Mike Royden's Local History Pages

The Calderstones


[Calders 1840 Pic.] The Calderstones are six sandstone blocks of varying size which originally formed part of a small megalithic tomb, the tumulus of which, together with other stones, was removed early in the nineteenth century.

(left) The Calderstones - 'About 1840'

This paper gives a detailed account of the documents relating to the stones, the position of the original site and a how the site relates to similar sites in Anglesey and Ireland.

The prehistoric settlement pattern of the Merseyside area has, until recently, been little studied.(1) This factor, combined with the lack of 'typical examples' of excavated sites elsewhere in the County, makes it difficult to properly assess the importance of material that has been discovered. Furthermore, the chances of the discovery of further evidence have also been severly reduced, due to the wide urbanisation of the district. The incidence of chance finds of prehistoric material already discovered makes it seem probable that the area was of some importance during this period, an impression reinforced by the limited amount of systematic fieldwork that has been undertaken by the Merseyside Archaeological Survey.

During the mesolithic period, or middle stone age, (a period of transition between the palaeolithic (old stone age) and the neolithic (new stone age), covering approximately the 8th to the 4th millennium BC), Britain was settled by people practising an economic subsistence based on hunting and the gathering of wild plants. These 'hunter-gatherers' were essentially mobile, utilising temporary settlements, briefly exploiting the environment before moving on to repeat the pattern elsewhere. Their movements had a strong seasonal basis, often connected with the wild animals that they hunted. Unfortunately, this nomadic existence has led to their sites being hard to recognise, and leads to the unsatisfactory situation that where little evidence exists, is it due to the lack of chance finds, or that absence is an accurate reflection of the period? Nevertheless, mesolithic flint scatters have been found on several sites, three of which occur near rivers; Croxteth, near the Alt, Speke near the Mersey, and Tarbock, near the Ditton Brook.(2)

Extract from Yates and Perry's Map of Liverpool 1768 showing the site of Calderstones (centre, below Hunt's Folly). Camp Hill is marked on the top right.

The neolithic period (c.4,500-2,500 B.C.) saw a more settled farming economy. Much of south west Lancashire consisted of large flat areas of boulder clay, together with sandy areas and peat bogs. Heavy woodland could be found throughout, with lakes and boggy areas caused by poor drainage. Altogether an unattractive proposition for the prospective neolithic settler. The Allerton area, in contrast to this inhospitable environment, contained much better drained soils overlying an elevated bed of sandstone. This would enable the land to be cleared much more easily, thus enabling farming and small settlements to become established.

Overall, Merseyside, has a reasonable amount of neolithic archaeological evidence, although chronological precision is still sadly lacking. This, of course, is a particular problem when attempting to draw reasonable conclusions regarding the development of settlements.

Axes of the late neolithic period found in Toxteth, West Derby, Little Woolton, and Wavertree, indicate a measure of land clearance under way. The Calderstones chambered tomb in Allerton is thought to date from the late neolithic/early bronze age and points to a focus of such a population in the area.

The division between the neolithic and bronze ages (the Bronze Age period covered c.2,300-700 BC) is to a certain extent artificial, as there appears to have been little difference in the basis of economic exploitation. The discovery of a burial ground during building work in Wavertree provides the chief evidence for settlement in the locality during this period.(3) Flint arrowheads have also been discovered in Wavertree, and together with a flint scraper near the Calderstones, and three early bronze age arrowheads near Childwall Woods, indications are that parts of the vicinity were used for hunting and had still not been completely cleared of woodland. In fact, axes of the later Bronze Age were found in Knotty Ash in 1906 and near Speke Boulevard in 1946.

From the Iron Age to the Roman period (c.700BC to 43AD) there occurred an intensification of settlement with a general trend moving from single farmsteads to nucleated villages with organised field systems. Specialised sites, particularly hill forts, are also a feature of the period, although in northern areas the trend can be seen to have had a late bronze age background. At Woolton, a hill-fort site of this period is believed to have existed at Camphill, although its precise location is unknown.

