DAVID SINTON was born in County Armagh, Ireland, of Anglo-Saxon ancestry, who lived in Scotland, near the English border. His father, John Sinton, was a linen manufacturer. When David was three years of age, the family came to this country, locating for a time in Pittsburgh, Penn., where they remained one year, then removing to West Union, Adams county, Ohio. Here David attended school irregularly up to his fourteenth year, when he obtained employment in the store and tavern of James McCague, at Sinking Springs, Ohio, at four dollars a month, as salesman and tavern assistant. After two years in this service he came to Cincinnati, but, dissatisfied with his early experience here, soon returned to Sinking Springs, again securing employment at a slightly increased salary. A few years later he again came to Cincinnati, and was for a time engaged in a commission business. This proving unprofitable, he sold out and went to Washington Court House, where he took charge of Dr. Boyd's dry-goods establishment, which he managed successfully. He next moved to the Hanging Rock iron region, and took charge of the landing and river business of James Rogers & Company, of Union Furnace. The business of this company was the manufacture of hollow-ware, pig iron, etc. It was succeeded by the firm of John Sparks & Company, and Mr. Sinton, when about twenty-two years of age, was made general manager of the entire works, shortly thereafter becoming a part owner of the property and business of the company. He rebuilt the Union Furnace, and built, the Ohio Furnace, the two having the capacity for producing a large amount of pig iron for that period.

In 1846 Mr. Sinton returned to Cincinnati, and opened an office for the sale of his iron and other products, since which time he has been a resident here. Through his success as an iron manufacturer, and in his real-estate and other investments, as well as his manufacturing interests, here and elsewhere. he has accumulated a large estate, and be has built many substantial and elegant buildings, adding much to the wealth and beauty of the city. In many ways he has shown a most unselfish and commendable public spirit. He gave to the Young Men's Christian Association bonds to the value of $33,000, which subsequently greatly appreciated in value, affording an annual income of $2,100. He gave to the same association the additional sum of $25,000 toward the building of the new edifice at the corner of Walnut and Seventh streets. To the Union Bethel he gave $100,000 in Cincinnati bonds, and supplemented this munificent gift by the payment of $10,000 of the Bethel indebtedness. For the building of the Art Academy in Eden Park he gave $76,000, and the sum of $10,000 toward the erection of the Art Museum. Mr. Sinton offered to give to the city a rostrum with esplanade with figures in bronze of the most celebrated American orators, to occupy Fifth street, between Main and Walnut, and to be used for public meetings. Mr. Sinton's proposed gift involved a cost to him of $250,000, and in anticipation of the acceptance of his offer by the city authorities he went to considerable expense. It was one of the conditions of the offer that all street-car tracks should be removed from the por-



tion of the thoroughfare named, and as the city council failed to take action looking toward this end, the city is forever deprived of this contemplated magnificent ornamentation.

Mr. Sinton was a stanch advocate of the building of the Southern railroad from Cincinnati to Chattanooga, Tenn., and some years prior to that undertaking suggested the wisdom of an offer by Cincinnati, to the individual or company who would construct such road, of a bonus of one million dollars, provided the States of Kentucky and Tennessee would subscribe an additional like sum. It was Mr. Sinton's intention, in the event of such offer being made, to himself undertake the building of the road, he having caused a survey of the projected road to be made, and this line was eventually adopted. Mr. Sinton's project contemplated the ultimate extension of the road to the Gulf of Mexico, with its terminus in Pensacola, Fla. The pecuniary loss to Cincinnati through its failure to adopt Mr. Sinton's suggestions can be readily computed.

During the Civil war Mr. Sinton was a Union man, but as a rule voted for the best roan regardless of party. Though largely self-educated, and engaged during the greater part of his life in the management of large and active interests, he is at the same time well read in nearly all departments of literature. He is self reliant, original in his business methods, as well as successful, and is given credit by his associates for a large share of common sense and sound judgment.

While engaged in the iron business near Hanging Rock, Mr. Sinton was married to Jane, daughter of John Ellison, of Manchester, Ohio, and he has one child, a daughter, the wife of Charles P. Taft, president of the Times-Star Company.

JAMES GAMBLE, who was one of Cincinnati's most prominent citizens, was a native of " The Graan," near Enniskillen, Ireland. After the overthrow of Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo, business in Great Britain, which had during his war been exceedingly active, became excessively dull. A great deal of financial trouble occurred, and George Gamble, having become involved in heavy losses, as a consequence came with his family to Cincinnati in 1819.

In 1821, the eldest son, James, then eighteen years of age, went to learn his trade as soap and candle maker with Mr. Bell, whose factory was in what at one time was a rope walk, situated on Sycamore street above Sixth, where St. Xavier College now stands. The young man's wages for the first six months was his board only; for the next six mouths his board and nine dollars a mouth. After working at similar, but slightly increasing, wages, in succession for Hollingsworth, Boggs, and Daniel Ames & Company, Mr. Gamble began the business of making candles on his own account in 1828, on the West side of Walnut street, just above Fifth. A year or so later he removed to the east side of Walnut, where the government building now stands, and from 1834 to 1836 made soap and candles on the south side of Water street between Plum and Western row, now Central avenue; then sold out to his partner, Mr. Knowlton, and, in 1837, began business with William Procter on Western row. Thus with many trying circumstances, and from a small beginning, was established the firm of Procter & Gamble, which is now one of the most extensive and best known institutions of its kind in the world.

Mr. Gamble was a man of much native ability, and driven as he was into a strange country by force of financial circumstances, he put forth every energy to succeed, and when death came, April 29, 1891, at which time he had nearly completed his eighty-ninth year, he could justly feel that he had achieved the success of an active Christian man of business. His wife died in 1888 at the age of seventy-six years. When the Procter & Gamble Company was incorporated, Mr. Gamble, on account of his declining years, although he never retired, took no official position in the new organization. [See Chapter XX, p. 322.]

Mr. Gamble married Elizabeth A. Norris, by whom he had ten children, seven of whom attained their majority: Miss Mary E. Gamble; James N.; George, who died


at the age of twenty-nine years; William A.; David B.; Edwin P., who is engaged in farming at Sunning Hill, Bourbon Co., Ky., and Miss Lillian F. Gamble. Mr. and Mrs. Gamble, as were also his parents, were lifelong members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in which during nearly his whole life he was an officer. Politically he was originally a Whig, later a Republican, but the multitudinous cares of such an active business life as his was, together with a natural disinclination, prevented him from becoming a politician.

JAMES N. GAMBLE was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, August 9, 1836. He obtained his early education by private instruction, and was graduated from Kenyon College in 1854, receiving the title of A. M. three years later. He also took a special course in chemistry in the University of Maryland and New York City. During his entire business life he has been connected with Procter & Gamble, and he was elected vice-president of the company at its incorporation in 1890. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was made a member of the Book committee by the last general Conference. In his political views he is a Republican, and, though not an aspirant for public office, has served as member of the council in Westwood for upward of eighteen years; in 1894 he was elected mayor.

WILLIAM A. GAMBLE, born in Cincinnati September 1, 1845, received his education by private instruction and in the public schools. He was in the employ of Robert Clarke & Company for a few years in the capacity of clerk, after which he became a member of the firm of Procter & Gamble. He is treasurer of the Ohio Mutual Life Insurance Company, and vice-president of the Lake Side Company. He has been for a number of years, and is still, a member of the Tonawanda Iron & Steel Company, manufacturers of pig iron. On October 3, 1872, Mr. Gamble was married to Miss Francisca W. Nast, daughter of Rev. William Nast, D. D., of Cincinnati. Mr. and Mrs. Gamble are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the workings of which he takes an active part. In his political views he is in sympathy with the principles of the Republican party. He resides in Avondale, where he has built a beautiful home.

DAVID B. GAMBLE, secretary and treasurer of the Procter & Gamble Company, is a native of Cincinnati, at the public schools of which city 'he was educated, graduating from Hughes High School in 1865. He then engaged in the book business as salesman for E. W. Carroll & Company, remaining four years, after which he entered the employ of Procter & Gamble, where be occupied various positions about the works. He later became a member of the firm, and has occupied his present position with the company since its incorporation. Mr. Gamble was married September 13, 1882, to Miss Mary A. Huggins, of Chicago, Ills. This happy union was blessed with three children, Cecil H., Sidney D. and Clarence James. Mr. and Mrs. Gamble are members of the Presbyterian Church of Avondale, in which town they reside. Though not an aggressive politician he has always been a loyal adherent of the Republican party.

HON. REUBEN ANDRUS HOLDEN, one of Cincinnati's oldest and most highly respected citizens, was born in New Ipswich, N. H., August 9, 1813, By the death of his father he was left an orphan at the age of three months. The family consisted of five children: Ira, Amos, Edward, Reuben A., and a daughter, Ann, whom the widowed mother supported and educated by her own efforts, and to whom she imparted that moral and religious training so peculiar to stern New England life.

As a youth, Mr. Holden worked upon the farm until his sixteenth year. He got his first ideas of barter and exchange in carrying butter, eggs, berries, etc., to the village store, and selling them for groceries and dry goods. At sixteen years of age be went to Weymouth to school, and made fire and swept out the office for a lawyer to pay expenses for six months; from there went to Mason village, N. H., to live with a Mr. Elliott, who kept a country store, and here he took his first lessons in


mercantile life. Here they sold everything " from a pennyworth of snuff to a silk dress." It was while thus employed, at the ago of seventeen years, surrounded by many of the allurements and temptations of life common to the times, that Mr. Holden became convinced of error, and was converted to Christianity, uniting with the Baptist Church. At nineteen he left his native State with sixty dollars of his hard earnings, and went to Boston, Mass., from there setting out for Ohio. Soon after his arrival in Cincinnati, he wrote a long letter to his mother and uncle in which he described his trip. The original letter, dated April 7, 1832, is now in his possession, and the following facts concerning his journey are taken from it: Leaving Boston March 20th, he proceeded to Providence, R. I., where he took the " splendid " steamboat, " Franklin," for New York, which he described as " a very large and populous city also a very dirty place." While there he went to see Governor Wilkins, whom he described as very fat, and who "keeps a boarding house." The next morning he took a boat for Philadelphia. At New Brunswick the passengers where transferred overland about forty miles in twelve stages, and then they took the steamboat again on the Delaware river. He wrote of Philadelphia as follows: "The next morning, March 23, found myself in the handsomest city in the United States. The streets are very wide, long and neat. I should judge by the looks that some of the streets were four miles long." He remained in Philadelphia three days, and then went to New Castle where he "tool: the railroad to Frenchtown, a distance of sixteen or seventeen miles." He then took the steamboat again for Baltimore, where he arrived at five o'clock in the evening. On the following morning he proceeded by railroad to Fredericksburg, and there took the stage for Wheeling. He described this portion of the trip as follows: " Stopped in Hagerstown in the evening about ten o'clock, took tea and got ready to go to bed when the stage driver said that the stage was ready. Set out at twelve o'clock at night over the mountains; found the roads to be exceedingly bad; came near turning over many times. In the morning as soon as it was light, found ourselves in Bedford. Took breakfast and went on again up and down, up and down; arrived at the highest Alleghany at midnight; called up the folks to get tea. Started at two o'clock, passed through Mercersburg and Somerset, crossed the Monongahela river in a skiff, passed through Washington, Alexandria, etc., to Wheeling, making a trip of eleven days from Baltimore to Wheeling. Had but one night's sleep besides what I got in the stage. Took the steamboat for Cincinnati as soon as we arrived in Wheeling." He mentioned many sights and incidents of this trip, notably a sudden jarring of the boat, at first thought by some of the passengers to be an explosion of the boiler, but which proved to be an almost harmless collision with another boat.

His brother Amos, some years his senior, had preceded him two years, and was keeping a store in Noble row, on the east side of Main, near Front street, the firm being Holden & Bicknell. 'When Holden and Bicknell dissolved partnership in 1834, he remained with his brother as bookkeeper and assistant in the store, sometimes making trips east to purchase stock. He soon formed a partnership with his brother Amos in the wholesale boot and shoe business at No. 4 Main street, the firm being A. P. & R. A. Holden. In that business he continued two years, when be and S. T. Smith built a steamboat called the " Zephyr." It was started as a " temperance" and "Sunday-observing" boat; but the public did not sustain the enterprise. It was put in the general carrying business on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and the western tributaries of the latter river. On one occasion he went up through the great Red River Raft as far as Fort Townsend, in the Choctaw nation; while there, the river fell, and they were left for six weeks until a rise took them off again. They had to go through canebrakes twenty-two miles on foot to the nearest post office. He saw much of the abhorrent customs pertaining to the slave trade while thus employed and traveling-the whipping-post, the auction-block and the mana-


cler. Selling; the "Zephyr," be took an interest in the " Waverly," of which for a while he was captain; it plied the waters of the Upper 'Mississippi, He finally abandoned seeking his fortune upon the river, and returned to his family in Cincinnati. Here he engaged once more with his brother in the boot and shoe business, at the old stand, No. 4 Main street, and remained until 1846, when they quit that business and went into partnership with Mr. Hoffman in the grocery and produce business, on Main street, opposite the old courthouse. the firm name being Holden & Hoffman. Here they made " feathers and ginseng" a specialty. About 1849-50 they began shipping ginseng to China, their shipments being made in sailing vessel, From four to six months were consumed in making the trip, returns from which were not received for a year or more. In 1848, when Mr. Hoffman retired, the firm name became A. P. Holden & Company. In 1852 A. P. Holden died, and the business was then conducted by Mr. Holden alone for a few years. After that he had various partners associated with him, the firm name being R. A. Holden Company, and he continued in business until 1889 when he retired from active life. la 1861 the establishment was moved to No. 67 Vine street, where it is still continued by Samuel Wells, a former employe and partner of Mr. Holden.

In 1832 Mr. Holden united with the old Baptist Church on Sixth near Walnut, and he aided materially in building the Ninth Street Baptist church. In 1853 be bought and occupied his present beautiful home on Mount Auburn, and soon after removing thither he assisted in organizing a Sunday-school under a large tree where the Kensington Row now is. That was the beginning of a religions move which resulted finally in building the present Mount Auburn Baptist church, toward the erection and support of which Mr. Holden gave and continues to give most liberally. While a teacher of the Bible class in the old Sixth street church, Hon. Stanley Matthews, afterward one of the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, was one of his pupils. Mr. Holden was one of the founders of the Mount Auburn Young Ladies Institute; one of the eight gentlemen who built it and established it on a financial footing, thereby securing to Cincinnati and the immediate vicinity one of the most desirable institutions of learning. The building now belongs to Christ's Hospital. He was a member of the ,jury in the celebrated suit instituted by the United States Government to fix the compensation to owners for property condemned as a site for the new custom house in Cincinnati.

In 1863 the superior court of Cincinnati appointed Mr. Holden a director of the House of Refuge, a position he has since occupied, and from 1881 to 1890 he was president of its board of directors. During the thirty-one years of his directorship Mr. Holden has given a large amount of valuable time to the interests of this institution, more than most men actively engaged in business would feel that they could afford. He has always appreciated the value of the Refuge, one of the noblest institutions of Ohio, and has always given his services gratuitously and gladly. Since its organization he has been one of the directors of the National Lafayette Bank; was a director of the Cincinnati & Baltimore railroad; and for several years was a trustee of Dennison University, at Granville, Ohio. He has been closely connected with the Associated Charities, being at one time president of the Mount Auburn branch; is a member of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and Children; and is also a director of the Home of the Friendless. Besides giving his time and attention to these various institutions, Mr. Holden has always been a liberal giver of "material aid," riot only to organizations in which he is personally interested, but to all charitable objects and to churches of all denominations. To almost every worthy object his purse strings have bean loosened. Of him, it can be truly said that his left hand knows not what his right hand does. His charities are of the unostentatious kind, and many a want has been supplied, many an aching; heart gladdened, which none know of but the giver and the recipient, Thus he is, and thus he has been, serving his day and generation, and he has


part of his reward in the high personal esteem in which he is held wherever he is known. At his advanced ago he is still in the enjoyment of remarkably good health.

Mr. Holden was married, at Oxford, Ohio, to Miss Aurelia C. Wells, a daughter of Mr. Oliver Wells, who built the first, type foundry in Cincinnati, the first west of the Alleghany Mountains. This happy union was blessed with five children: Emma A., now Mrs. James C. Crane; Laura H., married to S. Phelps Cheseldine; Kate A., wife of Maj. William E, Crane; Florence C., who married Charles E. Wilson, and R. A. Holden, Jr., all of whom reside on Mount Auburn in their own homes riot far removed. It is one of the joys of Mr. Holden's life that his children are all around him in the evening of his life, for thus he has been the better enabled to share liberally his means with them. Quiet, modest, unostentatious, with frugal habits, his own requirements have boon very limited, while he has been very liberal to others. And it is one of his greatest sources of pleasure to see his family, while he is yet with them, enjoying the blessings Providence has placed in his hands. Contact with the world, a long hard struggle at first; many a disappointment in business, but never a failure; many a loss, doubtless through the faithlessness of others, but. never a load too heavy to bear-these things may have grieved, but they did not discourage him. His Christian fortitude, his faith, never failed, never forsook him. In the possession of wealth, surrounded by a loving family, by troops of friends, spending his time partly in business, partly in church enterprises, partly in noiseless, numberless ways of doing good, and notably in discharging the duties devolving upon him as director of the House of Refuge, where his name is both loved and honored, he is recognized by all as a true benefactor of mankind, and one of Cincinnati's most highly honored citizens. His is a noble Christian character, and his life has been a fit model for all corning generations. Whatever of success he has achieved he attributes to his adherence to the principles of the Christian religion. And for this reason his life has been as beneficent as it was successful.

LEWIS GLENN was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, October 1, 1823, a son of Robert and Mary (Miles) Glenn. On his father's side he was of Scotch descent, his grandparents having come direct from Scotland in 1784. His mother was the daughter of Benjamin and Anne (Piles) Miles, representatives of old Maryland families. Robert Glenn was born January 1, 1785, and died October 11, 1832. His wife was born September 7, 1787, and died March 17, 1863; they were the parents of seven children: Barbara, Nancy, Robert, Milton, Mary, Lewis and Sarah Jane.

