted the position of Engineer and Superintendent for the Furnaceville Iron Co., at Rochester, N.Y. In 1898 he resigned this position to accept one with the Union Bridge Co., at Athens, Pa.

In 1899 Mr. Van Alstyne returned to the employ of the State, being appointed First Assistant Engineer. In the same year he was promoted to Resident Engineer and in 1901 to Division Engineer of the eastern division. He held this position till May, 1904, when, on the resignation of Hon. Edward A. Bond, Governor Odell appointed Mr. Van Alstyne State Engineer and Surveyor, to which position he was elected for a term of two years on Nov. 8, 1904.

VAN BUREN, JOHN D., JR., born August 8, 1838, in New York City; educated at private schools, at Harvard University, and at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute of Troy, N.Y., receiving the degree of C.E. in 1860. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, of the American Society of Naval Engineers, of the Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, of the New York Bar, and of the Military Order, Loyal Legion.

Mr. Van Buren was Assistant Engineer on the Croton Aqueduct, Department of New York City, from 1860 to 1861. At the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the Engineering Corps of the U.S. Navy and was on duty in the Gulf of Mexico, the Bureau of Steam Engineering, the Peninsula and James river campaign, and later at the U.S. Naval Academy for four years as Assistant Professor of Natural Philosophy and Engineering. In 1868 he resigned his commission of First Assistant Engineer (Lieutenant) and entered the service of the City of New York as Assistant Engineer in the Bureau of Sewers, and later as Assistant Engineer in the Department of Docks under Gen. Geo. B. McClellan. In 1875 he was a member of the Tilden Commission to investigate the State canals. Mr. Van Buren was elected to the office of State Engineer and Surveyor of New York State in the fall of 1875, serving in the years of 1876 and 1877. Since that time he has been engaged in private practice.

WATSON, WILLIAM STUART, born March 4, 1827, at Dumfries, Scotland.

Mr. Watson began his engineering career in 1843 on the Ohio canals, and in 1848 he entered the service of the State of New York on the Genesee Valley canal. In 1850 he became Assistant Engineer on the Erie canal enlargement, from which he resigned in 1851 to accept a position as Assistant to Chief Engineer William Wallace of the Buffalo and Lake Huron R.R. In 1852 he was Assistant to Chief Engineer Roswell G. Benedict on the Great Western Railway of Canada; in 1853, Chief Engineer of the Baltimore and Pittsburg R.R.; from 1854 to 1868, Chief Engineer on several railroads of California. Mr. Watson was Chief or Consulting Engineer of nearly all of the large mining canals of northern California. His greatest achievements have been in hydraulic mining works.

WHIPPLE, SQUIRE, born Sept. 16, 1804, in Worcester Co., Mass.; educated at the academy at Hartwick, Otsego Co., at Fairfield, Herkimer Co., N.Y., and at Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., graduating in 1830; died 1888. Honorary member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Whipple was Rodman and Leveler upon the Baltimore and Ohio R.R. from 1830 to 1832. From 1833 to 1836 he was engaged on the Erie canal enlargement under Chief Engineer Holmes Hutchinson. In 1836-37 he was employed upon the eastern division of the New York and Erie R.R. as Resident Engineer. While not actively engaged in engineering, he manufactured twenty or thirty leveling instruments and several transits and theodolites, all of which proved correct and satisfactory in use. About 1840 Mr. Whipple designed and constructed a model of a scale for weighing boats of three or four hundred tons upon the enlarged Erie canal and subsequently built, by contract, the first enlarged weigh-lock for that work. This scale proved satisfactory and was the model for future weigh-locks.

In the same year, 1840, Mr. Whipple successfully designed and constructed over the Erie canal his first iron truss bridge, for which he obtained letters patent, and subsequently he built a large number of these iron, arch-truss bridges, of seventy to one hundred feet span, over the Erie canal. In 1852-53 Mr. Whipple built a wrought and cast iron bridge of 150 feet span upon the then Albany Northern, now the Delaware and Hudson, which was in constant use for thirty years, and is believed to have been the oldest iron railroad bridge of considerable span in this country, if not in the world. In 1872 letters patent were granted to Mr. Whipple for a lift-bridge, having a counterpoised floor suspended from an elevated stationary truss bridge, and movable vertically by means of a system of sheaves, cables and shafting, whereby the flooring could be raised to the truss chords for the passage of boats in the waterway beneath, and lowered to near the water surface for the transit of land traffic. In 1873-74 he built the first patent lift-bridge over the Erie canal at Utica, and later others were built at Rochester and Syracuse.

WHITE, CANVASS, born, Sept. 8, 1790, at Whitestown, Oneida Co., N.Y.; educated at Fairfield Academy; died in 1834.