The Calder Stones

(left) Plan made in the Allerton and Wavertree Boundary Dispute 1568

The plan shows the site of the Calderstones, the Rogerstone and 'Pykelloohill'. (look to the Church (Childwall) at the top and the label 'East'. Pykelloohill is the large circular mark between and below the church and 'east'. Rogerstone is the smaller circle above it, and the label above that is marking the Calderstones. (From - 'A History of the Manor and Township of Allerton' - R.Stewart-Brown (1911) Original in the P.R.O. (Duchy of Lancaster plan no.73) Copy in Liverpool Record Office).

In the mid 16th century, a dispute regarding the township boundary occurred between the inhabitants of Allerton and Wavertree. A joint petition was presented to the Duchy of Lancaster by Sir Richard Molyneux, steward of Wavertree, and Richard Lathom, lord of the Manor of Allerton. On 6th May 1568, six commissioners were appointed to investigate the claims of both sides and to report back to the Duchy with a planned survey covering the land in dispute. Although the resulting map is ambiguous, it is, in fact, the earliest documentary evidence of the existence of the '...three stones called dojer stones otherwyse Rodger stones or Calldway Stones...' as they were described in the Allerton Claim. The Wavertree Claim mentions '...three stones called Calldway stones...' standing 45 roods from the 'Rodger Stone' and of the witnesses called to make depositions, all referred to three mere (or boundary) stones called 'caldwaye stones', 'the great stone called Rodger Stone' and the 'Roger stones otherwise called Dawger stones or Caldway stones'.(4) The site was of such prominence that it became the recognised marker for the intersection of three township boundaries; the borders of Little Woolton, Allerton and Wavertree all met there, as did four lanes. Although part of the boundary was in dispute in 1568, the role of the 'Calldway' stones in the matter was not. A statement was also made in 1568, which mentioned that one of the Caldway Stones had been removed and shifted about eighteen years previously, but the evidence presented generally refers to three stones being intact and the one removed appears to have been a fourth. The 'Rodger Stone' stood several yards away to the west and was not part of the Caldway group, although it was closely associated. The name 'Rodger', 'Dawger', or 'Dojer' was sometimes also applied to the Caldway stones.

Following the boundary dispute, little is known about the Calderstones until the 18th century when they are thought to have been disturbed. In 1825 it was reported that, '...in digging about them, urns made of the coarsest clay, containing human dust and bones, have been discovered, there is reason to believe that they indicate an ancient burying- place...Some of these urns were dug up about sixty years ago, and were in the possession of Mr. Mercer of Allerton'(5) The extract suggests therefore, that interference took place around 1765. Disturbance is again known to have occurred during the early 19th century when the site was largely destroyed. Much of the evidence for the events which took place during this period came as a result of researches and a public appeal made by Professor William Herdman in 1896.

During the mid and later 19th century certain academics had declared the Calderstones to have been part of a druidical circle (of which more later). In the closing years of the century, however, Professor Herdman returned to the earlier evidence and concluded that the stones were once part of a ruined dolmen which had been mistakenly taken for a circle due to the false impression held that all druidical remains should be so arranged. Herdman certainly respected these academics as eminent archaeologists, but in light of a good deal of evidence, amounting to several independent accounts, he was most sceptical of the learned gentlemen's conclusions. On delivering a lecture to the Liverpool Biological Society, Herdman received vocal support from Edward W. Cox, the noted local antiquarian, who was present in the audience. Some years previously, Cox had recorded observations regarding the stones made to him by his gardener, which he keenly aired at the meeting. Within days, Herdman had made an appeal to the Editor of the Daily Post, requesting a forum to debate the issue within the pages of the newspaper and to include the evidence brought by Mr. Cox. Herdman's letter was printed on the 17 November 1896 and over the next few weeks numerous replies appeared in the newspaper informing a fascinated readership as to the supposed origins of the stones, together with accounts given by witnesses to their destruction. Mr. Cox's letter appeared on 21 November;