When Lewis Glenn was but nine years old, his father died leaving him to be reared by his mother. On March 21, 1842, he was married to Lucy Maria Lewis, who was born August 17, 1825, a daughter of Elisha Slater and Kasiah (Steele) Lewis, both of whom were descended from the first settlers of Connecticut. To this union were born eight children, two of whom are living: Mrs. Lee R. Keck, and Mrs. A. G. Corre. Soon after his marriage Mr. Lewis went into the lumber business with his brother, Milton Glenn, as a partner. The Glenn sawmill was in the East End of the city. This business venture was a great success, and Lewis Glenn laid the foundation of his fortune from its profits. After being in the lumber business for a little more than thirty years, the partnership was dissolved, Milton Glenn retiring from active business and Lewis Glenn becoming interested in the Cincinnati, Portsmouth, Big Sandy, and Pomeroy Packet Company, U. S. Mail Line, and the Cincinnati and Memphis boat lines, and was for sometime president of the Citizens' Insurance Company. For a good many years he was a stockholder and director of the Fourth National Bank. He was not only prominent in both insurance and steamboat circles but also among business men, His life was a very successful and happy one until about two years previous to his death, when he was stricken with paralysis and obliged to give up business.

Mrs. Glenn died October 13, 1887, and Lewis Glenn was not long in following her, he passing away at the old family residence in the East End, March 22, 1888,


aged sixty-four years. A newspaper of that time says of him: "He was prominent in insurance and steamboat business circles. His business career had been one of success. In all the varied positions of responsibility and trust he has filled he bas enjoyed the highest esteem and the entire confidence of all classes of citizens."

EDWARD D. MANSFIELD. An account of the prominent men of Cincinnati would be defective without an honorable mention of this well-known man, Among the oldest pioneers of this place, he was not only a witness of the rapid and substantial growth of the city, but in time, talents, and money he also largely contributed to it. His parentage and education prepared him to be a man of wide influence, and a leader of society.

His father. Col. Jared Mansfield, was one of the first scholars of his day. He wrote a book on mathematics which attracted the attention of Mr. Jefferson, then President of the United States, and secured to him, from that distinguished man, the appointment to the office of Surveyor General of the Northwest Territory. Col. Mansfield devised and made the beginning of that accurate and admirable system of survey of the public lands which the nation still employs. He established the meridian and base lines upon which the whole survey of the territory was made. The performance of these duties necessitated his residence in the territory. Accordingly, he came with his family from New Haven, Conn., where Edward was born, August 17, 1804, occupied a house in the woods near where Cumminsville, or North Side, now is, and here he remained for a number of years. Called by his appointment as professor in the Military Academy at West Point, he changed his residence to that place. Thus as a pioneer in his boyhood did Mr. Mansfield see the wild beasts of the forest occupying much of the ground now covered by the dwellings and business houses of Cincinnati. He went with his father to West Point, entered the Military Academy in 1815, and in June, 1819, at the age of eighteen, was graduated lieutenant of engineers. His mother, literary in her tastes and religious in her principles, preferred that her son should not devote his life to military pursuits. At her suggestion he devoted himself to literary studies at Farmington, Conn., during the year 1820, and finally was graduated with high honors at the college of New Jersey, at Princeton, in September, 1822, He chose the profession (if law, and studied under Judge Gould, at Litchfield, Conn., during the two subsequent years. In 1825 he returned to Cincinnati.

As a lawyer, Mr. Mansfield entered into partnership with the late Prof. Mitchell, who reflected so mach honor upon Cincinnati by his success as an astronomer. But the firm of Mansfield & Mitchell was not prospered in the law. The clients, who entered the office to secure the able service of the firm, found the members so busily engaged in scientific and literary investigations that their attention could not be called to the dull and practical points of fact and principles of law. Of course the peculiarly professional life of Mr. Mansfield was of short duration. In 1826 he engaged personally in canvassing the city for names and facts which he put into shape, and, in connection with Benjamin Drake, published as a directory of the same year. This book is now rare, and is eagerly sought after by those who are interested in the early history of the city. The stronger tendencies of Mr. Mansfield began now to assert their influence, and he at once started on his literary career. His first book, " The Political Grammar," still published as the Political Manual, was written and sent to the press in 1834. This book was well received. It was adopted as a text-book in many schools throughout the country; and justly established for the author a reputation for legal and literary ability. He did not continuously devote himself to the art of book-making, but from time to time gave to the world productions which have attracted much attention. In 1834 he published the "Utility of mathematics;" in 1845, "The Legal Rights of Women;" in 1846, the" Life of General Winfield Scott;" in 1848, the "Mexican War; in 1850, "American Education;" in 1855, "Memoirs of Daniel Drake;" in 1868, "Life of General Grant," and in


1879, "Personal Memories." But his most distinguished services to society were rendered as editor of the Cincinnati Chronicle from 1836 to 1848; of the Chronicle and Atlas from 1849 to 1852; of the Cincinnati Gazette during the year 1857, and of the Railroad Record from 1853 to 1871. As an editor and contributor he was free from " isms," and was the most extensive newspaper writer in the country, with perhaps one exception. In the management of his paper he did much to develop the talent for writing in others. Among the many he encouraged is Harreit Beecher Stowe, who wrote sonic of her first productions for his paper. During the Civil war his contributions to the New York Times over the signature of "Veteran Observer," and to the Cincinnati Gazette over that of "E. D. M.," were recognized as the ablest and most reliable commentaries on current. events contained in any publication. In these productions he freely took hold of the most interesting topics of the times, and advocated sound and healthful views on all scientific and social questions. An honest and able advocate of all true progress and reform, be did not identify himself with measures unduly radical, and productive of more change than improvement.

As a politician Mr. Mansfield supported the Whig party with all his ability. The doctrine of a protective tariff he advocated on the ground that only by discrimination in favor of the products of home labor can the condition of the American working man be kept better than that of European laborers. No man did more for the triumph and rule of the Republican party. When the party came into power, in 1860, it might justly have been expected that Mr. Mansfield would have been taken into its councils and patronage. As one of its ablest and most distinguished supporters, as a citizen of learning, capacity and integrity, he deserved a prominent place of trust and service. But because he was not among the scramblers for office, he was left by the party unrewarded for his services. The only civil office he ever held was that of State Commissioner of . Statistics for Ohio, the duties of which be performed during the years from 1857 to 1867 inclusive. His reports upon the condition of the State, materially and morally, are the best representation ever given of a territory of equal extent, and a population of equal numbers.

Personally Mr. Mansfield was known and esteemed by a wide circle of friends. Simple in his habits, easy of approach, cheerful, vivacious and sympathetic in his temperament; ready, genial, and sprightly in conversation; intercourse with him was most delightful and refreshing. In his religious belief he was broad and charitable, having a profound respect for all religious convictions. All the activity of his nature he turned into his practical religions life. He was ready to relieve the wants of the needy; to support the claims of a broader benevolence and religion, to preach a sermon. deliver an exhortation, or take part in religious meetings, as duty indicated. He did not believe that true science will utter a single word in contradiction to the word of revelation. He believed that the Bible is man's best guide in life. When hearing the weight of years, be had all the energy, vivacity and cheerfulness of middle life. He was every day industriously employed upon what seemed to him of value to his fellow men. He ever sought to be useful rather than successful, as the world judges, and he depended upon the productions of his pen for his daily support. He was honored by the most prominent literary corporations of the country with the honorary degrees of A. B. and LL.D., but said he wished inscribed on his tombstone:


He died in October, 1880, and now rests peacefully in the beautiful cemetery of Spring Grove.

JOHN SHILLITO was born at Greensburg, Westmoreland Co., Penn., November 24, 1808. He migrated to Cincinnati in 1817, and though a mere boy of nine years entered the employ of Blatchley & Simpson, at that time the leading mer-


chants in this city. While serving his clerkship with this firm, by constant application to his duties, supplemented by his naturally keen foresight, he soon acquired that knowledge of commercial affairs which so successfully inured to his benefit during his entire business life.

In 1830 he severed his connection with Blatchley & Simpson, formed a partnership with William McLaughlin, and began the dry-goods business on Main street under the firm name of McLaughlin & Shillito. A year or so later the firm dissolved, and Mr. Shillito entered into co-partnership with Robert W. Burnet. Two years later James Pullan was admitted, and the business was now done in the firm name of Shillito, Burnet & Pullan. In 1833 they removed to other quarters on Main street, between Fourth and Fifth streets, and here the firm employed four clerks, which caused the town people to comment on the vast business they were doing. In 1837 Shillito purchased the interests of his partners, and immediately established the firm of John Shillito & Co., the other members being M. H. Coates, Isaac Stephens, William Woods and Edward. Holroyd. They removed their stock of goods to the north side of Fourth street, between Main and Sycamore, where Mr. Shillito erected a building considered at that time the most commodious dry-goods store west of the Alleghany Mountains. At intervals Mr. Shillito purchased the interests of his partners, and in 1842 became sole proprietor. The business continued prosperous, and realizing that it would soon become necessary to have more room to accommodate his rapidly increasing trade, he secured a lot on the south side of Fourth street, between Race and Vine streets, just west of the new Chamber of Commerce building, where he built a large store, into which he removed in 1857. Here be prosecuted his trade for twenty-one years, during which time he at intervals admitted into partnership his sons, Wallace, John and Gordon. Continuing to meet with phenomenal success, be again found it necessary to secure more commodious quarters. After a long canvass of the real-estate market, he purchased, in the spring of 1877, the property bounded by Race, Seventh, and George streets, and erected the colossal dry-goods palace of to-day, into which the firm removed September 1, 1878, and opened up to the public the following day. Stewart Shillito was admitted to the firm January 1, 1879. John Shillito died September 10,. 1879, in the seventy-first year of his age, after having lived to see his last and greatest mercantile achievement crowned with eminent success. The firm of John Shillito & Co. was succeeded by The John Shillito Company, a corporation organized under the laws of Ohio, June 28, 1882,

Mr. Shillito married Mary Wallace, daughter of Col. Robert Wallace, of Kentucky. At the time of his death they had four sons and one daughter living: Wallace, who resides in New York; John, who died August 6, 1888; Gordon and Stewart, who reside in Cincinnati; and Mary, who is the wife of Henry P. Rogers, of New York City. Mr. Shillito was a director and treasurer of Spring Grove Cemetery; a director of the Lafayette and National Bank of Commerce; treasurer of the Cincinnati Music Hall Association, and the Music Festival Association; a director of the Children's Home and of the Old Men's Home. He was also a member, trustee and treasurer of the Second Presbyterian Church.

John Shillito was a strong man among men. His business capacity was as marked as his ability to meet men under all circumstances. He was full of the milk of human kindness. His daily life was a complete system, but he could always, in the midst of it, present the pleasant side of human nature. Honor and integrity with him went hand in band with intelligence and enterprise, and be always strove, so far as he was concerned, to maintain the high character of Cincinnati's merchants. The result was, he built up for himself both reputation and fortune. He was a cheerful giver, and always contributed liberally to everything which tended to build up and perpetuate the memory of the community in which he made his wonderful business success. In his death the mercantile interests of Cincinnati


sustained a great loss, the community felt keenly his taking away, and all with one accord sympathized with the family and his business associates in the irreparable calamity.

JAMES PULLAN, the eldest of William and Elizabeth (Butterfield) Pullan's family of six sons-James, Thomas, William B., John, Richard B. and Joseph-and three daughters---Mary, Sarah and Elizabeth-was born September 2, 1805. His business life began in the counting room of Adingham Low Mill, the extensive Worsted Works of William and John Pullan on the River Wharf, Yorkshire, England. The market for their fabric was in foreign lands, mostly through correspondents in New York, Philadelphia and other American cities. That business increased from year to year until its magnitude invited them in 1821 to move to this country, where they lived part of the time on the Hudson and part in New York City; but all the time they continued their accustomed busy life, forgetful of the dangers of very successful men pursuing such a course in a new country with entirely now surroundings.

As incidents in the life of a private-in the rank of the great army passing through life, and only worth recording when they may happily influence the lives of others wearily moving in like directions, we will cover the decade of decadence in the fortune of this family from 1821 to 1830, when with their three large wagons that served for lodging and transport of household goods, laden with precious memories and a Jersey dearborn for the mother and daughters, all its members crossed the Alleghany Mountains to the then far-off city of the great West by saying-that James Pullan and his brother always and under all circumstances did what was possible to help their father in his various undertakings, and never failed in their devotion and respect because of their failure. The knowledge of this, and their scrupulous care to leave no debts of his unpaid, secured for four of them positions, soon after they reached Cincinnati, with the best of its citizens. Among them, Lewis Howell, one of the trustees of Woodward High School, where the two youngest had been placed by their elder brother on its opening, made the writer of this sketch a beneficiary of William Woodward's bounty. As the life and character of James Pullan after 1830 was pretty fully described in the editorials of the city papers when he died, June 21, 1886, their historical statements, with slight correcting necessary, will possess more interest than anything now prepared. Hence the editorial of the Commercial Gazette is reproduced in the hope that it may aid in realizing the hope expressed in the concluding sentence.

"Born in England in 1805, he came when a youth of sixteen with his father to New York. In 1830 he removed to Cincinnati, and here he has ever since resided. Here be began business as a clerk in Michael P. Cassilly's business house. Within a year Mr. Howell bought the stock and good will, upon being assured that Mr. Pullan would continue his services. He then took charge of Lewis Howell's business, the largest dry-goods house at that time, and with such success that on Mr. Howell's death in 1834 the executors sold Mr. Pullan the entire business. In an early directory of our city, dated 1834, we find his name recorded as with Lewis Howell, merchant. He soon became a partner in the house of Shillito & Pullan. He afterward established the house of Pullan & Bros. He was the second president of the Lafayette Bank. Then his matured energies were devoted not only to his private interests and duties as president of the bank, but they were exerted earnestly and effectively in favor of the resumption of specie payments. He was one of the leading spirits and organizers of our unrivaled Spring Grove Cemetery. He planned and well nigh established a grand public park for Cincinnati, which would have been for situation, landscape, forests and prospects one of the most beautiful in the world. In this enterprise he `deserved, though be did not achieve success.'

" As in his commercial, so in his public career, he depended on his capacity for work, and without seeking place or asking promotion waited until he was needed and called. He and his family were identified with the early anti-slavery move-


ments, and were among the founders of the Republican party. He was a trusted friend of Secretary Chase, and when the International Revenue system was adopted he was notified from Washington of his appointment as assessor of the Second District of Ohio, then one of the most important in the country. The system was new and complicated, and Mr. Pullan rendered silent services to the country, in response to calls from the great secretary, which never can be fully known or appreciated. He continued in this position until relieved by Andrew Johnson, and subsequently, when Mr. Johnson wished to appoint Gen. Cary, Mr. Pullan, to aid the General to perform the duties, modestly accepted the position as assistant, which he filled until Gen. Cary was relieved.

" He had now reached the verge of old age, and his active life was over; yet his experience and judgment were ever at the service of the government and its officers; of the community and his friends. His character and reputation as a trustworthy man caused him to be sought for as a trustee and referee, and his report in the matter of the Southern railway is notable for its ability and fairness. To do justice to the memory of such a man were impossible; we can not express our sense of loss, but we hope that his example may inspire others, and especially the young men of our great city, to cultivate and exercise those virtues which ware the heart and soul of true commerce, and which render the public-spirited merchant a most useful and honored citizen."

The steel portrait of James Pullan which appears in this work was engraved from a photographic copy of a portrait which hangs in the National Lafayette Bank of Cincinnati.

ROBERT WALLACE BURNET, the third son of Judge Jacob Burnet, was born in Cincinnati in 1808, in the old brick home occupying part of the lot on which the "Burnet House" now stands. At the age of sixteen he entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, and was graduated with his class. After several years of service in the army, in the Indian campaigns in the Southern States, he resigned his commission, retired into private life, and has resided in the city of his birth until the present time.

On the occasion of his election as a member of the Ohio Commandery of the Loyal Legion, Gen. M. F. Force said of him: "To be presented as a member of the third class of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, one must have distinguished himself for loyalty during the war, and must, as a citizen now and since the war, have a record above reproach. All this has Robert W. Burnet, and more." He was himself a pioneer, being a son of the late Judge Jacob Burnet, who was one of the original settlers of the Ohio Valley, and both fattier and son took a lively interest in the growth and prosperity of that region. Having been educated at West Point, and seen years of service as a soldier, his sympathies were always with the men in the field; and when the war broke out, although prevented by ill health from taking active service in the cause of the Union, he found work to do at home, and did it. Being at the time president of the Literary Club, he at once organized it into a military company, known as the "Burnet Rifles," which he thoroughly equipped and personally drilled. Of this company, seventy became officers in the Union army, and were distinguished for their service in field and hospital.

When the United States Sanitary Commission was organized, Robert W. Burnet was appointed president of the Western Branch, and continued as such until the close of the war and after until, in fact, the Commission had ended its labors, giving his time, and liberally of his means, in furtherance of the work of the Commission. His work as president of the Commission was known and felt throughout the country, and all the departments under his supervision accomplished results that were appreciated and remembered. He is now living a quiet and retired life at his home on the Grandin road, East Walnut Hills.


THE GANO FAMILY. The ancestors of this distinguished family were Huguenots. who fled from France to avoid religious persecution. They came to America, and settled in Now Jersey, whence we note the beginning of the family in this country.

Rev. John Gano was born at Hopewell, N. J., July 22, 1727, and was ordained to the ministry in 1754. He became a distinguished Baptist, and organized the first church of that denomination in New York City, becoming its pastor in 1762. Early espousing the cause of the colonists against Great Britain, he joined the Revolutionary army on the breaking out of the war, became a brigade chaplain, and remained in the service until Independence was established. He left his society in New York, April 5, 1788, and removed to Kentucky, dying at Frankfort, August 10, 1804, aged seventy-seven years.

JOHN S. GANO, son of Rev. John Gano, was one of the early settlers of Columbia. He held commissions as captain, major, brigadier and major-general of the first division of Ohio militia, from September 1, 1803, when these offices were posts of honor, danger and duty, until 1818, when he removed to Covington, Ky., of which place he was the principal proprietor. He was topographical engineer, commanded an advance party, and surveyed the route for the march of the army under Gen. St. Clair, and shared in the battle and defeat November 4, 1791. He also commanded a battalion of 132 men in an expedition to the field of St. Clair's depot, buried the dead, and brought off 1,050 stand of arms, two field pieces and other munitions of war. He commanded a company of one hundred volunteers who marched to the relief of Capt. Kingsbury, who was besieged by the Indians at Dunlap's Station, and he also took an active and responsible part in the war with England in 1812, raising volunteers, drafting, mustering, organizing and equipping several detachments. Part of the time he was stationed at Sandusky, and for six months he was in command of the Ohio militia on the frontier under Gen. Harrison. He also surveyed and marked the sections and fractions in one of the ranges of land in Symmes' purchase. On the early organization of the courts, Gen. Gano was appointed clerk, and held this office until his removal to Covington in 1818, where he died January 1, 1822. His remains were afterward removed to Spring Grove Cemetery. His mother was the daughter of Judge William Goforth, Sr., the first judge appointed for Hamilton county. Mrs. Gen. Gano was born in New York City. She was remarkable for her intelligence, grace, dignity, and hospitality. Her remains were brought to Cincinnati in 1858, and interred in Spring Grove Cemetery.