Mr. White's first engineering work was on the Erie canal in 1816 under Judge Benjamin Wright. He continued engineering on the New York State canals until 1824. During this time, in the autumn of 1817, he went to England to examine and study the canals of that country. After his return from England, he discovered and patented hydraulic cement. His achievements in this and other engineering matters are told elsewhere in this volume. From 1824 to the latter part of the summer of 1826, he was Chief Engineer on the Union canal; was appointed Chief Engineer of the Delaware and Raritan canal in 1825 and of the Lehigh canal in 1827. About this time Mr. White was also Consulting Engineer for the Schuylkill Navigation Company and for the Delaware and Chesapeake canal. He became President of the Cohoes Company for the development of water-power at Cohoes upon its incorporation March 28, 1826.

WHITFORD, DAVID EARL, born Nov. 30, 1829, in the town of Northumberland, Saratoga Co., N.Y.; educated at the Schuylerville Academy.

Mr. Whitford enjoys the distinction of having served the State longer than any other Engineer. He was appointed to a place in the Engineering Department of the New York State canals in March, 1852, and has held positions continuously - ranking from Chainman to Division Engineer - in this Department since then to the present time, excepting the years 1878, '79, '80, and '81 and parts of 1854 and 1894. He was Second Assistant Engineer, 1856-62; Assistant, 1862-78; Division Engineer, 1882-84; Assistant, 1884-89; Resident Engineer, 1889-94; Assistant, 1895-date, all of his labors having been on the middle division. Aside from State work he was Assistant Engineer on the Southern Central Railroad - Auburn to Lake Ontario - part of 1854; Engineer for contractors on Quebec harbor, Canada, in 1878; Assistant to City Engineer, Syracuse, N.Y., in 1879-80; Assistant Engineer on the construction of the West Shore railroad in 1881, and Inspector during a part of 1894 on the construction of the Woodland reservoir at Syracuse, N.Y.

WHITFORD, OSCAR F., born July 15, 1833, in the town of Northumberland, Saratoga Co., N.Y.; educated at the Schuylerville Academy, and at Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., graduating in 1858, having taken the classical course and a partial engineering course under Professor Gillespie; returned to college in 1861 and took a post-graduate course in chemistry, receiving the degree of A.M.; died May, 21, 1902, at Saratoga Springs, N.Y. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

After graduating from college in 1858, Mr. Whitford went to Mississippi, where he taught school and sold machinery until 1861. In 1862 he was a volunteer in the United States Army for four months, to escort and protect emigrants crossing the western plains and Rocky mountains. After this service he engaged in gold mining enterprises in Idaho and California. He left this work to accept the chair of Mathematics and Civil Engineering in the Peoples College at Havana (now Montour Falls), N.Y., teaching there during the years 1864-65-66. During a period of ten years - 1867 to 1876, inclusive, - he was in the New York State Engineer's Department, being Assistant Engineer from 1871 to 1876, and working on the western and middle divisions. Leaving this service, he engaged in lead mining in Missouri for two years, after which he was an Engineer on the construction of the Southern Kansas Railroad for a year. The following year, 1880, he spent in testing cements and in the duties of general storekeeper for the Plattsmouth Bridge. Silver and gold mining in Colorado and Mexico occupied his attention from 1881 to 1887. During the last two years of this period, he was Superintendent of the Santa Barbara mines at Chihuahua. From 1888 to 1890 he was employed as Engineer for contractors on railroads for the Chilian Government. Returning to the United States, he was engaged as Assistant Engineer on the Michigan Central Railroad, then as General Inspector in the Bureau of Engineering of the City of Buffalo, N.Y., up to 1898. From that year up to the time of his death he was occupied with various engineering enterprises.

WILLARD. JAMES E., born June 3, 1832, at Louisville, Ky.; educated at the Louisville Academy. Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Willard was in charge of constructing reservoirs on the headwaters of the Black river and in that vicinity; of locks and other structures on the Black River canal; of enlarged locks on the Erie canal at Watervliet and on the Champlain canal at Cohoes. He was also Division Engineer in charge of thirty miles of the Utica and Black River R.R. Since leaving the service of the New York State canals, Mr. Willard has been Engineer in charge of substructures of bridges over the Tennessee and South Chickamauga rivers, near Chattanooga, Tenn.; for six years he was in charge of the improvement of the Tennessee river at Mussel Shoals; and had charge for the U.S. Government of the improvement of the Mississippi river about seventy-five miles above Vicksburg. For the last twenty years he has been engaged as Contracting Engineer in the construction of bridge substructures (mostly pneumatic foundations) over the following rivers: the Missouri, Mississippi, Arkansas, Canadian, Wisconsin, Illinois, Willamette (Portland, Ore.) and Schuylkill at Philadelphia. At present he is in charge of the construction for the U.S. Government, of the lock and dam on the Green river, Ky.

WILSON, ORRIN S., born March 10, 1852, at Barre Center, N.Y.; educated at University of Michigan, receiving the degree of C.E.; died Jan. 21, 1899, at Buffalo, N.Y. Member of the Albany Institute and an Honorary Member of societies in Germany and St. Petersburg.