'About twenty years ago, my gardener, John Peers, who was a member of an old local family, a most trustworthy, honest, and intelligent man, who died a few years ago at over ninety years of age, informed me, in reply to questions I asked him as to local antiquities, customs, and conditions of the neighbourhood, that he had begun his work on Calderstones Farm as a boy of about fourteen years of age. He remembered the Calderstones well, before they were set up in their present position. The roads at that time were narrow country lanes. At this place there are four cross roads, and the stones lay upon a large mound at the roadside, high above the road, on (as far as I could make out the position) the south side. Only a few of the larger stones could be seen lying flat near the top, partly buried in the earth, and a few of the points of the other stones. Upon this mound, in the summer, after work, and on Sundays, the boys and men from the neighbouring farms would come and lie in the sun. It was the fashion for the boys to cut their names and initials on the stones, and the patterns of their boots. He had marked his own foot upon the stone. (In after-life it was a large one, he being a tall, powerful man). He thought the naked feet marked on the stones were done then; he was not quite sure. Such marks are still visible on the stones. He well remembered the mound being destroyed. They were widening the road about the time it was done away with. When they dug down into it they found more of the stones, and the marked ones were among them.

For some time the stones were laid aside on the farm, and afterwards some of the gentlemen of the neighbourhood had those now standing set up; others were taken away. Mr. Booker had the largest and set it up in his field, where it now is for the cattle to rub on. He thought that there were two more large stones. but did not remember what became of them. When the stones were dug down to, they seemed rather tumbled about in the mound. They looked as if they had been a little hut or cellar. Below the stones was found a large quantity of burnt bones, white and in small pieces. He thought there must have been a cart-load or two. He helped to wheel them out and spread them on the field. He saw no metal of any sort nor any flint implements, nor any pottery, either whole or broken; nor did he hear of any. He was quite sure the bones were in large quantity, but he saw no urn with them. Possibly the quantity was enhanced by mixture with the soil. No one made much of old things of that sort in his time, nor cared to keep them up...'.(6)

The Calderstones drawn on 11th October 1825 (Childwall Hall is in the distance)

Other letters(7) revealed that local people remembered the stones still being covered by a mound of earth at the beginning of the 19th century. When a builder was erecting a great house nearby (said to be Woolton Lodge, built in Druids Cross Road, near Menlove Avenue c.1805) he obtained a quantity of sand from the mound, thereby destroying the site. At the same time a 'fine sepulchral urn rudely ornamented outside' was found within, which was later taken to a local farm house. This may have been the farm on Mercer's estate (where Beechley was later erected) where, according to Studley Martin,(8) he and other local boys played with the urns in the loft, rolling them around and throwing stones at them until they were destroyed. According to a letter from Robert Gladstone, he had spoken to 'an old man aged about 80 in Woolton Village, who remembered when the stones were twice as many as they are now and were lying all about the place'.(9)

A Mr. Roberts, writing on the 19 November, advised Mr Herdman that William Spencer, who tenanted a farm in Calderstones Road during the first half of the 19th century, used to pass the stones daily while walking his cows to the farm. According to a worker engaged in building the lodge nearby (on Menlove Avenue), he clearly remembered Spencer one day pointing to the ancient site and telling him how he had taken many cart-loads of soil away years ago. The workman said that there were no remains of the mound while he was working there, and by that time the stones lay scattered about here and there in front of the new lodge. The worker had been engaged in 1845 by Joseph Walker of Calderstone House to erect the lodge near the entrance to his carriage drive and also to build an enclosing wall for the Calderstones. Today, this low circular wall still lies at the junction of Calderstones Road and Menlove Avenue (between the lodge and the entrance to the Park, the former carriage drive). During its construction, railings were added, a tree planted, and within were sited the remains of the Calderstones. Before their enclosure, some of the stones appear to have been standing, and Walker probably took them to have originally been in the form of a circle. In an attempt to return them to their 'original' position he arranged them so as to complete the circle. Spencer's nephew had also informed Roberts that his uncle had described how the stones formerly stood on a very high and extensive mound and that his uncle had removed the soil for the purposes of building Braggs Houses on the Woolton Road. (These were erected before 1805). It was also reported that Spencer had found an urn among the debris which he gave to Nicholas Ashton of Woolton Hall.(10) The stones were also treated as a druidical circle by Professor Sir James Y. Simpson in 1864 when he examined the cup and ring marks carved on their surface. Referring to the stones as a 'small megalithic circle',(11) his study concentrated on the art work which he concluded to be the work of 'archaic man'. Simpson was joined in his theories by J. Romilly Allen in 1883, who gave further thought to the markings, some of which he believed to be medieval. Romilly Allen added little to Simpson's description of the site and agreed that the site was a circular henge.