DANIEL GANO was born May 23, 1794, near the mouth of the Little Miami, where Benjamin Stites and party made the first settlement in Symmes' purchase November 18, 1788. After receiving the rudiments of an education he was, in 1805, put in a boarding school. When only thirteen years of age be rode 1,100 miles on horseback to Providence, R. I., across the mountains, at that time a wilderness. This journey was regarded as extraordinary for one so young. He was accompanied by his uncle, Dr. Stephen Gano, who organized the first Baptist church at Columbia, in 1790. He was the son of Rev. John Gano, and was born in New York December 25, 1762. After completing his medical studies he served some time in the Revolutionary army as a surgeon, and was captured and sent aboard a British prison ship. After this he entered the ministry. In 1792 he was called to the pastoral care of the First Baptist church, Providence, R. I., and continued to occupy that important station until his death, which occurred August 18, 1828. Here Daniel remained with his uncle and prepared to enter college, but was deterred on account of a severe accident which incapacitated him for some time. On his recovery he abandoned his college pursuits, returned to Cincinnati and entered his father's office as assistant clerk. He soon became a deputy, retaining that position until 1818, when his father resigned, and be was appointed clerk, in which capacity he continued until 1856, except a few months when Gen. Harrison filled the office. The life of Daniel Gano was a remarkable and busy one. When eighteen years of age he was commissioned by the gover-


nor of Ohio as aid to the major-general, after which he was re-appointed and held his commission under Maj.-Gen. James Findlay (who succeeded his father), until his death. . He assisted as military aid in preparing troops for the field during the war of 1812. Being a deputy clerk he furnished a substitute. Although he was so long in official life, there were few in his tine who did more toward the building up of the city, or who contributed more toward the development of its natural resources. He built no less than twenty-seven houses in Hamilton county, besides a bridge across Mill creek, where he owned a farm. By his individual exertions and responsibility he provided for the location of the Miami canal, procured plans from New York, had the first five canal boats built and equipped, and operated them by agents. As agent for the Covington company, he platted and superintended the surveying and sale of lots which took place March 20, 1815. After his father's death, he settled the company's business, and preserved his transactions for future, reference in permanent record form. Always an advocate of freedom, he liberated three families of slaves, seven in number; and was always in the front rank of reformers, aiding progressive movements with a liberal hand. Being an ardent lover and liberal patron of the fine arts, he bestowed much time and expended large sums of money in agricultural and horticultural experiments. As chairman he reported the first constitution for the first agricultural society of Hamilton county, January 9, 1827. He had three farms in operation at one time, and took a deep interest in raising fine horses and cattle. When Lafayette visited Cincinnati in 1824, Maj. Gano received him in splendid style, and entertained him. He often reverted with pride that he had had the honor of sitting in Masonic Lodge with Lafayette, Gen. Jackson and Governor Clinton. The wife of Maj. Gano was Rebecca Hunt Lawrence, daughter of Benjamin Lawrence and Rebecca (Hunt) Lawrence, of New Jersey, and twin sister of Jeremiah Hunt. They were married in Cincinnati September 26, 1816, and six children were the fruits of the union, only two of whom are living: Stephen and Henrietta G., the latter of whom is the wife of Henry A. Chittenden, a merchant of New York City. Maj. Gano died in July, 1873, and was laid at rest among his kindred in Spring Grove Cemetery.

STEPHEN GANO, Madisonville, born in Cincinnati, August 5, 1819, is the only son of Maj. Daniel and Rebecca (Hunt) Gano, and was named for his uncle, Dr. Stephen Gano, son of Rev. John Gano, above mentioned. He had the educational advantages of old Woodward High School, and Cary's Farmers' College. He enjoyed the personal friendship of Dr. Aydelotte and Dr. Ray, professors in old Woodward, and he will always venerate with kindred heart their memory and great worth. His particular friend, A. H. McGuffy, for a long time one of the professors, in old Woodward, when Stephen went there, says that at one time one of the professors complained to Dr. Aydelotte that he should be reprimanded, as he was altogether too noisy, but he was saved by the good old president, who said: " Yes, Stephen is a very noisy boy, but he always gets his lessons, is ever kind and pleasant to his playmates, and respectful and gentlemanly to his teachers; let him go. he will do us no harm." And let him go they did. After getting through with his studies he was for a long time in the office with his father, who was clock of the courts of Hamilton county for over forty years. He then studied law under the late Vachel Worthington, Esquire. and was admitted to the bar, but never engaged in practice. He rather devoted himself to examining real-estate titles and making abstracts. In his earlier years he gave a good deal of his time to the study of natural history, and had a large collection of minerals, shells, fossils, curiosities and botanical specimens, some of which are now in the rooms of the Historical Society of Cincinnati. In 14-15) he was seized with the California gold fever, and in company with a number of young men crossed the plains on a mule, with Col. James Collier, of Steubenville, who was sent to San Francisco as collector of United States customs. The trip across the plains in those days took six months. He experienced some very hard times on the


plains, and in the mines, during his absence of four years. Never before or since, he says, had he such an intense eagerness to work, and put in all the dirt possible just as though his life depended On each extra shovelful, as in that. the desired lumps of gold might be found-that the more dirt shoveled and washed, the more gold gathered. Backache, mud and dirty water, and wet feet were not considered until at camp in the evening steaming before a big fire. The anxiety of the gold digger is of a character with the excitement at a gambling table. He has spent his life in some tenor more different kinds of business, and he now often regrets that he had not from the start devoted all of his time, energy and talents to some one useful occupation, and strained every nerve to its mastery. Now, in his seventy-fourth year, he would like to shout in trumpet tones to all young men the words of Hon. Chauncey M. Depew: "Stick, dig and save." From experience and observation he thinks that almost any young man of good healthy constitution can succeed if he will stick to some useful pursuit, and work continuously with all his might. aim high, keep himself pure and unspotted from the temptations of life, and take good care of what he makes. The Bible says: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business he will stand before kings." Mr. Gano has never been an idle man, but has worked at something useful all his life; he believes in doing well whatever he has to do, or to work with an honesty of purpose. If he has one peculiarity more marked than another it is his kindness of disposition toward all mankind. There is nothing cynical about him; it may be that he is too forgiving. He aims to injure no one. He says he never knowingly said or did anything to injure or hurt the feelings of a brother man, and he thinks he has not an enemy living. He seems to take pleasure in doing kind and considerate service, and in the revealing of "manifestations." He finds the Bible fall of spirit manifestations and argues that an individual is very unreasonable who wants a better kind of manifestation than is found in First Book of Samuel, Chapter 28, He has studied the best authors, essays, and periodicals on that subject, and weighed carefully and honestly all the different objections and arguments against it, and the result is that he is thoroughly convinced that Spiritualism is true, and is one of the most important subjects that can engage the best attention of man both for this world and the nest. He most heartily enjoys the hopes it teaches and the rewards it offers, and he is beyond a doubt convinced that our departed friends still live and do come back to earth and try to influence us and guide us in the better way; and that the very important question, if a man die shall he live again, is more satisfactorily answered and proved by spiritual manifestations than by any other known method. It demonstrates that man lives beyond the grave. On May 1, 1855, Mr. Gano was married to Sarah L. French, of Concord, N. H., and to them have been born two sons and four daughters; they have nine grandchildren. The married life of Mr. Gano has been a most remarkably happy one. All of his spare time is passed in the bosom of his family, and he is never so happy as when at home in his place at Madisonville. His wife is remarkable for great good sense and kindness of disposition. For the last nine years Mr. Gano has been assisting H. C. Hulbert in taking care of his father's large estate.

ROBERT MITCHELL, son of John and Jane (Peterson) Mitchell, was born in the North of Ireland in 1811, and came to this country with his parents in 1824. The family having settled on a wild farm in Indiana, Robert had to bear his share of the hardships incident to pioneer life. He is the fourth of ten children, all of whom were alive and well for fifty-five years after the family came to the United States. His mother died young, though her mother died about twenty years ago at the age of one hundred and five years.

Our subject assisted in clearing up the Indiana farm and labored to assist in supporting the large family of his parents. On this account he found little time to avail himself of the opportunities offered to attend the three months' winter school in a log cabin. But notwithstanding these drawbacks he succeeded by dint of


industry, perseverance and close application in acquiring the rudiments of an education. After the farm was well cleared he came to Cincinnati, with nothing; but a good character, a sound and vigorous constitution, and a determination to accomplish something, but a very indefinite idea as to what that something should be. After trying various employments then open to a youth of twenty he decided to learn a trade, and for that purpose apprenticed himself to a cabinet maker. He served his time and worked at journey work for five or six years, when he commenced business for himself. At that time some little machinery for wood work had been introduced in some places, and believing that the first who should apply it to the manufacture of furniture would reap a rich reward he, after a hard struggle, succeeded in establishing a small factory with what new appliances were then available. The factory was operated for two years in company with a capitalist who had assisted him in its establishment, and who had become dissatisfied at, not yet having any returns for his money, and was desirous of disposing of his investment. Frederick Rammelsberg became the purchaser, and from that date (1846) to January, 1863, when he died, the partnership was continued. At the time Mr. Rammelsberg became interested the capacity of the works was sufficient for but about thirty men, but was gradually increased until 1848, when it was destroyed by fire, and the whole fruit of their labor was swept away, there being no insurance whatever.

In 1849 the works were rebuilt on a larger scale, but when they were ready to start business was very much depressed, and then to add to the depression came the cholera epidemic. They struggled on, however, and continued adding to their capacities until they finally triumphed by having built up a good trade. When the Civil war broke out they were employing between four and five hundred men. This calamity again depressed the business, but in a few years it began to pick up again, and in time it became quite flourishing. The working force was increased from five hundred to six hundred men, and as business increased it was still further added to until a much larger number was employed. In 1871-72 the present store and manufactory-100x150 feet, six stories in height in front and seven in the rear was built, being one of the largest establishments of the kind in the United States. At present they manufacture and set up wooden mantels, which they have introduced into Cincinnati and which have largely displaced stone and iron mantels in many of the best residences. They also make a specialty of interior fittings of all kinds for offices, banks, hotels, court and state houses, as well as private residences. A wholesale as well as a retail department is conducted. The entire floorage of the factories and store covers nearly ten acres of space. In 1867 Mr. Mitchell incorporated the concern as the "Mitchell & Rammelsberg Furniture Company" and took in a number of the employes as stockholders, but reserved the first right to repurchase the stock if they desired to dispose of it, which he did at the request of the holders some years since. In 1881 the title of the concern was changed to the Robert Mitchell Furniture Company.

Robert Mitchell was first married in 1838, and a second time in 1864. There are five living children-two sons and three daughters-all born of the first marriage. Albert H. is vice-president of the company and Richard H. secretary. Of the daughters Jennie married Stephen R. Burton; Lillie became the wife of W. H. Ellis, treasurer of the furniture company, and Emma married A. J. Redway. The venerable head of the great corporation resides in Avondale, and is spending the evening of his life in ease and comfort. During his more active years he was always in the shop with his workmen and ever took a deep interest in their welfare. When the company was incorporated he was chosen president, but retired from any active participation in the business, choosing to leave its direction in the hands of his sons and son-in-law. The family attend Grace Episcopal Church, Avondale, Mr. Mitchell was a member of the first I. O. O. F. Lodge organized in Cincinnati,


and such for many years. In politics he adheres to the Republican party, but never held a public office in his life; nor was he ever a candidate. The success of Mr. Mitchell in the management of the great business which he founded has been largely due to his judgment of men and motives, his control of large bodies of workmen, his indomitable will power, his strict punctuality in business engagements, and an integrity of character which is always the basis of universal confidence.

HENRY LEWIS, deceased capitalist, was born May 11, 1826, in Chester county, Penn., son of Isaac and Either (Ottenkirk) Lewis. His father was born in Chester County, Penn., February 3, 1793, of Welsh parentage, and died July 15, 1874. His mother, Esther (Ottenkirk), was born also in Chester county, June 18, 1798, of Scotch extraction, and died December 13, 1888.

Henry Lewis' paternal and maternal ancestors emigrated from Wales, settling in Chester county, Penn., prior to 1718, and his great great-grandfather came to America with William Penn, settling in Delaware county, Penn. Of the seven children born to Isaac and Esther (Ottenkirk) Lewis two are living: Charles R., who is a manufacturer at Jefferson City, Mo., and Mrs. Ann (Lewis) Keely, who resides in Elba, Chase Co., Kans. Henry Lewis' father was a well-to-do farmer in Chester county, Penn., and there Henry passed his boyhood, obtaining a more than fair education, having graduated from Bristol College, Bristol, Penn., in 1848, so that he taught school as well as worked on his father's farm. After teaching school in Chester county for about a year, Henry Lewis came to Cincinnati in 1846, and then went to Flemingsburg, Ky., where he again taught school for a year, thence returning to Cincinnati. Soon afterward he became a member of the firm of A. D. Bullock & Company, manufacturers of curled hair and dealers in foreign and domestic wools and woolens, the senior partners being William and Anthony D. Bullock, the former soon afterward retiring. The firm was very successful, and A. D. Bullock becoming largely interested in outside investments, Mr. Lewis became managing partner, conducting the business successfully until 1884, when he retired, devoting the latter years of his life to the promotion of various railroad interests and other investments. Mr. Lewis was identified with the early growth of Walnut Hills, was one of-the promoters and for several years president of the street railroad known as Route 10, afterward sold to the Consolidated Street. Railroad Company, and converted into a cable road. He was one of the organizers of and directors in the company which built the John street line, probably the first street railroad in Cincinnati. He was intimately connected with Charles W. West, R. M. Shoemaker, E. A. Ferguson, J. N. Kinney and others in the promotion of the Cincinnati Southern railroad, and afterward in its opening and operation as one of the Common Carrier Company. He was a director for a number of years in the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton and Kentucky Central railroads, and, generally, was identified with nearly every project tending toward the development of Cincinnati.

Just after the war the Cincinnati Street Railway Company was in a sorry condition, mules or horses were high, feed was higher, the cars costly. and the company had not been able to lobby with success to prevent heavy licenses on each car and stringent ordinances about keeping the streets in repair. A Philadelphia firm owned the line then, and wanted to sell out. Seneca W. Ely, the veteran editor, conducted the deal by which the lines were sold to Bullock, Lewis and others, including the late Charles W. West. From that time on the street car systems of Cincinnati have been paying investments. It was this investment and its result which made Henry Lewis anxious ever after to take up some broken-down investment or company and build it up into profit. He made it his "fad" (if the word can be applied to business); anyhow, it became a hobby of his, and when the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad Company was in a distressing condition, Henry Lewis, R. M. Shoemaker, Charles W. West, J. N. Kinney and others bought up a controlling amount of stock, and soon had it worth mach more than they gave for it.


Henry Lewis was a director for some time, and closed out his holdings at a handsome profit. He had great faith in the future development of the Kentucky Central railroad, and invested largely in its stock and bonds. At one time hie had invested over two hundred thousand dollars. and sold nearly all his available real estate to make the purchase and hold it, the outlook not being good, but what promised once to be a disastrous speculation resulted in a great success. About, 1891 he sold out to the Louisville and Nashville system, doubling his investment. When the old Cincinnati and Eastern, often sneeringly called the "Cemetery and Eternity," was undergoing wreckage, Henry Lewis and his hobby came to the front, and he bought heavily into the road in which he had, until his death, abiding faith. He had heavy holdings in this road, bow known as the Cincinnati, Portsmouth &, Virginia, of which Samuel Hunt is president. Some years ago Mr. Lewis bought another road which was having a precarious existence. It ran from Dayton to Lebanon, or near there, and formed the connecting link between the Northern Narrow-gauge and Dayton. It was his hope to see the road a booming line between here and Dayton.

Mr. Lewis' business relations with "Tony" Bullock ended some years ago. In 1884, when the woolen business was at No. 142 West Pearl street, Mr. Lewis withdrew from the firm. Since 1872 Pierson R. Mitchell had been a partner, having previously been a bookkeeper, and he retains his interest in the firm to-day. For some reason not known, Mr. Lewis did not go into the telephone speculation with his friend Bullock. Perhaps he did not have faith in it, or perhaps "Tony" didn't let him into what has proved such a success. However, since 1872, when the two partners divided their securities and stocks, they operated separately in their speculations.

Those who saw Henry Lewis and heard his business methods or his personal peculiarities discussed, set him down as a millionaire. However, it is not probable that he was so wealthy. There are some citizens of Cincinnati who know about what his holdings were in value, and they estimate his estate at. not over, if quite, six hundred thousand dollars. He was not a man given to confidences, however, and the condition of his affairs may be a surprise, as he was certainly not a loser in his business transactions. He was a warm personal friend of Charles W. West, and gave $1,000 for the Art Museum. In this and many other ways Henry Lewis was public-spirited and generous, but he had a horror of any ostentatious parade of his charities or gifts. So great was the confidence of West in his friend Lewis that when West was away. Henry Lewis would sign checks and transact the millionaire's business. Mr. Pierson Mitchell said of him: "I have known hint for forty years, and in a close business connection. In all that time I have never known him to do anything but what was right. He was more charitable than was thought, for he was a mail who followed the scriptural injunction, letting not his left hand know what the right hand was doing; and I know of many cases where he has extended aid to struggling young men who needed it,"

Henry Lewis was not a politician. He was a fervent Republican, and years ago was on one of the city boards by appointment. But he never sought office by election, and displayed his greatest interest in politics when his friend J. B. Foraker was a candidate for governor. In reward and as a compliment to the ability of the man, Governor Foraker made Henry Lewis a member of the Board of Affairs, created by the General Assembly in 1886. The other members were Charles Jacob, Jr., James Morgan, Thomas L. Young, and Thomas G. Smith. Mr. Lewis had the four-year term, and was in office until a Democratic Legislature abolished the board in 1890. Hon. T. W. Graydon, who served with him on the board, said of the man: "Henry Lewis was a man of tenacious views; he was, in fact, stubborn when he had once made up his mind, but he was always strictly honest. His integrity was of the sterling quality, and he had a suspicious nature, so that he was really imprac-


tical in his dealings with men at times. I always got along well with Mr, Lewis. He was candid and frank in his opinions, and liked persons to be the same in return. I have always regarded him as a good citizen, and a useful one, and I regret very much to hear of his death."