Mr. Wilson's first appointment was on the Lake Survey, with which he served one year, leaving in 1873 to go with on of the astronomical parties sent into the field by the Northern Boundary Commission. He remained on this work until its completion. In December, 1876, he was given charge of the work on the Rio Grande river at Brownsville, Texas, and in 1877 was appointed Assistant in charge of the New York State Survey, remaining until its close, and writing the final report. Mr. Wilson was also Expert Engineer for the New York State Board of Health, doing work on the old canal near Rome, N.Y., also on the abandoned canal at Elmira and at Horseheads, N.Y. In 1877 he was place in charge of building the State Asylum for Insane Criminals at Matteawan, N.Y., under I.G. Perry, State Architect. His last position was Assistant Engineer on the Buffalo section of the Erie canal of New York State, serving from 1896 to the time of his death.

WITBECK, CHARLES G., born Oct. 20, 1851; died Jan 24, 1901.

Mr. Witbeck acquired his training as a civil engineer and surveyor from his father and for several years practiced in the town of Watervliet, N.Y. In 1880-2 and 1887-94 he was an Assistant Engineer on the New York State canals. He was Village Engineer of West Troy in 1880-6 and 1895-6, and he became City Engineer of Watervliet, when that city was organized, Aug. 1, 1896.

WRIGHT, BENJAMIN, born Oct. 10, 1770, at Wethersfield, Conn.; studied law in the office of his uncle; died Aug. 24, 1842.

Mr. Wright was the most prominent of the early canal engineers, being sometimes called the "Father of American Engineering." In 1789 he removed to Fort Stanwix (now Rome), N.Y., and in 1791 assisted in making the first survey for a canal in New York State, - one to join the Mohawk and Wood creek near Rome. In 1803 he entered the employ of the Western Inland Lock Navigation Company and made a map and profile of Wood creek. He also surveyed the Mohawk river to Schenectady, a distance of about one hundred miles. He was employed in 1811 by the Canal Commissioners to make an examination of the north bank of the Mohawk from Rome to the Hudson, continuing this work in 1812 from Seneca lake to Rome, and from thence on the south side of the Mohawk to Albany. He was placed in charge of the middle section of the Erie canal in 1816, and from 1817 to 1828 was the Chief Engineer of the New York State canals.

From 1821 to 1827 Judge Wright was at times engaged as Chief or Consulting Engineer on the Farmington canal, from tidewater to the Connecticut at Northampton, Mass,; on the Blackstone canal from Providence, R.I., to Worcester, Mass.; on the Chesapeake and Delaware, Chesapeake and Ohio and Delaware and Hudson canals. Also from 1833 to 1834 he was on the St. Lawrence ship canal, and the Welland canal in 1837. In 1834 he was appointed by Governor Marcy to determine a route for the New York and Erie R.R., and in 1837 was engaged on the canal from Chicago to the Illinois river. Judge Wright made the first surveys for a road from Havana to the interior of Cuba in 1835-36, and later for a time was Chief Engineer of the Tioga and Chemung R.R. His last years were spend chiefly in Virginia.

WRIGHT, BENJAMIN HALL, born at Rome, N.Y., Oct. 19, 1801; graduated at West Point in 1822; died at Rome, May 13, 1881; son of Benjamin Wright, the first Chief Engineer of the Erie canal.

Mr. Wright was connected with the original surveys and construction of the Erie canal. After completing his military course, he was in the army for some time, subsequently being engaged in his father's profession of civil engineering. In later life he made experiments in the application of steam to canal navigation.

YATES, JOHN BARENTSE, born in 1834; educated at Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., receiving the degree of B.A.; died Oct., 1900, at Amherstberg, Canada.

From 1856 to 1858 Mr. Yates was Assistant Engineer on the New York Central R.R.; from 1858 to 1860 he was employed as Locating and Constructing Engineer on the Detroit and Milwaukee R.R. At the outbreak of the Civil war he entered the military service as Lieutenant of the First Michigan Engineers, under the command of Gen. Geo. H. Thomas of the Army of the Cumberland, and was with Gen. William T. Sherman on his march to the sea. He was mustered out as Colonel, having been promoted for gallant and meritorious services. At the close of the war, 1865, Col. Yates was appointed Superintendent of Railways of the Louisville and Nashville R.R. From 1868 to 1872 he was Gen. Passenger Agent of Railways running between New York and New Orleans and from 1872 to 1875 held the position of Resident Engineer on the four-track construction of the New York Central R.R. Col. Yates left the employ of the railroad in 1876 to accept the appointment as Division Engineer of the eastern division {Table of Division Engineers - Eastern Division on page 1140 of Vol. II shows Mr. Yates to have held the position for part of 1874, all of 1875 and part of 1876.} of the New York State canals, from which he retired in 1876. From 1876 until his death he was variously engaged as Locating, Constructing or Chief Engineer on railroads in Nova Scotia, North Carolina, Kansas, Ohio and Texas. At the time of his death he was in active service under the employ of the U.S. Government on the improvement of the St. Clair river in Michigan.

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