The mound therefore, appears to have been fairly intact during the 1568 boundary dispute with only three of the stones visibly emerging, although one was said to have been removed 18 years earlier. In a second boundary dispute in 1700, three stones called 'Dogger Stones' or 'Caldway Stones' were described as being on a little ascent or rising ground, and c.1765, if we are to believe Baines' account, the mound had been disturbed and several urns removed and placed in the possession of Mr Mercer. In 1768, the Calderstones are mentioned on Yates and Perry's Map of Liverpool, but by 1805 the site had been partly destroyed to provide sand and mortar for Braggs Houses. Another urn may have been found at this time. By 1814, a few of the larger stones could be seen lying upon a large mound high above the roadside. The mound appears to have been finally destroyed by 1833 due to the widening of the road, but not before a 'little hut or cellar formed by the stones was discovered within. The stones were left lying in the field until 1845, when they were set up into a circle and enclosed by a stone wall by Walker. The precise site of the mound is unknown, although it is generally acknowledged that it stood very close to, or possibly on top of Walker's circular wall. Here they remained for 109 years, weathered by the ravages of the climate and the increasing industrial atmosphere, until 1954, when the City authorities decided to remove them for cleaning and preservation. The exposed surfaces of the stones had now considerably deteriorated, in addition to suffering the indignity of soot discolouration. J.L. Forde-Johnson of the Liverpool Museum Department of Archaeology was appointed to supervise the restoration project.(12)

Sketches of the Calderstones

Sketches of the stones showing the various markings discussed in the article. (from - 'The Calderstones' - R.Cowell & M.Warhurst (1984))

The six surviving stones are of local sandstone and their sizes range from approximately eight by three feet to three and a half by two and a half feet. The markings which had been studied the previous century by Simpson were again analysed and latex moulds were made of the stones and carvings, which both enabled a precise record to be made and also highlight other worn carvings which were not previously visible. The carvings were placed into six categories; spirals, concentric circles, arcs, cup marks, cup and ring marks and footprints. There is also evidence of post medieval and modern graffiti. Several of the carvings are similar to examples found in Anglesey and the late neolithic burial site of Newgrange in the Boyne Valley.(13) The similarities indicate the possibility of the cultural influences spreading from Ireland to this region via North Wales around 4,000 years ago. The footprint carvings are more unusual however, and are rarely associated with megalithic tombs. Several date from the Bronze Age and examples are known in Ireland, Scotland and Scandinavia, although the closest similarities are found on a tomb in Brittany. The cultural influences therefore may not come exclusively from Ireland and Wales.

Passage grave entrance to Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic burial on Anglesey (transl. 'hill in the dark grove'). The Calderstones may once have been part of a similar structure.

It is fairly certain that the Calder Stones were part of a burial mound, a tumulus in the form of a passage grave. Construction and arrangement of the tombs varied on a regional basis and it appears that Calderstones is again most comparable to those found on Anglesey and the Boyne Valley, all which date from the neolithic period. The mound appears to have been quite high and may have been similar in appearance the two burial sites on Anglesey, known as Bryn Celli Ddu and Barclodiad y Gawres. Both sites are passage graves and the latter possesses similar carvings to those on the Calderstones. The 'little hut or cellar' which was discovered in the early 19th century is likely to have been a simple chamber, similar to that within Bryn Celli Ddu (the name means 'hill in the dark grove'). This site was originally a circular henge of stones within a ditch, dating from c.2000 BC. The henge was later destroyed and a burial mound 26m across constructed within. A roofed passage over 7m long leads from the entrance to a polygonal chamber of 6 upright stones, one of which has a spiral carving. The tomb contained human bones, flint tools and shells. The six large stones recovered from the Calderstones may have been those that formed its central chamber, the smaller stones of the passage being 'lost'. Although the Calderstones was neolithic in origin, it was probably in use for several hundred years down to the Bronze Age as the discovery of sepulchral urns within the mound reflects a common Bronze Age burial practice, which consisted of placing cremated remains within urns and reusing earlier neolithic tombs. Funerary Urns of this type were discovered in Wavertree in 1867 when eight were unearthed by workers digging the foundations for housing.(14) Other urns have been found locally at New Brighton and Winwick.