Mr. Lewis had met his future wife before he came to Ohio, but he decided to first make a successful start in life before he married, He went back to New Jersey, just across from Philadelphia, and on May 19, 1853, married Maria Ann Eastburn, a pretty Quakeress, daughter of Samuel and Huldah (Woolley) Eastburn. natives of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, respectively, both of English descent, who until her death used the "thee" and "thou" of her sect in conversation, especially in the home circle. Mrs. Lewis was a devoted wife and mother, and died January 17, 1892, in the home at McMillan and Park avenue, Walnut Hills. The children of Henry and Maria Ann Lewis are named as follows: Anna K.; Robert B., of Philadelphia; George W.; Martha B., and Henry G., who died October 16, 1891 Anna K. Lewis and Martha B. (now Mrs. Walter St. John Jones) were educated at Miss Nourse's school; Robert B. Lewis, at the public schools and Dr. Soule's school on Walnut Hills; George W Lewis at the University of Cincinnati, and Henry Graham Lewis, at the Cincinnati Law School.

Henry Lewis died February 12, 1893, at which time he was a director of the following companies and institutions: Cincinnati, Portsmouth & Virginia railroad; Niles Tool Works Company; Burnet House Hotel Company; Arrowhead Reservoir Company, and the Citizens National Bank. Mr. Lewis was a vestryman for several years of the Church of the Advent, Walnut Hills.

GEORGE WOOLLEY LEWIS, assistant superintendent in charge of the Cincinnati Division of the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, and treasurer of the Covington & Cincinnati Elevated railroad and Transfer & Bridge Co., was born on Walnut Hills, Ohio, November 8, 1858, a son of Henry and Maria (Eastburn) Lewis. He was educated in the public schools of Walnut Hills, Dr. Soule's preparatory school of East Walnut Hills, and the University of Cincinnati, from which he graduated in 1880 with the degree of Civil Engineer. Soon after graduation he was appointed resident engineer of the Vernon, Greensburg & Rushville railroad at Greensburg, Ind., and about six months later accepted a position with the Kentucky Central railroad as resident engineer, with headquarters at Winchester, Ky. From 1882 to 1884 he was located at Covington, Ky., and from March, 1884, to July, 1885, at Lexington, Ky., as engineer of maintenance of way. During the following three years be was engaged in the improvement of the falls of the Ohio river at Louisville, Ky., under contract with the United States Government. In March, 1888, he became supervising engineer for the re-organization committee on construction of the Maysville & Big Sandy railroad, now the Cincinnati Division of the Chesapeake & Ohio, with headquarters at Cincinnati. From January 1 to March 15, 1889, he had temporary charge of maintenance of way while' opening said road for traffic. From March 15, 1889, to April 30, 1892, he had charge of the real-estate department of the Chesapeake & Ohio railway system. He then became superintendent of the Lexington & Big Sandy division of the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, Ashland, Ky., which position he held until April 1, 1893, when he assumed his present office. Mr. Lewis is a member of the Engineers, the University and the Riding Clubs of Cincinnati, and is a Republican of liberal views.

DANIEL JAMES FALLIS, late president of the Merchants National Bank of Cincinnati, and also vice-president (for Ohio) of the National Bankers' Association of America, was born near Fredericksburg, Fauquier Co., Va., August 19, 1809. The place of his nativity abounds in historic associations. His father's mills stood upon Deep run, about two miles from the Rappahannock river. The northern limit of the Union army rested at that place at the time of the battle of the Rappahannock. While the war was in progress, Mr. Fallis took a thrilling interest in the bloody drama as it was enacted around the home of his childhood.


He was descended from Scotch Irish ancestry. His great-great-grandfather presides at a manufacturers' meeting in Dublin in 1698, for which he was compelled to sell his glass manufactory to a pauper to avoid ruinous taxation, and finally was executed for treason. In the same year his great-grandfather, Thomas Fallis, carne to the American colonies, and landed in Philadelphia. Nine days after his arrival George Fallis (Daniel's grandfather) was born. Remaining there twenty-three years, they migrated to Virginia where they purchased a landed estate in Stafford county, adjoining that on which lived Gen. Washington. There was a Community of Quakers in that vicinity to which the Fallises belonged, owing to which fact he was a noncombatant during the Revolution. George Fallis was personally acquainted with and a friend of Glen, Washington, and, knowing him to be a man of prayer, and hearing of the sufferings of the Continental soldiers, he wrote letters of sympathy, offering to render him any services (except bearing arms) in his power for the relief of his army. Much of his property, consisting of farms, was sold for the purpose of raising motley to make his offers good. At one time the Continental money on hand arising front such sales amounted to $101,000, and after the war, when it was supposed to be worthless, it, was burned. In 1797 Thomas Fallis (son of George) married Mary James, and of the eight children born to them Daniel James was the sixth. He remained in Virginia until 1824, when he followed two uncles to Wilmington, Ohio. There he was employed in a store until 1826, when he went to Greenfield, same State, and engaged temporarily in the store of W. & S. E. Hibben, with a view to removing with that firm to Hillsboro, Ohio, which took place in April of that year. Ho remained with that firm until about the close of the year 1829, his first visit to Cincinnati took place in November of that year, for the purpose of purchasing goods for the firm. In 1830 he engaged as clerk in the office of Hon. John Smith, who was then treasurer of that county and also had a store, At the end of the first year August 31, 1831, he became a partner of his employer, and the new firm of Smith & Fallis continued four years. He then engaged in the business of merchandising alone for two years. In 1836 he formed a partnership with Thomas Barry, the firm of Fallis & Barry continuing until 1846 when Mr. Fallis sold out to Mr. Barry. In February, 1843, the firm of Fallis & Evans was formed, lasting until 1846 when Mr. Fallis sold his interest to his partner. After the lapse of a year or so he again entered into the business of merchandising, alone, and so continued until November, 1853, when he sold out preparatory to corning to Cincinnati. On July 17, 1854, he began the banking business in this city as head of the firm of Fallis, Brown & Company, No. 33 West Third street. In 1856-58 he bought his partners' interests and carried on the business as Fallis & Company until December 1859, when the firm of Fallis, Young & Company was created. continued until 1865, and then merged into the Merchants National Batik, with a capital of $500,000. In August, 1867, this bank purchased the stock of the Ohio National Bank, thus increasing the capital stock to one million dollars. Of this bank Mr. Fallis was its only president until he tendered his resignation on his eighty-second birthday August 19, 1891. He was, therefore, uninterruptedly in the banking business over thirty-seven years, twenty-six years as president of the Merchants National Bank. He was the oldest banker in Cincinnati, who had steadily continued in the business, having passed safely through all the financial crises, never suspending or failing in order to meet the demands of his depositors and creditors. One of his partners, John Young, was a warm personal friend of Secretary Chase. From this arose the fact that Mr. Fallis' judgment was also invoked touching the financial measures of the government, and had great weight upon the public mind. And it was from this intelligent and unfaltering support of the leading bankers of the nation, of whom Mr. Fallis was a representative, that the government, the Treasury Department, derived the wisdom and courage to take the steps which finally led to the crowning consummation of specie payment. The glory that


surrounds the name of Chase and Sherman is none the less enduring because they were great financiers and not generals. These great secretaries, supported by their lieutenants, the representative bankers of the nation, their judgment and cooperation, commanded the revenues and marshaled the resources that constituted the sinews of the war. Mr. Fallis was president of the Cincinnati Clearing House, an important institution which he and John W. Ellis, Esq. (now of New York City), were chiefly instrumental in organizing. Mr. Fallis was a stockholder, director and chairman of the executive committee of the pioneer iron establishment of Alabama, known as the Eureka Company; was director and president of the Western Tract Society of Cincinnati. Besides these interests he invested his capital in other enterprises, which yielded profitable returns while they gave employment to many men.

On October 30, 1835, Mr. Fallis married Miss Ann Poage, a daughter of the late Gen. Poage, of Greenup county, Ky., and granddaughter of Col. George Poage who commanded under Gen. Washington at the siege of Yorktown. Of this union there were two children, a daughter, now Mrs. Charles G. Rodgers, and Hon. John T. Fallis, who was a member of the Cincinnati bar and represented Hamilton county in the Ohio legislature. From March, 1861, until his death, Mr. Fallis resided in Covington, Ky., in a beautiful home that has been the scene of hospitality, refinement and domestic happiness; but alas the Angel of Death hovered over it,, and on May 7, 1893, the only and beloved son was taken from it. This was a very great shod: to Mr. Fallis, and one from which he never recovered; yet he claimed to be sufficiently well to undertake a journey, so on the evening of June 7 (just one month after his son's death), he left home, but on the following morning was suddenly and fatally attacked with heart disease at Jamestown, N. Y., his sickness and death both occupying but a few minutes. His remains were brought home, and the funeral took place from the home he so much loved. Beside his son he was laid in Highland Cemetery, back of Covington, where a very handsome monument marks their resting place. At this writing Mrs. Fallis, with her devoted daughter, Mrs. Rodgers, occupies the old homestead. Mr. Fallis was most affectionate to his own, and his love for his daughter and her children was lovely to see. His only grandson, Howard S. Rodgers, a young electrician, has doubtless a bright future. He is now chief electrician of the Eddy Electrical Company, of Windsor, Conn. While Mr. Fallis was nearly eighty-four years old at the time of his death, his memory was wonderful and his judgment most excellent. His interest in the world at large, and especially in his own country and in the church of his choice. had not abated as his years increased. In politics Mr. Fallis was first an Old-line Whig. then a Know-Nothing, finally an ardent Republican. At the age of nineteen he became a member of the Presbyterian Church, and for many years was one of its ruling elders. At the time of his death, and for many years previous, he was connected with the old First Presbyterian Church, Cincinnati, and was its most able supporter. Mr. Fallis never hesitated to say that he owed his success in life to the Bible and its Author. These constituted the foundation of his character. Add to these experience, judgment, quick perception, a fine moral sense, unquestioned integrity, and we have the main reasons for a business career which was as honorable as it was successful. Mr. Fallis was a very quiet man, and while pursuing his business he unostentatiously dispensed his large charities. The acquisition of wealth was not for his own sake, but from the beginning of his career was a noiseless, ever-widening stream passing continuously out into the world again through the various channels of the Church and charitable institutions.

ETHAN S. BATES was horn August 26, 1813, near Cincinnati, and spent his boyhood in the township where he was born. His father, Clark Bates, was born in Men. don, Mass., in 1778, and came to Cincinnati when he was eighteen years of age.

When our subject grew to manhood he engaged with Mr. Clearwater in the hog slaughtering business. Subsequently he associated himself in kindred business


with George and Peter Bogen and John Marsh, under the firm name of Bogen, Bates & Marsh, and they continued in business until the beginning of the war. Mr. Bates was one of the projectors of Spring Grove Avenue, he becoming the president of the company. He was also a large stockholder in the Spring Grove Avenue Street Car Company, and as one of the directors took an active part in its management. For ninny years he was treasurer of Mill Creek township; and he was also identified with the new Cincinnati stock yards. In 1840 he married Miss Elizabeth Beresford, daughter of Samuel Beresford, and the union lasted until his death, which occurred October 21, 1891. For many years he was a member of the Chamber of Commerce, and he was recognized as one of the solid business men of the city, whose high sense of honor and integrity of purpose were never doubted.

WILLIAM GIBSON, born in Edinburgh, Scotland, November 20, 1827, came to Cincinnati with his parents in 1831. He was educated at the Woodward High School and Cincinnati College. In early life he formed a partnership for the manufacture of lead pipe with Andrew McCormick, under the firm name of McCormick, Gibson & Co.. and continued in the business for twenty-seven years, retiring with a competency,

Mr. Gibson was a resident, of Cincinnati for sixty years, and was distinguished throughout life as a philanthropic citizen, a successful business man of unswerving integrity, and undaunted energy, a kind husband and father, and a devoted son. As a member of the Chamber of Commerce he always took a deep interest in everything calculated to develop the trade of the city, and was greatly respected by his follow members. He was a devout, member of the Presbyterian Church and one of its trustees. After a brief illness he died November 14, 1891, in the sixty-fourth year of his age.

JOHN R. MORTON. Cincinnati, was born at Hatboro, Penn., a suburb of Philadelphia. August 22, 1816, son of John Morton, who was a nephew of one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. His parents were members of the Society of Friends, and his education included a course of study at the Friends' Academy at Reading, Pennsylvania.

When fifteen years of age he located at Sandusky, Ohio, and entered upon the study of medicine with his brother, Dr. George Morton, but riot liking the profession abandoned it to enter into business engagements, first at Coshocton and later at Zanesville. In 1835 he came to Cincinnati and entered a business house as bookkeeper. Subsequently he was engaged with the banking firm of Ellis & Morton, and on the retirement of Rowland Ellis and William Morton, the house was reorganized under the firm name of John R. Morton & Co., great success attending the same until the panic of 1867. which caused its suspension. In 1869 Mr. Morton entered the service of the Chamber of Commerce in charge of the department of finances and accounts, under the official title of clerk, a position which he held until his death. November 4, 1891, a period of more than twenty-three years. He enjoyed the confidence and respect of the members of that body, as his services proved to be exceedingly valuable-his rare judgment in matters of finance securing to the treasury funds which otherwise would not, have been obtained. All expressive tribute to his memory was spread on the minutes, and a copy sent to his family.

JOSEPH RAWSON was horn at Mendon, Mass., January 9, 1808, and came to Cincinnati in 1831. He found employment in the pork-packing establishment of Hartshorn & Child, and in 1836 became a member of the firm, the title being Hartshorn, Child & Co. In 1856, the former partners retiring, the firm became Joseph Rawson & Co., and still later Joseph Rawson & Sons, Mr. Rawson's career in this one line of business extended through the exceptionally long period of sixty years, during which time, by pluck. honesty and industry, he succeeded in rising from the position of clerk to that of a merchant prince. He was a member of the Chamber


of Commerce from the time of its organization, and in various ways contributed largely to its prosperity. Although always declining official position, he was esteemed one of its most valuable and substantial members, and in 1887 the Chamber expressed its appreciation of his high character by conferring upon him the degree of honorary membership. He died, November 15, 1891, full of honors and of years. A memorial was spread upon the records of the Chamber, and a copy of same was sent to his family as an assurance of the high esteem in which he was held.

THOMAS G. ODIORNE, probably one of the oldest members of the Chamber of Commerce at the time of his death, was born in 1804, came to Cincinnati from Boston in 1846, and engaged actively in the commission and shipping business. His sterling integrity and energy soon made him one of the leading merchants of the city. He was president of the Citizens' Insurance Company, and bringing to that institution rare ability as an underwriter, it prospered under his administration. In the beginning of the war he save up his business interests to look after the wounded and sick in the army, giving his personal attention to the large number needing the kind ministration of his great heart; and as president of the Sanitary Committee for the relief of the suffering soldiers, he disbursed hundreds of thousands of dollars with fidelity and great care. He was a consistent and active Christian, devoted to his church all his life, and for many years was one of the executive officers of Kenyon College at Gambler, Ohio. He died November 16, 1891, in his eighty-eighth year. In his death the city lost an esteemed and highly respected citizen, and the Chamber of Commerce a member "whose integrity and fair dealing was the rule of his life."

JOHN CURREN, long a member of the Chamber of Commerce, Cincinnati, was born April 2, 1837, at Middletown, County Armagh, Ireland. When but three years of age his parents removed to Liverpool, England, and resided there until 1847, when they immigrated to the United States, corning directly to Cincinnati on their arrival in this country.

After attending school two years young Curren heroically began the work of his life at, the age of twelve years by establishing a fruit and vegetable business which steadily grew in its proportions to the close of his life. In 1865 the firm became Coyle & Curren, and they soon erected a large store and warehouse on Front street, opposite the Suspension bridge, the partnership continuing very successfully until 1872, when Mr. Coyle died. After this Mr. Curren continued the business tinder the firm name of John Curren & Co., eventually associating with him his only son, John Curren, Jr., who succeeded to his father's business. Mr. Curren was an eminently successful business man, because he deserved to be. He neither turned to the right hand nor to the left, but by diligence, honorable dealing and commendable enterprise built up a business which is a monument to his foresight, and an enviable reputation among his colleagues, whose appreciation found expression at the time of his death in many ways. In 1864 be married Miss Mary Walsh, who survives him. He died April 3, 1892.

COLONEL WILLIAM EMERY MERRILL, born in Wisconsin in 1837, was the oldest child of Moses E. Merrill, a graduate of West Point and captain in the Fifth United States Infantry, who was killed September 8, 1847, at the battle of Molino del Rey, Mexico. For the distinguished services of his father young Merrill was appointed by the President to a cadetship at West Point. He at once took a high standing in his class, and for the five years of his stay stood at the head, graduating July 1, 1859. Although a very young man when the Rebellion broke out, he was placed in many responsible positions, was wounded and was breveted captain for gallant conduct in an engagement with the enemy before Yorktown, Va., April 16, 1862; major for meritorious services in the battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 19, 1863; lieutenant-colonel, March 13, 1865, for distinguished services in the battle of Lookout Moun-


taro and Missionary Ridge; and colonel for faithful and meritorious service in the battles of Resaca and New Hope Church. In 1870 he took charge of the improvement, of the Ohio river as a United States engineer, and remained in that position for twenty-one years in charge of the Ohio river from its mouth to its source. Under the auspices of the government he visited Europe to inspect the more advanced river improvements of France and other countries, and the result of his labors is the lock and dam located seven miles below Pittsburgh, which is conceded to be the greatest work of its kind in this or any other country; and will stand as a monument to his genius. Col. Merrill was killed in a railway accident on the Ohio & Mississippi railroad, about five miles south of Fairfield Station, Ill., December 14, 1891, while in the discharge of his duty. The Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, desirous of placing on record some token of appreciation of his personal worth, and also of his long and valuable services to his country, and especially to Cincinnati and the Ohio Valley, passed this resolution which was spread on the minutes:

Resolved, That while expressing our deep grief at the death of Col. Merrill, and our sense of the great loss which our country and this community has thereby sustained, we, at the same time. can not but be thankful for the good example he has left us by his devotion to duty, his singular affability and gentleness of manner, and his persistent, faithful and able work in behalf of the improvements of this great valley and its waterways.

At the time of his death he was in charge of the improvement of the Ohio, Monongahela, Cheat, Allegheny and Muskingum rivers; the construction of t harbor of refuge at the mouth of the Muskingum river; of a dam at Herr's Island and a movable dam at, or below the mouth of the Beaver river, Penn.; of an operating snag boat on the Ohio river, was in supervision over the construction of bridges across the Ohio river; near Ceredo, W. Va.; over the Muskingum river at Zanesville and above the mouth of Brush Creek; over the Allegheny at Pittsburgh; over the Monongahela river near Pittsburgh, and over the Youghiogheny river at McKeesport, Penn. As a citizen, soldier and engineer, he was especially worthy of the honor and distinction he attained; and as a gentleman his life was such as commended itself in the highest, degree to all who knew him and enjoyed his friendship.

COLONEL ROBERT ELLIOTT, a contractor for supplying Wayne's army with provisions, was a victim of Indian barbarism within what are now the environs of Cincinnati. In 1794, while traveling on horseback from Fort Hamilton to Fort Washington, accompanied by a servant, he was waylaid and shot by Indians about four miles from Hamilton, on what is now the Winton road. When shot he fell from his horse. The servant made his escape by putting spurs to his horse and galloping back to Fort Hamilton, followed by the riderless horse of his master. Col. Elliott was a very heavy man, weighing, it is said, more than three hundred pounds, and he wore a large wig. When he fell from his horse an Indian rushed out of the bushes to secure his scalp, and seizing his wig he was astonished to find that it came off his head. Holding his knife in his hand, he gazed at the wig a moment, then turning on his heel, exclaimed, " damn lie," and darted into the thicket. The next day a party, accompanied by the servant came out to secure the body. They placed it in a coffin and were about to start for Cincinnati, when a volley was fired by the concealed savages, and the servant fell, almost in the very spot his master had fallen the day before, from Col. Elliott's horse, which he was riding, the horse again running back to Fort Hamilton. The party retreated in great haste, leaving the body in the coffin and the body of the servant with the savages, who broke open the coffin, but did not mutilate the body. The servant was scalped, of course. The whites rallied and recovering both bodies carried them to Fort Washington and buried them in the graveyard of the First Presbyterian Church, at the corner of Fourth and Main streets. The remains were afterward disinterred and removed to the Twelfth street Washington Park burying ground by his son who erected a tablet over them, bearing this inscription: "In memory of Robert Elliott, slain by a party of Indians near


this point, while in the service of his country. Placed by his son, Commodore J. D. Elliott, U, S. Navy, May, 1835. Damon and Fidelity." The monument and remains have since been removed to Spring Grove Cemetery, where, amid the most beautiful surroundings, the ashes of the unfortunate Col. Elliott and his faithful servant repose.

JACOB WETZEL was one of the earliest settlers in Cincinnati, and like many of the pioneers of that time, was a noted hunter, on more than one occasion narrowly escaping from the prowling savages. Howe, in his reminiscences, relates a thrilling incident in his life, which serves to show the dangers which beset the first comers when they ventured into the wilderness in search of game.

On the morning of October 7, 1790, Wetzel took down his trusty rifle, and started down the river road below what is now the junction of front and Fifth streets. At that time the ground was covered with a thick growth of maple, beech, and other trees. Only a few cabins stood on the space fronting the river. He did not go far until he had secured all the game he wanted, and he started on his return for a horse. Being tired he sat down on a log to rest, when he heard a rustling in the bushes. Quieting his dog, he sat and watched for a few minutes, when he was convinced that an Indian was near. He quickly jumped behind a tree, and soon discovered an Indian half hidden by the trunk of a large oak, with a rifle in his hands ready to shoot. At this instant. Wetzel's dog spied the Indian and barked. Both raised their rifles and fired at once. The Indian's gun fell from his hands, as Wetzell's ball had broken his left elbow. Before the Indian could reload Wetzel rushed upon him with his knife. The savage drew his knife and prepared to defend himself. Wetzel's first thrust was dexterously parried, and the shock was so great that he was thrown fully thirty feet from the Indian. Recovering he threw himself on the Indian with all his force, and seized him around the waist., at the same time encircling his right arm, in the hand of which he grasped his knife. The savage was very muscular, and the result of the conflict seemed doubtful. The Indian strove desperately to release his arm. and in the struggle their feet became interlocked and both fell to the ground, the Indian being uppermost, which loosed his arm. He tried to use his knife but could not from the position in which they were lying. By a desperate effort Wetzel turned him and rendered him helpless. At this moment the Indian gave a fearful yell, and exerting all his strength suddenly turned Wetzel under, sat on his body and raised his arm with the knife for the fatal plunge. Wetzel saw death staring him in the face and gave himself up for lost! At this fearful moment, however, his faithful dog, instinctively comprehending the situation, sprang forward, and seizing the Indian by the throat, caused the uplifted knife to drop from his hand. Thus encouraged Wetzel made a desperate effort, turned the Indian and thrust his knife up to the hilt in his breast. The savage gave one convulsive shudder and died almost instantly. Wetzel then took his rifle and trappings and hurriedly started for home. He had not gone far when the startling whoop of a number of savages was heard, which caused him to run rapidly toward the river. Finding a canoe he jumped inn and paddled with all his might to the cove at the foot of Sycamore street and was safe. The Indians came to the spot where the encounter had taken place, and finding the dead body of one of their bravest chiefs, gave a hideous yell and then disappeared in the gloom of the forest.

The escape of Wetzel from a terrible death was most, remarkable, and was only brought about by the sagacity and faithfulness of his dog. It is regretted that the early writers have failed to tell us when and where Wetzel was born, and when be died. The grave of such a pioneer should be marked by a tablet to record his wonderful triumph over his savage foe.

MATTHEW ADDY. There is no better strain to the mingled blood of the American people than that which comes from that hardy and unconquerable race known as the Scotch Irish; and it is to this people that Matthew Addy, one of the


most progressive. enterprising and successful business men of Cincinnati. traces his ancestry. The name of Addy itself, however, is English, and Mr. Addy is really one half English, one-fourth Scotch and one fourth Irish. Years of hardship, of persecution and of battling for their rights and their liberties have given the Scotch -Irish a pluck and hardihood, and an independence which are the prominent traits in their character. These are the qualities that, transplanted to the broader field of action offered by the New World, have made so many men of this race prominent.

Mr. Addy's grandfather left. the North of Ireland, and came to Canada at the end of the eighteenth century. He himself was born in Montreal on the 15th of April, 1835, and is an exemplification of tide bitter remark made by the late Premier of the Dominion, that Canada was raising men for America. It was in 1857, after a complete education at home, that Mr. Addy left Montreal for Cincinnati, believing that life here offered much more than in the land of his birth; so, practically, all of his days have been passed in the city of his adoption. He is a wide-awake American, takes a keen interest in political affairs, and his advice is eagerly sought and followed by party leaders. Since the time of the war be has been a careful student, not only of the money questions that have from time to time troubled the Republic, but of that, perhaps, greater question respecting the tariff. When there was such a great agitation over the tariff in the years immediately following the Civil war, be was the president of the Cincinnati Tariff League, and did great service in the cause of Protection. He believes that Canada, when he was a young man, was, because of its free-trade principles, a hundred years behind the times. Now that it is imitating the great Republic, of which it is the neighbor, and has adopted protective duties, he thinks it is but fifty years behind the times. Mr. Addy has written and spoken frequently on this living question of the hour, and his interest in politics, aside from the interest that every roan has in a good and honest government, has always been to forward the cause of Protection.

In business Mr. Addy started out independently in January, 1863, the first firm being Addy, Hull & Company. Later this became Addy, Hull & Ray, and still later the firm name took its present form of Matthew Addy & Company. At first the firm did a general commission business, cotton and iron being its chief staples. Mr. Addy was one of the first to see that the cotton trade was going to pass away from Cincinnati. Observing the change in conditions ruling in that staple (for it was not long after the war that cotton ceased to be king), he at the same time saw the rising importance of Southern pig iron. He accordingly dropped cotton and took pig iron up more vigorously, studied the question of pig iron with assiduity, and he is now recognized as one of the men whose judgment on that staple is authoritative. At the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia he was one of the International Committee in this department, to decide on the awards, and to-clay the firm of which he is the head, handles more Southern pig iron than any other house in America. Mr. Addy is as well known to the public as president of the Addyston Pipe & Steel Company as on account of his private business, The Addyston Pipe & Steel Company grew out of the old Gaylord Iron & Pipe Company, which was later the Cincinnati & Newport Iron & Pipe Company, finally changing to the Addyston Pipe & Steel Company. This is a corporation with two immense plants; the parent one at Newport, and the larger and more modern one at Addyston, an industrial suburb on the banks of the Ohio river, some thirteen miles west of Cincinnati. It has a larger anneal capacity than any other similar manufacturing concern in America, and it has been brought to its present development largely through the business enterprise and sagacity of its president.

In private life Mr. Addy is known as a model gentleman, quiet and unobtrusive in his ways, and at all times ready to do his duty to church and society. He lives upon Mount Auburn, in one of the grand old mansions there which he has further adorned by the addition of a picture gallery, one of the finest and most notable in


the West. He has a great love for art, which he has indulged in a thoroughly intelligent and appreciative manner. The treasures of his gallery are one of the sights of Cincinnati, and fortunate indeed is the stranger who is invited to see them. Altogether he is one of the men of whom Cincinnati is justly proud, a man who, in the years of the city's growth, has had a great deal to do with adding to her material prosperity and intellectual advancement.

JAMES J. FARAN. One of the few really eminent citizens of Cincinnati, who was born in the town and spent his whole life here, was Hon. James J. Faran, who made his impress on his time as lawyer, editor and statesman, and whose career spanned the whole period of the city's wonderful development from a river town, more significant than actually great, to one of the few large cities of the United States. His history is a part of the city's history as his life was a part of the city's life. He was a factor in its upbuilding and during several generations its citizen-, have been proud to do him merited honor.

Mr. Faran was born in Cincinnati December 29, 1808. He acquired his early education in this city, and in 1831 was graduated from Miami University at Oxford, Ohio. Immediately thereafter he took up the study of law, which he pursued with such well-directed application that in 1833 be was admitted to the bar. Not long afterward he entered upon his long and notable political career. In 1835 he was elected as a Democratic member of the House of Representatives, and he was again elected in 1837 and in 1838, for at that time the old rule was operative under which members were elected for but one year. At the session of 1838-39 he was elected speaker of the House, in which position be impressed the public forcibly by his fairness and courtesy, and won the admiration of practical legislators of all parties. In 1839 he was elected to the State Senate, to which body be was again elected in 1841 and in 1842, and was chosen speaker of the Senate for two terms. In 1844 be was nominated and elected by the Democracy of Hamilton county to represent his District in Congress. He was re-elected in 1846, and was conspicuous in Congress during the entire administration of Mr. Polk. 'He voted for the " Wilmot Proviso," restricting the limits of slavery, served on some important committees and was in every way devoted and useful to the public welfare. In 1854 Governor Medill appointed him one of the commissioners to supervise the erection of the present State blouse. In that year the "Know-Nothing" wave swept over Ohio, and destroyed the Democratic party in all parts of the State. In 1855 the "Know Nothings" of Cincinnati nominated for mayor James D. Taylor, the proprietor of the Cincinnati Times, which vigorously opposed the elevation of any foreigner to any public position. Mr. Faran was nominated by the Democrats to oppose him, and after a campaign which has been characterized as ''the bitterest and most exciting fight ever known in the Queen City," he was elected mayor, and "Know-Nothingism" was made unpopular in this city. President Buchanan appointed Mr. Faran postmaster at Cincinnati, but he was removed from office before the expiration of his term because of his sympathy with Hon. Stephen A. Douglas on the Kansas-Nebraska question. This necessarily brief summary of his public services affords but a faint idea of their extent. For him to be a member of a legislative body was to be one of its leaders, and the times in which he was prominent were times that tried the stamina and developed the caliber of men. His associates were great. In the Ohio legislature, in his day, it was not a case of being a giant among pigmies, for many of his were risen of mark then and afterward. Even more pronounced than his unquestioned ability was his uncompromising integrity-his devotion to principle and to the right as he understood it. His service to his fellow citizens as mayor of Cincinnati is historic. During his administration a condition bordering on anarchy, marked by several riots which were brought about by inflammatory editorials in the Times, and by the action of members of the famous "midnight order," gave place to the influence of law and the spirit of impartiality which suc-


ceeded the " Know-Nothing" movement as a species of retributive reaction. During the latter portion of his public life. Mr. Faran was best, known to the general community as editor-in-chief of the Cincinnati Enquirer, when that journal was the exponent of Jeffersonian Democracy. This paper Mr. Faran and Washington McLean, in 1844, purchased of John and Charles Brough, and he was one of its proprietors until 1881. His literary aspirations had developed early, and his editorials in the Democratic Reporter, written in 1834, while he was in college, during the race for Congress between Oxen. R. T. Lytle and Judge Bellamy Storer, attracted no little attention. The friendship between Mr. Faran and Washington McLean was of lifelong duration, and was never marred by such dissensions as are likely to arise between business partners. When in Cincinnati the two were almost always together, and after the removal of Mr. McLean to Washington, D. C., they corresponded with assiduous regularity. After his retirement from the postmastership, Mr. Faran decided to accept no further political honors and responsibilities, and though frequently urged to become a nominee for governor and other high offices, he steadfastly refused, devoting himself more and more closely to private and home life, consenting only to serve his State as delegate to the Baltimore Convention, in which he was a conspicuous figure.

Mr. Faran was married, in 1840, to Miss Angelina Russell, daughter of Robert Russell, of Columbus, Ohio, and their five children wore Airs. J. T. Wann, of Cleveland; Mrs. Dr. J. M. Dickson, U. S. A.; Mrs. George A. Pritchard; Mr. James J. Faran, Jr., and Mr. Charles R. Faran. Air. and Mrs. Faran celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of their marriage, in March, 1890, and their guests and well wishers included the best and brightest representatives of professional and fashionable life in Cincinnati and throughout the State. The death of Mr. Faran occurred early on the morning of December 12, 1892, when he was within about a fortnight of being eighty-four years of age. He passed away quietly and peacefully, without a thought on the part of his family that he was never again to answer to their call. His death caused a profound sensation throughout the city of his birth, and to whose welfare he had devoted the energies of a life both vigorous and protracted, and brought forth expressions of regret from all parts' of the Union. His long career was one of usefulness. ever characterized by a most earnest endeavor to employ his splendid natural gifts to the best interests of the people be represented in public life and to the perpetuation of the principles of Democracy as laid down by the founders of American independence. He was of a temperament to make many friends and few enemies. His towering form, as erect in his eighty-second year as it was in the prime of sturdy manhood. was familiar on the streets of his native city until the very end of his brilliant and beneficent life. Upon the occasion of their golden wedding Mr. Faran was described as "a man of fine carriage and clear cut face whose mien was ' a reproach to men half his ago;' Mrs. Faran as deliciously like a marquise of the ancient regime, with her tall slight figure and well poised head." All in all Mr. Faran's life was an eminently satisfactory one. As lawyer, statesman, editor, man of affairs, success waited upon him as a handmaid, and his home life, as husband and father, was blessed beyond the common lot.

HENRY BESUDEN, one of Cincinnati's most prominent and highly honored citizens, was born in Germany, November 14, 1825, and is a son of Ludwig and Mary (Schnitger) Besuden. His father, who was a farmer, came to America with his family in 1843, anal located on a small farm at. Mt. Pleasant, Ohio. Ludwig Besuden was born November 10, 1796, and died April 17, 1878; his wife was born January 10, 1803, and died April 12, 1867. Of the children, fours reached majority, and of these Henry is the eldest and the only survivor.

Henry Besuden was educated in the public schools of his native country, and began his business life by learning the trade of cigar maker. Though this was not agreeable to him, he followed it in all, as an apprentice and journeyman, three and


one-half years, when, having accumulated a few hundred dollars. and seeing a good opening, he rented a small store in June, 1847, engaging in the sale of tobacco and cigars. Soon after he commenced the manufacture of cigars, employing at first only three or four men. Under Mr. Besuden's management the business grew rapidly. In 1851 he had the means to warrant his purchasing leaf tobacco direct from New York City, which he did, and besides manufacturing cigars from it, he sold portions of his purchases to other manufacturers. He added all kinds of manufactured tobacco to the products of his store, and sold in boxes and half boxes to cigar stores, fruit stores and retail groceries. In January, 1858, when he admitted his youngest brother Frederick, as partner, his pay roll numbered twenty men. In 1857 while Mr. Besuden was in New York purchasing tobacco, the almost. incredible failure of the Ohio Life and Trust Company occurred, conclusive proof in itself that the financial panic of that time was at hand. He had already purchased to the extent of $30,000, but notwithstanding the dismal outlook in business he continued to buy until the amount had reached about forty thousand dollars. As was customary, this was bought on credit of four and six months; but he paid it all before it was duo, which ever after gave him unlimited credit in New York markets. About twenty thousand dollars of this indebtedness was to Crawford & Palmer, then the largest tobacco jobbers in New York. By the prepayment of this money, the members of that firm afterward declared that Mr. Besuden had tided them over a crisis in their affairs and saved them from financial ruin. This act added much to Mr, Beduins' credit in New York, which was already almost unlimited. In remembrance of this kindness the firm of Crawford & Palmer on January 1, 1858, presented Mr, Besuden with a beautiful pitcher and goblet of hammered silver appropriately inscribed, which he still has in his possession, and which he can leave to posterity as a cherished heirloom. After admitting his brother into partnership, they engaged in the purchase and sale of leaf tobacco in every form, and continued in same until 1864, after which they confined themselves exclusively to hogshead tobacco. They dealt in all the markets of the country, where they were recognized as being among the heaviest and shrewdest buyers. They sold to nearly all the large American manufacturers, and had the largest export trade of any firm in Cincinnati, selling through their commission merchants in New York to several European governments, notably France, Spain and Italy. Their commission merchants made a single sale to the Italian government of 10,000 hogsheads, 1892 of which belonged to Messrs. Besuden, for which they received nearly a quarter of a million of dollars. Frederick Besuden died in 1884, and our subject continued the business alone until 1888 when he retired from active life. Thus it will be seen that Mr. Besuden was not only one of the earliest extensive dealers in tobacco in Cincinnati, but was during upward of forty years one of the most enterprising and prosperous. Possessing a thorough knowledge of the tobacco markets of the world, ho stands as one of the foremost of those who made possible the tobacco market, which is one of Cincinnati's best regulated lines of commerce. When Mr. Besuden took his initial step in business, his father offered him money, but he refused it, taking only his wise council which he seems to have been well qualified to give, for he especially warned him against either the endorsement of another's responsibilities or asking the same, a principle to which he always adhered, but which did not prevent his generous nature from frequently giving assistance to those whore he found in need of it, Before he was thirty years of age he was offered admission as a partner without capital by one of the largest tobacco establishments in New York. It only required the presence of his honest countenance, and the fact that he was a good judge of all kinds of leaf tobacco, to establish credit, as was often demonstrated even among total strangers, His credit was practically unlimited; in fact at times too much so. Knowing the absolute security of the loan, money was often forced upon him when his investments might better have been lighter. Upon one occasion he refused a volunteered loan of two hundred thousand dollars.