In 1964 the six stones were moved to their present site in the Harthill Greenhouse vestibule in Calderstones Park where they were erected in random order. The low circular wall constructed by Walker still lies at the entrance to the park opposite Druids Cross Road.

Pikeley (or Pikelaw) Hill

Neolithic and Bronze age burial mounds frequently occur in groups and it is possible that the Calderstones were part of such an arrangement. In the boundary dispute of 1568, reference is made to another site, also used as a boundary marker, called 'pyckeloohill'. This is shown on the map as a large mound flanked by two upright stones about 30m apart, and is acknowledged in the Wavertree Claim as standing in close proximity to the Rodger Stone and the three visible Calderstones. From the northern marker stone of pyckeloohill the distances were described as, '... From that stone est by north to another stone called Rodger stone sixtene roods. From that stone Est northest to three stones called Calldway stones fortye fyve roodes & a halfe...' (15) Using the measurements and bearings given in the Wavertree Claim, Pyckeloohill can be roughly plotted to a position in the grounds of Calderstones Park lying opposite Allerton Beeches, behind the former lodge house. The Rodger Stone, therefore, must have stood between this site and the Calderstones. Maps of the 18th century show the surrounding fields named as 'Pikeley Hill Closes' or the 'Further' and the 'Little Pikeley Hill Closes'. From this period the name 'Pikeley Hill' came into general use for the high ground on the east of Harthill Road, the latter being referred to as 'the road by Pikeley Hill to Childwall Church'.

The name may be derived from 'Pykelaw' or 'Pikelow'; a burial mound rising to a point. The element 'Pike' means pointed summit, and Hlaw is Old English for burial mound (low or law being the common derivative). 'Hill' would, in that case, have been a later addition, users being unaware of the original meaning of Pikeley and adding a redundant duplication.

The site of Pikeley Hill has been searched for on several occasions without success. A serious attempt was made at the beginning of the century by Ronald Stewart-Brown while researching his History of Allerton(16) and as recently as 1982, members both professional and amateur of the Merseyside Archaeological Society also concentrated their efforts on the area between Beechley and Harthill Lodge on Allerton Road. According to Stewart-Brown, '...the Hart Hill Estate has been searched for traces of the mound and stones but nothing could be found. On the north side of the drive, in the field, and not far from the lodge, the ground has a curious uneven appearance over an area of about 20 yards wide, within which no daisies were growing, though the rest of the field was then white with them. This might be the spot but doubtless the mound was levelled very long ago.'(17)

Despite the recent attempts, including yet another unseccessful one by myself during the research for this book, the precise site must remain a mystery for the moment (one must remain optimistic!).

Robin Hood's Stone

Enclosed within railings on the corner of Archerfield Road and Booker Avenue stands a remarkable upright slab of red sandstone. Before its present siting in August 1928, the stone stood in a field known, not surprisingly, as Stone Hey, which until the erection of housing, lay between Greenwood Road and Archerfield Road. A plaque on the base of the stone helpfully records the bearing from its present position to its former site; 198 feet at a bearing of 7 degrees east of true north.

During the reign of Henry VIII, an Act of Parliament was passed in 1512 which decreed that all men under sixty, except clergy and judges, were to practice archery, so as to maintain proficiency should such expertise be required during times of conflict. Every township was to make a field available for the use of the archers. Butts (mounds of sods and earth with targets attached) were placed at each end of a large field and target practice would then alternate from one end of the field to the other. Sometimes stones were conveniently sited for the sharpening of arrows.