Mr. Besuden resided in Cincinnati for many years, first on Everett street and later on Clinton, always in a most elegant and spacious home. In 1854 he purchased eleven and one-half acres of land in Columbia township, and soon after built thereon a cottage which he used as a country residence. In 1877 he erected on the same promises a large brick mansion, which for elegance and convenience has not, perhaps, an equal in Cincinnati, and occupied it on the second day of January, 18 78. Mr. Besuden was married May 18, 1848, to Miss Margaret Vurdemann. ,John H. Besuden is the only living child horn to this union, and is now operating his father's farm, formerly known as the " General Groom farm," a plantation of 700 acres, four miles from Winchester, Ky. Our subject was married a second time, July 19, 1882, to Miss Mathilde Reif, daughter of Adam Reif, of Columbia township, and they are the parents of the following named bright children: Frederick, David, George. Mathilde, Henrietta, Chauncey and Waldemar, who are being educated at home by a governess. Mr. and Mrs. Besuden worship at the First English Lutheran Church, of which they are generous supporters. He is a Republican in his political views, but would never seek or accept a public office.

OBED J. WILSON, descended from good old Puritan ancestry, was born in Bingham, Maine, August 30, 1826. His father, Rev. Obed Wilson, was a leading and influential citizen of that State during its early history, and intimately associated for many years with its civil and religious affairs. He was a member of the Territorial Convention of 1820 and 1821 that framed the constitution of the State, and a representative to the first session of the Legislature that convened after its adoption. Subsequently he was repeatedly a member of both House and Senate, always discharging the duties of his position with ability, fidelity and satisfaction to all. Consecrated to the ministry in his youth, he became a zealous and successful preacher of the Methodist Episcopal Church, laboring early and late for nearly forty years, never sparing himself, but promptly responsive to every call of human need and Christian charity. He was a ready, effective, and eloquent speaker, a wise and judicious counselor, and an active and earnest worker in various fields of usefulness a good man and a devout Christian. He gave his sons as favorable opportunities for securing a liberal education as his circumstances, and the character of the educational institutions of the State at that time, would allow. One son died in Waterville College; three were educated at the Maine Wesleyan Seminary; Obed, the youngest of seven sons, received his education at home, in the public schools, and at Bloomfield Academy.

In 1846, at the age of twenty, he came to Cincinnati, secured a situation in the public schools, in which he taught five years, Meanwhile studying law. In 1851, his eyesight becoming seriously impaired from over-use, he found himself obliged to abandon his studies, give up teaching, and seek such occupation as would allow complete rest to his overtaxed sight. Tile position of traveling agent for their schoolbook publications was offered him by Winthrop B. Smith & Co., and promptly embraced. After traveling a few years, finding his sight greatly improved, he accepted a flattering offer from Mr. Smith, and took a settled position in the publishing-house, first as correspondent and literary referee, and later as editor-in-chief of its publications. Upon Mr. Smith's retiring from business, Mr. Wilson became a member of the firm of Sargent. Wilson & Hinkle, and, a few years later, senior member of the firm of Wilson, Hinkle & Co. Business rapidly extended, and under the energetic and able management of himself and Mr. Hinkle, the house became, without question. the largest schoolbook publishing concern in America---perhaps in the world. Too close application to an extensive and exacting business seriously impaired Mr. Wilson's health, and he was advised to seek rest and restoration in a trip abroad. Accompanied by his wife and her niece, Miss Fannie M. Stone, he spent the summer and autumn of 1860 traveling in Europe. While in Rome, he received a dispatch informing him of the sudden death of one of his partners, end


immediately returned in midwinter to America. Re-engaging in business with increased energy and devotion, the next seven years were given to unremitted, unsparing, downright bard work.

Having obtained satisfactory pecuniary success, Mr. Wilson resolved upon gratifying a life-long desire. He withdrew from active business in 1877, and entered upon a course of extended travel. During the ensuing five years, accompanied by his estimable wife, as enthusiastic and energetic a traveler as himself, he visited every country, capital, and considerable city of Europe, spent some time in Northern and Eastern Africa, and several months in Palestine, Syria, and Asia Minor. In 1882 he returned to America, and settled down among his books, resolved upon an extended and systematic course of study; and to close and varied study the next four years were given. In the autumn of 1886, Mr. and Mrs. Wilson again left home upon a more extended journey than hitherto. Accompanied by two of their nieces, Miss Cora Stone and Miss Florence M. Wilson, they proceeded to the Sandwich Islands in the mid-Pacific, where they spent the winter. In the spring they sailed for Japan, spent some time in interesting and instructive travel in the kingdom of the Mikado, crossed to China, visiting several of its important cities, and returned to Europe by way of Farther India, India, and Egypt. Reaching familiar ground, several months were devoted to revisiting well-remembered places, affording their nieces an opportunity of seeing many of the most famous cities of the Old World. Late in the autumn of 1887 the party returned to America, having completed a delightful and highly gratifying trip around the globe. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson again visited Europe during the summer and autumn of 1892, spending their time wholly in England, Scotland, and Ireland, mainly seeking less noted places unfrequented by the general tourist.

Mr. Wilson has a beautiful home in Clifton, Cincinnati's oldest and most attractive suburb; and here, surrounded by works of art, souvenirs of many lands visited in his varied travels, and with a large and well-selected library, he lives a retired life, shunning rather than seeking society, and still a bard student. Mr. Wilson is a Republican, but not a partisan; a member of no Church, but a sincere believer in the positively good of all religions. In 1853 he married Amanda M. Landrum, of Augusta, Ky� daughter of Rev. Francis Landrum, well known, admired, and loved throughout Kentucky and southern Ohio, during the early half of the century, as an eminent, zealous, and successful minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. They have no children.

HENRY PROBASCO, retired merchant, was born at Newtown, Conn., July 4, 1820, and was educated in the public schools of Philadelphia. In 1835 he commenced his mercantile career as a clerk with Tyler Davidson, who was engaged in the hardware business in Cincinnati. He was made a partner in 1840, and the same year married Julia, daughter of Abijah Carrington (comptroller of the State of Connecticut), and half sister of Mr. Davidson. Under his active personal superintendence the business rapidly grew, and in six years from his being taken into partnership, the firm of Tyler Davidson & Company became the largest hardware business in Cincinnati. In 1851, Mr. Probasco conceived the idea of erecting a handsome store far superior to any then in existence in this city, and he carried out the project on the site where the firm then transacted their business. It was the first. store in Cincinnati built of freestone. It was an example of the bold enterprise of the firm, and had the effect of enlarging men's ideas as to what business stores and business blocks should be. It was a grand commercial success, for in 1854. three years after the erection of the building, the sales quadrupled those of 1851. In 1856, Mr. Probasco spent about eight months in Europe, and observing that many of the leading merchants and manufacturers of the large cities of England had removed to their suburban residences, he began, on his return to Cincinnati, to consider the plans for building a country house, selecting Clifton as the locality. In 1860 his mansion, known as


Oakwood, was commenced, and was completed in 1865. It is approached through an entrance which is interesting as a chef d'oeuvre of Cincinnati wrought iron work. This was the first attempt that was made to unite limestone and sandstone in the construction of suburban residences. It was eminently successful, and since that time many of the large suburban residences of Cincinnati have been built of these materials. Mr. Probasco is entitled to the credit of having led the van. In December, 1865, Tyler Davidson, his brother-in-law, died, and in March, 1866, Mr. Probasco disposed of the business to Lowry, Perin & Company, Mr. Lowry having been a partner in the firm of Tyler Davidson & Company for many years. In 1866 he again left this country for Europe, visiting all its principal cities, and returning late in 1867. In October, 1866, while in Munich at the Royal Bronze Foundry, he was shown some designs for a fountain. The idea of a public fountain for Cincinnati had been a topic of discussion between Mr. Probasco and Tyler Davidson. Mr. Probasco resolved to erect a fountain that, while it should be a practical benefit to the people, would be more beautiful than any previously erected in the United States. He commenced negotiations with the director of the foundry, as well as the great artist, Kaulbach, and his son-in-law, Kreling, and the result was the magnificent fountain so widely known as well for its artistic beauty as its useful purposes, which he presented to the people of Cincinnati on October 6, 1871. He has also given a valuable fountain to the village of Clifton, made of granite and bronze. During Mr. Probasco's various travels in Europe, he devoted much of his time to the study of public and private galleries and museums of science and art. His natural taste, cultivated by that education which association with the works of great masters gives, enabled him to assemble one of the finest collections of pictures in the country. His passion for curiosities in literature induced him to collect a splendid library of books and rare manuscripts. Besides indulging his love for the rare in literature, and the beautiful in art, Mr. Probasco has embellished his grounds with choice trees and shrubs imported from Japan, California, France and England. He has shown a public spirit that the city of Cincinnati is proud of. Mr. Probasco is an Episcopalian having contributed largely to the erection of Calvary church, in Clifton, donating its beautiful tower and stone' spire. He has been one of the managers of the Public Library. He is president of the Spring Grove Cemetery, in which corporation he has served thirty years; has served for thirty years as president of the Cincinnati Orphan Asylum; for almost twenty years in council in. the village of Clifton, and since 1877 as its mayor, until his retirement in 1888. The embellishment of the thirty acres of ground at Oakwood during thirty-five years, regardless of cost, is justly to be considered a successful achievement of all that is best in the natural style of landscape gardening, having at, last reached the moat perfect condition. In 1887 Mr. Probasco married, for his second wife, Grace, eldest, daughter of Thomas Sherlock, Esq,, and by her he has one son and one daughter.

AMOS SHINKLE. No work purporting to give the history of Cincinnati would be complete without due mention of the man whose name opens this article, and who, as a citizen, capitalist and philanthropist, left the impression of his character and his enterprise upon every local interest. The young tradesman in the retail store, the boatman making voyages down the river, a controlling spirit in great and beneficent movements, the founder and representative of large and influential institutions, there was something in his manhood which helped other men and made him conspicuous among the best and wisest.

Mr. Shinkle was born on White Oak creek, Brown county, Ohio, August 11, 1818. His parents had come as children to the Northwest Territory from Pennsylvania in 1797. His boyhood was passed amid plain almost primitive surroundings, and he availed himself of such educational advantages as were offered in that then new country, coming to be regarded as enough of a scholar to teach the school in which


he had been taught. But his natural bent inclined him to a business career, and at the early age of seventeen years we find hint in charge of his father's books of account.. Not long thereafter be engaged in business in eastern Kentucky, cutting trees and making timber into furniture which he rafted down the river as far as New Orleans where he found a ready sale. Thus he acquired a little capital which he invested in the grocery trade. This venture was unsuccessful on account of the loose credit method then in vogue, and it suspended before Mr. Shinkle had attained his majority. The law would have rendered every device of his creditors unavailing against him, but he took no advantage of that fact, and in due time, and with no little trouble and self-denial, paid to the last cent every dollar of his indebtedness, thus laying a sure corner stone of integrity in the edifice of his prosperity. From 1838 to 1846 he was a resident of Higginsport. In August of the year last mentioned he located in Covington with a hard-earned capital of $1,500, considerable valuable business experience, and an earnest determination to achieve fortune by all honorable means in his new and broader field of operations. This change opened his real business career, distinguished throughout by wise forethought, and spotless honor. He engaged at once in the coal trade, supplying steamers which ran on the river from Cincinnati to New Orleans, gaining in worldly wealth each year until he retired from this trade in 1864, already a capitalist. The Covington & Cincinnati bridge was conceived by him in 1856, and through numerous and almost appalling discouragements he never lost faith in the success of the great project until he beheld it a grand actuality ten years later. He was president of the Bridge and Gas Companies; was the founder and president of the First National Bank and was associated, either as director or president, with other corporations too numerous to mention. Throughout the whole long and useful career he had the advancement of every good interest of the community at heart. Many of the financial enterprises, which eventually contributed to his own fortune, were conceived in a large minded desire to benefit the city of his adoption; and on every hand can be seen substantial proofs of his disinterested, sagacious activity in the betterment of the social and material condition of the people among whom he had cast his lot. His public-spirited endeavor that Covington should take proud position among her sister cities of the "Midway County" was a strong and constant impulse. His connection with the school board inaugurated a change in the architecture of the school buildings in the direction of beauty and utility. As a member of the city council he made his influence felt always for the general good. He was long prominent in Masonic and Odd Fellow circles, and in local politics he was an unostentatious but recognized power. While living in Higginsport during the earlier years of his manhood Mr. Shinkle took an active interest in the military matters of the State, and was commissioned, by Governor Shannon, as first lieutenant of artillery in the Eighth Division Ohio Militia. He offered his services, and those of his company, to the United States Government during the Mexican war: but., upon coming to Cincinnati to be mustered in, was disappointed in his patriotic resolve by the fact that no more troops were needed. This training and experience served him happily when afterward, as colonel of the Kentucky Home Guards, he was commandant at Covington during the Kirby Smith raid. At the outbreak of the war his admirable good sense and executive ability manifested themselves. Covington was on the border, and a dominant section of the community believed in the doctrine of State rights, whose consequences would be a broken and bankrupt nationality. At this time, when Kentucky was trembling in the balance. and multitudes were undecided as to which side to espouse, he promptly called for volunteers, raising for the defense of the city the historic "Shotgun Company," which speedily grew into the Forty-first Kentucky Regiment. This challenge to wavering minds defined at once the position of many, and a rallying center was provided for the vacillating Union sentiment.


On November 10, 1842, Mr. Shinkle was married to Miss Sarah Jane Hughes, and in 1846 his only child, Bradford Shinkle, was born. It was the division of opinion at the time of the will- that made Mr. Shinkle a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, though he had all along been an occasional attendant upon public worship, and had for sonic years been a pew holder in several prominent churches. The churches, generally, showed the prevailing feeling as to the great question of the day, and he was not satisfied with their attitude; but the Methodist Episcopal Church on Greenup street, unpretending in appearance, and limited in resources, represented unhesitating loyalty to the nation, and to this church Mr. Shinkle was drawn by patriotic considerations as well as by the attraction of some strong personal friendship among its members. Ho throw himself unreservedly into the work of building up the organization and its interests. A new and stately edifice replaces the old one. That there might be no question as to the loyalty of those who worshiped therein, its windows and woodwork were painted red, white and blue, and by common consent it was called the Union Church. From a helpful business connection with this church he grew almost imperceptibly yet rapidly into a positive spiritual relationship. He soon established a family altar. The Sunday-school invited him, almost as soon as he entered the church, to become its superintendent, and he continued in its active charge until his death. His piety was a primary and inwrought conviction, and he consecrated to the church and to his fellow men not only himself but that which was his.

It would be contrary to his desire, if it could be expressed, and a violation of the modesty of those who bear his honored name, to enumerate the gifts to various causes which signalized the period of his religious life; but it is simple justice to his memory to state that, always munificent in his benefactions, he in some years disbursed to charity sums which many an ambitious man would regard as an adequate fortune. The Protestant Children's Home, a costly edifice devoted to useful purposes, was a gift for a home for the Protestant children of Covington. He was actively engaged in the preliminary movement which led to the introduction of lay representation in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in 1872, and at each succeeding session. he was a member of the General Conference. His addresses in that body always commanded respect because they expressed the views of a man fearlessly, honest and intelligently conversant with the subjects under discussion. Devoted to the interests of the Book Concern, watching its growth with a peculiar pride; thoughtful of the Freedman's Aid Society, and its wide benevolent work in the South; busied with schemes for the poor preachers of the Kentucky Conference; the pillar and pride of the local church; he was a noble specimen of a devout Godfearing, diligent Christian, and those who have been his pastors best know the fine fiber of his personal loyalty. The same clear perception of the thing to be done and how to do it, the same appreciation of principles and details, characterized him in the Church as elsewhere, and he found himself, without any seeking on his own part, at, the front in the management of general interests. The gift of insight and the skill of executive control blended perfectly in the mental structure. His thoroughness was a marvelous trait of his character, and he attributed much of his success to the fact that, he tried to do everything well, even small things. A man of strong will, frank, honest, outspoken, of wonderful mental versatility, he approached all matters for decision from the ethical side, and those who knew him best were never in doubt as to his invincible inclination to do right under all circumstances. His useful life ended at his beautiful home in Covington, November 13, 1892.

DEWITT C. COLLINS. president of the Farmers' and Shippers' Tobacco Warehouse Company, was born near Boggstown, eight miles north of Shelbyville, Shelby Co., Indiana, July 15, 1827, and is a son of Amos and Priscilla (Seving) Collins, natives of New York and Kentucky, and of Scotch-Irish and German origin. His paternal grandfather was Stephen Collins, a Revolutionary soldier, who came to


Campbell county, Ky., in 1801. His maternal grandfather was David Swing, one of the first settlers of Campbell county, Ky., who built the first boat at Cincinnati to make the river voyage to New Orleans. The family connections include the Swings of Batavia, Ohio, ex-Judge Swing of the United States Superior Court of Cincinnati, and Prof. David Swing, of Chicago. Amos Collins was a tanner and mason by trade, and built the first brick house within the present limits of Kenton county, formerly embraced within Campbell county, Ky. His family consisted of four sons and two daughters, five of whom are living.

Dewitt C. was reared principally by a bachelor uncle and maiden aunt, William and Minerva Collins, his father having died when he was a year old, and his mother when he had reached the age of six. He received his education principally at Morgan Academy, in Burlington, Boone Co., Ky. At the age of seventeen, he opened a private school, which he continued four years; he also taught at Milton, Trimble Co., Ky., one year. At the breaking out of the Mexican war, he enlisted in Company G, Sixteenth Infantry, and was in the service eighteen months, rising to the rank of quartermaster-sergeant. Thus he is one of the venerable few surviving pensioners of that war which is fast receding beyond the memory of the living. In March, 1848, he returned and taught in the private schools of Cincinnati nearly three years, part of which time he was connected with R. M. Bartlett's Commercial College. His business career he began as bookkeeper for the Farmers' Bank of Covington, where he was employed nearly two years; then entered the office of Ellis & Sturgis, bankers, Third street, Cincinnati, the largest banking house in the West at that time, their individual accounts sometimes aggregating four million dollars. Here he was superintendent and bookkeeper two years. He then organized the banking house of Fallis, Brown & Company, composed of D. J. Fallis, J. M. Brown and D. C. Collins, which was subsequently merged into the Merchants' National Bank, of which Mr. Fallis was president, until a few months ago. Mr. Collins retired in 1856, owing to ill health, and was next employed by the directors of the Covington & Lexington Railroad Company to adjust the accounts of S. J. Walker, treasurer, with whom there had been no settlement for several years. In 1860 he established a bolt and nut factory at Covington, but, owing to the unsettled condition of the country and the business, he sold it in the following year. In 1866 he entered the Northern Bank of Kentucky, in Covington, as bookkeeper; from 1870 to 1881 he was cashier, and from 1881 to 1887 vice-president; he still retains active connection with the institution as a member of the board of directors. In 1888 he retired to his country residence, five miles below Covington, and was not again in active business until 1893, when he organized and became president of the Farmers' and Shippers' Tobacco Warehouse Company. This company was incorporated with a capital stock of one million dollars, and its officers and directors are of the best business talent of Cincinnati and vicinity. It is one of the largest of its kind in the world, and the already phenomenal success of the undertaking is largely due to the wise management and keen business foresight of Mr. Collins. He has occupied many positions of public trust. As a member of the city council of Covington at a time when the city was being robbed by its trusted officers, he, by his unflinching integrity and determination, brought the guilty to justice and reorganized the financial system for the city, bringing her finances from a condition of chaos, and almost bankruptcy, to one of safety and first-class credit. He was later selected as the representative of the city of Covington to build a highway from Covington to Ludlow, and also chosen as president of the Dry Creek & Covington Turnpike Road Company-when it was and had been in a state of bankruptcy for forty years-and by his business fact and economy be soon relieved the company entirely from debt and placed it in first-class condition, both physically and financially.

On August 28, 1851, Mr. Collins married Rachel, daughter of Washington Cleveland, of Kenton, Ky., and to them were born six children: Lelia. who married


George D, Ebbert, who died March 6, 1893, leaving three children: Louisa, Rachel and Sprig; Edgar, who died of consumption at, the age of twenty-six; William Dewitt, bookkeeper and buyer for the Cincinnati Leaf Tobacco Company; Stella, wife of E. S. Lee, cashier of the Northern Bank of Kentucky, whose children are Shackelford. Collins, Lucy Lee, and Joseph Lee; Amos C., manager of his father's farm, and Cleveland C., associated in business with his father. Mrs. Collins died April 5, 1885, and May 11, 1886, Mr. Collins married Mary, daughter of Jacob Litley, of Kenton county, Ky. Two children have been born to this union, Minerva and Calhoun. Mr. Collins is connected with the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church of Covington, in which he has been an active elder more than a score of years. In politics he is a Democrat.

SIMON STEVENS DAVIS, ex-mayor of Cincinnati, was born December 19, 1817, in Rockingham, Vt., on the farm of his father, who was a native of the same place. born in 1790. His mother, whose maiden name was Melinda Stevens, was a native of Cambridge, N. Y., born in 1796. The Davis family were of Welsh, and the Stevens family of English. extraction.

S. S. Davis began his schooling at. Rockingham, and completed it at the academy at Chester, Vt. After leaving school he assisted his father in the summer seasons, and taught school during the winter months for several years. Lt 1840 he went to Howell Works, N. J., where he was for one year engaged in teaching. From there he returned to the farm, upon the request of his father who was in failing health. In 1843 he came to Cincinnati. and was engaged in business here and in New Orleans until 1847, when be went to New York, where for six years he was engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1853 he returned to Cincinnati and established a banking and brokerage business under the firm name of S. S. Davis & Co. , on Third street, on the site of the Masonic Temple. In 1838 he was elected to council from the old Second Ward, having, as his colleague from that ward, the late ex-Governor R. M. Bishop. The city council of that day was notable both because of the high character of its members, and the importance to the development of the city in the measures that were enacted. Among the councilmen of that period were such representative citizens as Benjamin Eggleston, Henry Mack, John F. Torrence, Henry Pearce, William F. Flagg, Fred Hassaurek, F. Mayer, J. C. Bantu, Joseph Ross, Theo. Marsh, Thomas Wesner. and many others of equally high character. During the war Mr. Davis. in cooperation with C. W. Starbuck, raised a large fund for distribution by the Relief Union to the needy families of soldiers. This Union ultimately absorbed other like organizations, and gave assistance to worthy objects generally. It is still (1894) in operation. With the Relief Union Mr. Davis continued in active identification until 1884. In 1860 he became a trustee of the Woodward High School fund, and a member of the Union Board of High Schools, which position he still holds. He is also a trustee of the Home of the Friendless and Foundlings. In 1871 he was elected mayor of Cincinnati, on the Republican ticket, over ex-Mayor Col. Len A. Harris. The duties of the mayoralty at that time involved all police appointments and discharges, the appointment of sanitary and market-horse officers, wharf-master, city engineer, four assistant street commissioners, superintendent of the street cleaning department, and, ex-officio chairman of the Board of Public Works. The multifarious duties of the mayor engaged his entire attention. In the faithful discharge of this high, but poorly paid, trust, he was compelled) to neglect his private banking business to his very considerable pecuniary loss. During his tern of office, the city was redistricted, the number of wards increased from seventeen to twenty-five, and the corporate limits extended to include Cumminsville.

Mr. Davis was married, in 1850, to Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel Sayer, a farmer of Orange county, N. Y. Mrs. Davis died in Cincinnati in 1879. Of the children born of this marriage there survive: Mrs. Alla, wife of the late J. Garry Knight. of Philadelphia; Mrs. Blanche, wife of George A. Spicer, manufacturer, of Chicago;


Mrs. Adelia, wife of Charles P. Kelly, silk manufacturer, of Boston; Miss Edith, who resides with her sister, Mrs. Spicer, and Simon Stevens Davis, who is identified with the United Shirt & Collar Company, of Chicago. Mr. Davis has been prominently identified for forty years with the I. O. O. F., is past grand master of the A. O. U. W.. and past chancellor of the Knights of Pythias. He resides at the Dennison Hotel."

JOHN E. JONES. Among those who were prominently and intimately identified with the progress, growth and development of the commercial and mercantile interests of Cincinnati, the memory of John D. Jones is justly entitled to the respect of his fellow- citizens.

He was born near Morgantown, Berks Co., Penn., December 9, 1797, and was the son of John and Elizabeth Jones, being paternally of Welsh descent (as his name would, indicate), with a mixture of Scotch-Irish blood derived by maternal descent. His great-grandfather. David Jones, came to this country froze Wales, about 1720, and settled in Berks county, whither a large number of his native people emigrated, becoming inhabitants, for the most part, of what is now known as the Conestoga Valley; and built the pretty little villages of Morgantown and Churchtown, in the vicinity of that beautiful range of hills known as the Welsh Mountains. They were mostly Episcopalians by faith and education, corning to this country as zealous members of the Church of England. The father of our subject wag a native and resident of the Keystone State. and died January 14, 181t), at the Reading Forge, in Chester county, at the age of fifty-two years; at the time he was a farrier, and a recently-elected member of the House of Assembly of Pennsylvania, but died before taking his seat in that legislative body. His wife having preceded him to the grave, dying January 13, 1814, ten orphan children were left to mourn the loss of parents whose exemplary character as ardent Christians was worthy of the highest consideration.

John D. Jones was one of the elder children in this family, and while quite young, prompted by ambition as well as necessity, left home, full of energy and life, to learn the mercantile business. With that object, in view he proceeded to Philadelphia, and was there employed by his maternal uncles, Thomas and John K. Graham. In September, 1819, with his older brother, George W. Jones, he came to Cincinnati, crossing the Alleghany Mountains in the well-known Conestoga wagons -of whose size and character perhaps only the oldest inhabitants have a correct appreciation-and came down the Ohio river in a flatboat, bringing a stock of dry goods as well as some other necessary parts of an outfit to start a western store, and established the firm of George W. Jones & Company. Thus they made their first essay as merchants in a field of labor which wag at that time confined to a small and circumscribed territory of trade, but has since become expanded until it has assumed almost illimitable dimensions through the assistance of all the conveniences and advantages which the science, skill and industry of man have created. On December 1, 1820, at the early age of twenty-four years, his brother and partner died, leaving the care and responsibility of a new business, in an undeveloped and almost unsettled country, upon one as yet untried and inexperienced. Notwithstanding this sad blow, received when his plans of promise and life had scarcely been formed, together with his uncle, Thomas Graham, he continued the business under the firm name of John D. Jones & Company, till its dissolution in 1827. Nothing seems to have specially marked this period of his life in the prosecution of his mercantile pursuits, except the steady and constant increase and prosperity of the business.

On September 22, 1823, at Piqua, Miami Co., Ohio, Mr. Jones married Elizabeth Johnston. daughter of the late Col. John Johnston. She was born September 22, 1807, at, the Military Post from which the city of Fort, Wayne, Indiana, derived its name, at the time her father, so well and favorably known as one of our western pioneers, was United States factor and Indian agent. In this connection it, tray not


be improper to mention something of this venerable gentleman, whose personal appearance was familiar, down to within a few years past, to a large number of our citizens, especially to the members of the " Pioneer Association," of which he was the president, he was born in Donegal, Ireland, March 17, 1775; came to Cincinnati, or, rather, Tort Washington, February 7, 1793; was previously a clerk in the War office, at Philadelphia, under Gen. Dearborn; and for forty years was in the service of the United States as Indian agent, factor, or in some other fiduciary position, and as such being associated in the control of our governmental affairs in the West, for many years with Gen. Harrison and Cass, with whom he always maintained the must. intimate and friendly relationship. He died in the winter of 1860-61, in Washington City. at the age of eighty six years, during the session of the Peace Commissioners appointed by the government to avert the impending rebellion which well-nigh destroyed our country. Col. Johnston was a stanch Federalist and Whig in politics, and several times attended, ifs a delegate, the general political conventions of his party. In the later days of his life he often expressed his prediction of our Civil war, a prophecy which was too well realized, not ill his day, however, the lamp of life having been extinguished but a few months before hostilities were commenced. But to return from this diversion. ln 1827 Mr. Jones and his younger brother. Caleb, formed the copartnership of J. D. & C. Jones, and were prosperously engaged in business for the period of twenty-one years, during which time Pearl street was opened in order to accommodate the fast growing requirements of our mercantile interests tinder the following circumstances: In 1830 J. W. Blachley, Avery & Sharpless, Goodman &. Emerson, George Carlisle, C. & J. Bates, Ely Dorsey, It. B. Bowler, J. D. & C. Jones, bought from David Griffin 160 feet of ground on the south side of Pearl street, between Walnut and Main, and erected eight storehouses which were occupied in 1832, with the understanding that Griffin would erect, a hotel on the corner of Walnut and Pearl. In fulfillment of this agreement the " Pearl Street house,'' of which the late Col. John Noble was proprietor, was built. Now not a vestige is left of the tavern which gave comfort and hospitable accommodations to the enterprising merchants of the West who came to this market for supplies; and of all the above-named parties the members of the last-mentioned firm are the sole survivors. And although with the vicissitudes of time these old landmarks and familiar faces Dave passed away, the Pearl street of former days still exists in influence and importance as the center of trade which has been expanded and enlarged commensurate with the growth of our city.

Mr. Jones was the senior partner successively- of the firms of J. D. & C. Jones Company and Jones Brothers & Company, and retired from all active participation in business in July, having been engaged in the dry-goods trade uninterruptedly for almost fifty years; during which time ninny of those who are now prominent among the merchants of our city were employed by him and received, in part, their mercantile education under his guidance and supervision. The history of this mercantile house, so well known in the East and Vest, is identified and coincident with the development of Cincinnati, commencing first in a small and unpretentious way, and closing a career of almost half a century as one of the most important and influential, as well as successful establishments in the West.

As a merchant Mr. Jones pursued a methodical and systematic business, giving his assiduous attention to the prosecution and management of what pertained to the tasks and labors devolving upon him; as a citizen he was associated ill spirit and action with the party of progress and industry in ,lost of the enterprises, public and private, which have facilitated the increase and development of the commercial, mercantile, banking and railroad interests of Cincinnati. Ill 1834 he was a member of the board of directors of the Lafayette Bank, and together with Josiah Lawrence, Judge David K. Este, Hon. Salmon P. Chase, and others, organized and for many


years afterward continued in management of that influential corporation. He was actively interested as one of the original board of directors in the establishment-of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton railroad. For many years was treasurer of the board of trustees of the Cincinnati Orphans' Asylum, with which his wife was connected as one of the managers--an institution in whose management and welfare it was always his pride and pleasure to take the deepest interest, as well as to perform the laborious duties attached to the position of responsibility from which he was in time relieved by those who were younger and better able physically to fulfill the requirements of the position.

During the war of the Rebellion three of his sons were in the service of the United States. Of whom William Graham Jones, colonel of the Thirty-sixth O. V. I., a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, fell mortally wounded at the battle of Chickamauga, September 19. 1863; Charles Davis Jones, a graduate of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, died in 1865 while lieutenant United States navy, having passed safely through the struggles and contests of his service in the war, and having been attached for some time to the frigate ''Hartford" while floating the pennant of that gallant old hero, Admiral Farragut; and Frank J. Jones, who entered the army in April, 1861, as a private in the Guthrie Grays from Cincinnati, and returned home as captain and aid-de-camp United States Volunteers, in August, 1864, having served in the armies which operated in the South and West under Buell, Rosecrans and Thomas.

Mr. Jones resided tit Glendale, one of the many pleasant villages in the vicinity of Cincinnati, in the quiet enjoyment of the society of his wife, and the comfort of good health and a pleasant. home until his death in August, 1878; his wife died in November, 1878, and the remains of both are buried in Spring Grove Cemetery.

AUGUSTUS BEPLER, deceased banker and manufacturer of paper hags, was a native of Prussia, born August 9, 1828, son of David and Phillipine Bepler, the former of whom was a wine merchant and became very wealthy. Both he and his wife died in Europe, never visiting America, They had seven children, four of whom tire living, ore son, Edward. residing in Cincinnati, where he is an agent for ocean steamers.

Augustus Bepler, our subject, attended the universities of his native country, and was highly educated. In 1851 he immigrated to the United States and settled in Cincinnati, where he engaged for three years in the banking business with his brother, Edward, This was at a time so well-known by the citizens of that period, when everybody needed the services of a detective to determine whether or not the money presented was counterfeit or genuine. After retiring from the then unsatisfactory business of banking, Mr. Bepler began the manufacture of paper bags at Lockland, Hamilton county, where he did a successful business for three years and then removed his machinery to Cincinnati. He possessed fine inventive genius, devised a number of valuable machines for manufacturing paper bags, and applied his time diligently to his business affairs until failing health compelled him to retire. He consequently sold his factory, together with his machines and patents, to Chatfield & Woods, and spent the remainder of his life seeking a restoration of health. He died February 21, 1890, tit blew Orleans, while on a trip with his wife.

Mr. Bepler was married in 1855 to Adelaide, daughter of Dr. Ahrend, and they were blessed with five children: Bertha, Emma, Augusta. Helen and Julia, all of whom reside with their mother at their beautiful home on Tusculum Heights. The family adhere to the Protestant religion, and Mr. Bepler was a Republican in politics. Mr. Bepler was the architect of his own fortune, and was one of the few men who became rich and yet maintained a reputation spotless and unsullied. Truth, honor and fidelity was the platform on which he stood firm and unmovable. His generosity was without stint. Although he was naturally somewhat retiring and unostenta-


tions, yet his banking and manufacturing interests brought him into contact with various classes of business life, so much so, that be was distinctively a man of the public, and will be remembered in history as one who did much to build up the community in which he lived, and who died honored and respected by all who knew him.

RICHARD NELSON was born in Castleward, County Down, Ireland, July 9, 1822, son of James and Catherine (Moore) Nelson. His father, who was a sea captain must of his life, retired in 1860 to reside with his daughter, Harriet fully, whose husband held a position in the town of Downpatrick. He died in 1866, at the advanced age of eighty-four; his wife died in 1847. Their children were: George, Horatio. Ann Jane, Edward, Harriet, and William, of whom only two survive, Harriet and William.