It has been suggested(18) that Booker's Fields (which lay between Booker Avenue and Greenhill Road) may have been used for such archery practice, with the Robin Hood Stone being used to sharpen arrows. This would give a perfect explanation for the deep grooves running vertically down the entire face, some of which are 8 inches deep. However, there is no firm evidence for this theory whatsoever, and the grooves may in fact be natural. Another suggestion has been made that the stone was formerly a druids' altar and the grooves were there to drain off the blood of sacrificial victims! When the stone was excavated on October 29 1910, 2 feet 6 inches of the stone had been buried underground. On the base were found cup marks similar to those on the Calderstones, which were dated to the Bronze Age. No arrow heads were found and the grooves did not run the full length of the stone.

(right) Former site of the Robin Hood's Stone (field 126a to the far right). (extract from O.S. map 1:25 1890)

Was the stone originally from the tumulus? The account given by John Peers that sometime between 1814 and 1845 Mr. Booker removed a large stone to his field for the cattle to rub on is unlikely to refer to this stone, as Eyes' 1771 Survey of Allerton gives the name of the field as Stone Hey, inferring that the Robin Hood's Stone was already there, although the stone itself was not marked. It is likely that there is a relationship to the Calderstones; the stone either being removed to Stone Hey much earlier, or it may have been an isolated standing stone similar to the Rodger Stone. The boundary dispute of 1568 mentions a stone being removed from the tumulus around 1550 - could this have been the Robin Hood's Stone?

Camphill

During the late Bronze Age and throughout the Iron Age, settlements within hill-forts were becoming increasingly common over much of southern and western England, most of Wales, the lowlands of Scotland and many parts of Ireland. They were defensive enclosures surrounded by walled banks usually, although not exclusively, on hilltops, and in many cases were supplemented with ditches. Hill-forts did not always contain permanent settlements, but where such instances are known, occupation was usually in the form of simple huts. The size and nature of hill-forts differ throughout the regions, but reference to such sites as Maiden Castle in Dorset provides eloquent testimony to the organisation, technology, and substantial man power evident during the period.

On Camphill in Woolton, a hill-fort of the late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age is thought to have been sited. The earliest documentary evidence for this is Yates' and Perry's map of 1768 where the site is marked as a circular enclosure. If this is the case it would mark the northern outpost of a number of sites found on the Cheshire Ridge, such as Helsby Hill, Castle Ditch at Eddisbury in Delamere, Kelsborrow Castle near Kelsall and Maiden Castle near Bickerton. The evidence regarding the existence of a hill-fort at Camphill is scanty however. According to Cowell, 'Apart from its location there is nothing other than some ambiguous undated dry-stone walling excavated in the 1950's to suggest its form or date. Subsequent landscaping of the site for parkland has obscured easy recognition of most of the perimeter earthworks. Searches of the flower beds that now cover part of the approximate site area have failed to produce anything diagnostic'.(19)

Yates and Perry's survey was made over two hundred years ago. Was there a much more prominent site in existence then or was it just local folklore that inspired the origin of the name and its recording on the map of 1768? Even today, despite the conurbation and industrial areas of Garston and Speke below, commanding views can still be had over the Mersey and its approaches - a classic site for a hill fort. The sites discussed here are evidence that Merseyside, and particularly Allerton, does possess a respectable prehistory, despite the almost total urbanisation of the district. For those readers who are unfamiliar with the sites, an interesting afternoon may lie ahead of you as you take in the full tour! And who knows, you may even be lucky enough to discover Pikelaw Hill.

Mike Royden (1992)


Footnotes


1. Over the past decade or so much of the Merseyside area has been extensively studied by the Merseyside Archaeological Survey, a department within the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside. Most of the work regarding the prehistoric period has been carried out by Ron Cowell who has summarized his part of his research in; Cowell,R.W. 'The Prehistory of Merseyside' J.M.A.S. vol.8 1987 (pub.1991)
2. Cowell,R. Liverpool Urban Fringes Survey Report M.C.M.(1983) p.8 and Knowsley Rural Fringes Survey Report, M.C.M. (1982) p.8
3. A full account is contained in; Ecroyd Smith,H. 'An Ancient- British Cemetery At Wavertree' T.H.S.L.C. vol.20, new series vol.8, (1868) pp. 131-146. Six of the urns were destroyed, while the remaining two are now in the Liverpool Museum.
4. Stewart-Brown,R. A History of the Manor and Township of Allerton, Liverpool (1911) p.110-1.
5. Baines,E. History, Directory, and Gazetteer of the County Palatine of Lancaster (1825) vol II p.698
6. Herdman,W.A. 'A Contribution to the History of the Calderstones, near Liverpool' T.L.B.S. (1896) p.6 also appeared as a letter to the editor in the Liverpool Daily Post 21 November 21 1896.
7. Copies of all the relevant letters are contained in Herdman, ibid. pp. 4-14.
8. Martin's family purchased Mercer's estate in 1814, which in turn was purchased by Joseph Need Walker in 1825. The property included the 'Old House' which Walker demolished and erected Calderstone House (which still stands today) on or near its former site.
9. Herdman, op.cit. 25 November 1896 p.10
10. ibid. 19 November 1896 pp.8-9
11. Simpson,J.Y. 'On the Cup-Cuttings and Ring Cuttings on the Calderstones, near Liverpool' T.H.S.L.C. vol.17 (new series vol.5) (1866) p.258
12. Two papers followed the restoration and study of the 6 stones; Forde-Johnson,J.L. 'The Calderstones,Liverpool' in: Powell,T.G.E. & Daniel, G.E. Barclodiad y Gawres (1956) L'pool U.P. Forde-Johnson,J.L. 'Megalithic Art in the North West of Britain: The Calderstones, Liverpool' P.P.S. vol.23 (1957)
13. A comprehensive analysis can be consulted in; Cowell,R.W. & Warhurst,M. The Calderstones Merseyside Arch. Soc. (1984) pp.18-37 and Forde-Johnson, 'Magalithic Art' op. cit.
14. Ecroyd-Smith. op.cit.
15. Stewart-Brown,R. op.cit. p.106-7 The scale given on the plan of 1568 gives 'eight yerdes to the roode'.
16. ibid. p.114
17. ibid. p.114
18. Griffiths, R. The History of the Royal and Ancient Park of Toxteth, Liverpool (1907) p.25
19. Cowell,R.W. 'Prehistory of Merseyside', op.cit. p.50


Bibliography


Ecroyd Smith,H. 'An Ancient-British Cemetery At Wavertree' T.H.S.L.C. vol.20, new series vol.8, (1868)
Simpson,J.Y. 'On the Cup-Cuttings and Ring Cuttings on the Calderstones, near Liverpool' T.H.S.L.C. vol.17 (new series vol.5) (1866)
Romilly Allen,J. 'The Calderstones' Journal of Brit.Arch.Soc. vol.39 (1883) and vol.44 (1888)
Herdman,W.A. 'A Contribution to the History of the Calderstones, near Liverpool' Trans.Liverpool Biol.Soc. (1896) pp.132-146.
Hand,C.R. The Calderstones (penny pamphlet) (1910)
Hand,C.R. 'Captain William Lathom and the Calderstones' T.H.S.L.C. vol.31 (1915)
Stewart-Brown,R. A History of the Manor and Township of Allerton, Liverpool (1911)
Forde-Johnson,J.L. 'The Calderstones, Liverpool' extracted from Powell,T.G.E. & Daniel, G.E. Barclodiad y Gawres (1956) L'pool U.P.
Forde-Johnson,J.L. 'Megalithic Art in the North West of Britain: The Calderstones, Liverpool' Proc.Prehist.Soc. vol.23 (1957)
Cowell,R.W. & Warhurst,M.The Calderstones Merseyside Arch. Soc. (1984)
Cowell,R.W. 'The Prehistory of Merseyside' J.M.A.S. vol.8 1987 (1991)


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