Richard Nelson received his schooling at first in the Parish of Ballyculter, until old enough to enter the English and classical academy at Strangford-the two being equally distant from home-about two English miles. The family removing to Belfast, his studies were seriously interrupted, so after spending some years in various occupations, a part of the time as cabin boy with his brother, Horatio, captain of the ship " Britannia," he resumed studies under two of the professors of the Belfast Institute, with the object of preparing for the Church of England, in which he was brought up. In 1844 he commenced a course of reading in theology under the late Rev. Dr. T. Campbell, then of Trinity church, and was engaged by the church as assistant in the management of the schools and in pastoral work. The church being an "incumbency" subject only to the bishop, it was not necessary for him to be in "orders" to perform the latter work. For the same reasons, the schools were. not parish schools, conducted, as they were, under the Church Education Society. At that period, it will be remembered, Puseyism, or high church doctrine and practices, were then causing great commotion in ecclesiastical circles and, fearing Trinity would not be free of the tendency Romeward, he abandoned the Church, accepting the position of tutor to the family of George Fawcett, of Esker. Within the year he married Miss Ellen Higginson, of Belfast, a graduate of the Home and Colonial Institute, London, England, and soon moved to Liverpool, England, to engage in the profession of teaching. The years 1848--49 were troublous times, the threatened rising in Leland took place under John Mitchell, and, though an insignificant affair, Mr. Nelson felt like leaving a country that. was constantly disturbed by the thriftless, shiftless, discontents of the Smith of Ireland. Of course he had the higher object in view, a higher exercise of the privilege of the franchise and a wide field for the prosecution of study and exercise of any little educational talent with the preparation he had. In August, 1849, he reached Philadelphia, pushed forward to Barnesville, Ohio, where were near relations, but soon accepted the professorship of Center Wheeling public schools. Less than two years' experience satisfied him that the school must be conducted in the interest of school directors and schoolbook publishers; so preparatory to his leaving for a larger city he accepted the position of clerk of the Circuit Court under Maj. Loring. In 1854 he was again in the profession, and also engaged in literary and accountant work, the former on the Kentucky side of the river, the latter in Cincinnati. Moving among business men, he discovered that the commercial schools of the day, by turning the attention of their students to theoretical bookkeeping, failed to supply the wants of merchants who needed clerks, not bookkeepers. After spending over a year in plans for the founding and management of a school that would better meet the requirements of the banking and business community, he opened the institution in which this is written. Embarrassed for the want of qualified teachers and text books, he had to make both, so, in 1859, he published " Nelson's Mercantile Arithmetic," and, in 1870, a small work on bookkeeping. In 1885 " Nelson's New Bookkeeping" appeared, and, in 1891, "Accounts and Business." The News


and Educator, an educational paper, was published for a number of years, and later merged into an editorial magazine with Hon. A. J. Rickoff, editor-in-chief. He withdrew from the college in 1874, when it was carried on for a few years until his health was restored. In 1878 he resumed. In 1882, he opened a branch college in Springfield, Ohio, which continues in operation under his son R. J. Prior to that, in 1881, Miss E. founded the Nelson Ladies' Business College, which she conducted with success until 1885 when her health failing she retired, and the college was consolidated with the parent institution. In 18-- A. E., who had been superintendent of the parent college, founded a separate college in Memphis, Tenn., which he continues to conduct. In order to hotter perpetuate the business and secure it. in the family, he incorporated the three institutions in Ohio under the title of The Nelson Business College Company. with an authorized capital of $50,000, that being the amount upon which was calculated the business would pay six per cent. after deducting expenses.

In 1889 he opened a preparatory department with the object of better fitting young people for mercantile pursuits. He called a meeting of representative bankers and business men to give expression to their views on business education, and obtained their endorsement for a longer term of study on the part of the young people. The school proved a success, and their department of stenography, opened some time previously, with the addition of the preparatory department, called for separate and enlarged quarters, so the Annex on Fifth and Walnut was secured for their accommodation. Mr. Nelson was at one tune, and for some years, chairman of the Text Book Committee of the International Business College Association, but the association was not prosperous, so only a few remained identified with such assemblies who have something to sell to the younger people of the profession. A few of the colleges use his books, and once in a while he is asked for a " talk." It will be noticed by the readers of their circulars that they have been fortunate in having the patronage of wealthy, influential and cultured people as students and patrons, and continue to instruct that class. Students who prepare themselves satisfactorily can therefore always rely on getting positions in some of the hundreds, of houses conducted by former students and graduates.

Mr. Nelson is a member of the Cincinnati Literary Society, arid the Cincinnati Society of Natural History. In religion he is a Congregationalist, having left the Church of England and joined the Independents in Liverpool; the Church government is the same. He was one of the members that organized the Teachers' Rifle Company, but having; a family of six depending on him for support, he was obliged to decline the honor of going to the front with his company and, accordingly, employed a substitute. His family of him and his wife numbers seven children: Dora, now Mrs. Dr. Geppert; Sophia S , now Mrs. G. M. Hammell; Ella, his associate in the profession; It. J., located in Springfield, in charge of the branch college; Albert E., principal and proprietor of the Nelson Business College, and a member of the bar, Nashville, Tern. ; H. H., chief accountant of the Dueber Watch Case Factory, Canton, Ohio. All three boys are married and have children.

ALEXANDER McDONALD was born at Forres, Morayshire, Scotland, September 25, 1833, and is the son of Alexander and Jeanette (McKenzie) McDonald, both of whom were descended from old and historic Scottish families. They immigrated to the United States in 1851, and settled at Chillicothe, Ohio, where they passed the remainder of their lives, the father dying in 1863. They reared a family of seven children, of whom Alexander was the fourth in order of birth.

Our subject received his education in his native land, and came to America with his parents. His first business venture was merchandising and manufacturing at Chillicothe in partnership with his uncle, and in 1857 he came to Cincinnati and here embarked in mercantile and manufacturing pursuits, at first individually; hut, as his business connections grow more extensive he became associated with others, until at


the present time his name is responsibly connected with many of the leading enterprises of the Queen City, He is president of the Standard Oil Company, of Kentucky, the Ohio Coal & Mining Company. and the Commercial Club of Cincinnati; a stockholder and director in the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad Com pony, and the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific Railroad Company; a director of the Third National Bank and the Equitable Insurance Company, and a trustee of the Cincinnati College of Music and of the Children's Home. For many years he was director of the Y. M. C. A., in the development of which institution he took an active interest. Mr. McDonald is emphatically one of the citizens of Cincinnati whom its people delight to honor as a stanch supporter of local interests and a firm believer in the future of the Queen City. Although a Republican in politics, and an ardent adherent of the principles of that party, he has never held public office, preferring to devote his entire attention to business, industrial and charitable affairs.

In 1862 he married Laura, daughter of Thomas Palmer, and they are the parents of one child, Laura, the wife of Edmund K. Stallo, a prominent member of the Cincinnati bar. Mr. and Mrs. McDonald are members of the Presbyterian Church, in which he is an elder and member of the board of trustees. Mrs. McDonald is president of the Cincinnati Presbyterian Hospital and of the Women's Medical College, and an active supporter of the Home for Aged Men and Women, and various other charities. Dalvay, their home at Clifton, is one of the finest private residences in Ohio.

WILLIAM HENRY VENABLE. This eminent educator and writer was born in a log house, on a farm near Waynesville, Warren Co., Ohio, April 29, 1836. His father, William Venable, was a man of delicate tastes and marked powers of knowledge, the same traits which, in the more strongly gifted son, have combined to form one of the finest faculties for intellectual culture that this country. can show. These gifts were early apparent in Venable's mind, and rapidly developed among the charms of a rural life, and the associations of a fine though humble horse. By the time be was seventeen he had so far advanced in general book-knowledge as to apply for a certificate to teach school, which was readily granted by the examiners of Warren county, one of the board, Josiah Hurty, praising Venable"s acquirements in these words, which he wrote upon the margin of the certificate: "Mr. Venable is a better scholar than many older persons; I wish that all teachers were as well taught as he."

In November, 1854, he began teaching school at Sugar Grove, near Waynesville, at a salary of sixty cents a day. On his twentieth birthday he was awarded a life membership in the Southwestern State Normal School Association, and having by the next year made up his mind to carry the burdens of a pedagogue through life he took a position in the Lebanon Normal School, where he taught until some time in 1859, pursuing special studies meanwhile with Dr. W. D. Henkle, Nor was the young master's ardor confined to books alone, for during one of those years he saw something of life by taking a pedestrian excursion through several southern States, and studying the miseries of slavery.. In 1860 he resigned his position at Lebanon for the place of principal of the Jennings Academy at Vernon, Ind., where he taught for a year. It may be questioned whether the rising young scholar was drawn across the State line solely 1)y the attraction of a professional position, for it was during his sojourn in Indiana that he was married to hiss Mary A. Vater, of Indianapolis. a lady whose graces of mind and character were in every way designed to allure the choice of such a nature as his. Some months after his marriage, viz., in September, 1862, being already well known in the West as a scholar and instructor, he located himself in Cincinnati, taking the position of professor of Natural Science in Chickering Institute, in which celebrated academy he remained through twenty-four of the most active and fruitful years of his life, during five of which he was proprietor of the Institute. Upon retiring from Chickering's in January, 1886, Prof. Venable


occupied himself in lecturing throughout the country, in writing for various magazines and periodicals, and in preparing a number of books for publication. Some of his best and most valued works appeared during this term of authorship. In April, 1889, he was called to become a professor of Literature in the Cincinnati High School, which distinguished position he still holds.

Dr. Venable's merits and labors have won him many titles and honors. Besides the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Laws, conferred upon him by De Pauw and Ohio Universities, he has held or holds memberships in several of the most noted learned societies of the country. One of these is the dignity of honorary member of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, a distinction which only five persons besides himself have enjoyed, among them ex-Presidents Harrison and Hayes, and Francis Parkman. In 1891 he was offered the presidency of the Association of Western Writers, in which Gen. Lew Wallace and James Whitcomb Riley held high places, but he found it inconvenient to accept. At the Republican State convention in 1886 he was supported by the best element of Ohio, as candidate for the office of State School Commissioner.

A there list of the works which have built up Prof. Venable's fame would fill the remaining space of this article. Several of these were written at the request of the foremost business men of Cincinnati, and have been of special service to his city and State, His "Beginnings of Literary Culture in the Ohio Valley" will always possess as much value and interest to western readers as Johnson's "Lives of the Poets" to students of English literature. As an educational writer and lecturer, he is esteemed not only throughout every western State, but among the haughtiest cities and colleges in New England and New York. But it is not strange that he is so widely felt as an educational force; his theories are never out of proportion to his practice. No man knows better than Venable how to utilize the ideal while idealizing the practical. His " History of the United States " has a wide circulation; his latest essay, " Let Him first, be a Man," is one of the most highly commended books from the American press. As a poet his reputation extends beyond his own country. English readers know his name, and some of his poems have been translated and reprinted in Germany and Austria. Knortz's German History of American Literature, printed in Berlin in 1891, gives several pages to his writings. Much of his extensive reputation as a poet he owes to his beautiful early production, " The Teacher's Dream." His "June on the Miami," and "Melodies of the Heart," reveal some of the most ideal visions of the poetic temperament. Longfellow, Holmes and Stedman, Presidents Grant, Garfield and Hayes, and other authors and statesmen of renown, have testified their appreciation of Venable's poetry as freely as the untechnical critics of the general public.

Prof. Venable resides in an elegant and commodious house on Mt. Tuseulum, built and furnished with the profits of his literary labors. He has a charming family of four sons and three daughters. Though generally losing himself in entranced companionship with his books and pictures when at home, he is always ready, with cheerful and inspiriting courtesy to receive the friends and callers who seek his counsel, his aid, or the delight of his conversation, Cincinnati has no citizen in whom she feels more honored than William H. Venable.- [From the pen of John B. Jewett.

JOHN B. JEWETT is the eldest son of Col. E. F. Jewett, well-known to the people of Hamilton county, from his past service in the offices of county engineer and county surveyor. The subject of this sketch was born at Newtown, June 24, 1865, From his mother, who possessed considerable talent, and acquired some note as a writer, he inherited a strong love for literature. He received his educational training in the public schools of Newtown and at Chickering Institute, Cincinnati. While at the latter school his deep literary sympathies and aptitude for composition attracted the attention of Prof. W. H. Venable, who thenceforth bestowed upon him especial


encouragement and instruction. After leaving school. and until his twenty-first year, he followed his father's profession of civil engineering. being a part of the time in the service of the county. In 1887 he took a place on the staff of the Cincinnati Evening Post, but did not hold it long. At the beginning of Judge Ferris' first term, in February, 1891, he was offered a clerkship in the probate court of this county, which he accepted and retained for two years. Mr. Jewett's literary productions have been published in the various newspapers and magazines of the first class. His writings, both prose and verse, show sensitive feeling. and a faculty that, is inclined to be original, ingenious and artistic. A distinguished writer and critic has pronounced one of his romantic prose stories "equal in duality to Irving."-[Written by Edwin F. Flynn.

REUBEN R. SPRINGER was born in Frankfort, Ky., in 1800. His father, Charles Springer, was a native of West Virginia, a soldier under Gen. Wayne and a participant in the battle of Maumee in 1794. For many years be was postmaster of Frankfort, and also cultivator of a farm near Lexington, same State. He was killed in 1816 by being thrown from a wagon. Reuben Springer's mother, Catherine Runyan, a native of Princeton, N. J., survived her husband several years.

Young Reuben received a very meager education in the schools of Frankfort. At thirteen, he entered the post office as clerk, and succeeded his father as postmaster. He held this position for two years when he became a clerk on a steamer running between Cincinnati and New Orleans. He was very economical, and in a few years he was able to buy an interest in the line to which the boat belonged, and continued in the steamboat business for twelve years. On January 30, 1830, he married Jane Kilgour. daughter of Henry and Catherine Kilgour. Mr. Kilgour was at that time a member of the firm of Kilgour, Taylor & Company, the largest wholesale grocery firm ill Cincinnati. Immediately after his marriage Mr. Springer became a junior partner of the firm with which he continued for the next ten years. His close application to business impaired his health, and in 1840 he was obliged to retire from active business. The firm dissolved, and each member retired wealthy. Charles Springer, a brother of Reuben Springer, succeeded to the good will of the house. He was lost at sea in the ill-fated steamer "Arctic," in 1854. Mr. Springer then turned his attention to the recovery of his health. In 1842 he left for Europe, but unsettled business compelled his return the following year. He revisited Europe in 1844-45 in 1849 and 1851. On his fourth and last trip he was accompanied by Mrs. Springer, and together they spent much time in visiting art centers of the Old World. By turning his attention to a study of the laws of health. he renewed his impaired constitution and lived many years beyond the limit his hopes had fixed, dying December 10, 1884. In all these years he took advantage of every means to prolong his life. 11r. Springer was wealthy. His wealth consisted principally of real estate, railroad bonds and other securities. His income from rents alone was said to be $75,000 a year. He was a large stockholder, and for many years a director of the Little Miami, Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago, and Lake Shore railroads. He declined a re-election as director of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad, after serving sixteen years in that capacity. He owned $700,000 worth of first mortgage bonds of the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago railroad, which bore six per cent. interest. He was a large stockholder and director in the Third National, LaFayette and other banks, as well as in the Equitable and other insurance companies. He never held a political position. He was very careful and cautious of his investments, always placing his money where it would be safe, and cause him the least anxiety or care. His extreme caution made hint look with suspicion on Southern railroad schemes, and he consequently held himself aloof from such enterprises. In politics Mr. Springer was a Henry Clay Whig, and a personal friend of that great statesman, but became a Republican at the birth of that party. In religion he was a Catholic, and a member of the Cathedral congregation. He gave to the


Cathedral over thirty thousand dollars, at the same time contributing to many public and private charities. Mrs. Springer died several years ago, leaving no children. Mr. Springer educated four young relatives of his wife. He was a man of refined tastes and a lover of all that is beautiful in art and nature. During his travels in Europe he collected many valuable paintings and works of art. His home at Plum and Seventh streets, Cincinnati, was filled with these souvenirs of travel. In conversation Mr. Springer was always most interesting when talking on the subject of art. The success of the Musical Festivals in 1873 and 1875 demonstrated the possibility of a permanent institution in Cincinnati, and Music Hall was the result of the enthusiasm created by those festivals. In May, 1875. Mr. Springer addressed a letter to John Shillito offering to donate $125,000 for the purpose of building a Music Hall, on two conditions: First, that the lot on Elm and Fourteenth streets be secured from the city for the perpetual use of the society to be formed for the purpose, at a nominal rent and free from taxation; and second, that a further sure of not less than $125,000 be donated by the citizens. The offer was received with enthusiasm, and committees to carry it into effect were appointed by the Board of Trade, Chamber of Commerce and other bodies. When it was found that subscriptions flagged on account of the apparent preference being extended to Music Hall over Exposition, Mr. Springer, on June 7, agreed to donate $50,000 more for the Exposition interest as soon as the .$125, 000 were subscribed by the citizens, on condition that they should subscribe a further $100,000. The taking of subscriptions became even more arduous than before, and in November Mr. Springer offered to give another $20,000 on condition that $15,000 (the amount needed to make up the one hundred and twenty-five thousand) be raised within thirty days. This was accomplished by gathering small sums, hundreds of laboring men and operatives contributing $1.00 each, for which they received certificates of stock entitling them to one admission into the first Exposition to be held in the new hall. On December 1, 1875, the Music Hall Association was formed. Work on the building commenced in September, 1876. The trustees soon ran short of funds, and Mr. Springer added to his already munificent gift by donating $20,000 on two different occasions. Mr. Springer's gifts were as follows: Original subscription, $125,000; additional subscriptions: in November, 1875, $20,000; in April, 1877, $20,000; in January, 1878; $20,000; organ fund, $5,000; premium for carving, $500; Art Museum fund, $10,000; Exposition buildings, $50,000; new building College of Music, $40,000; endowment College of Music, $80,000-total, $370,500.

A life-sized statue of Mr. Springer, executed by Preston Powers, son of the celebrated sculptor Hiram Powers, was unveiled at the Music Hall Monday, May 15, 1882, with appropriate ceremonies. It is seldom that the living are so honored, but in this case it was fitting that the first statue erected in the great building should be that of its great patron. Mr. Springer was singularly modest, and notwithstanding his large gifts to the Music Hall and College, be refused to have it named after himself. He was generally unostentatious and liberal to all public charities, and he will always be remembered as one of the city's greatest benefactors.

COLONEL PETER RUDOLPH NEFF was born on June 10,1832, in Baltimore, Md., a son of Peter Neff, whose father, also named Peter Neff, was the son of Rudolph Neff (Naef), who emigrated from Switzerland to the United States in 1749. Col. Neff's mother prior to her marriage with his father was Mrs. Isabella Lamson, a widow, her maiden name being Freeman.

In 1835 Col. Neff's father removed from Baltimore to Cincinnati, Ohio, Laving in 1824, in conjunction with John Rudolph, William and George Washington Neff, his brothers, founded in the latter city the hardware house of Neff & Brothers, which had already become widely known in the West, indeed in the whole country, as a leading firm in this department of business, and he raised his sons in a business atmosphere; but this did not prevent him from giving the closest attention to


their education. Peter Rudolph was first placed at the school of the Misses Com. stock, which was conducted ill the basement: of Christ Church, Cincinnati, and when less than ten years of age was sent to Woodward High School. By special permission he occupied the room of Dr. Joseph Ray, eminent in his profession, where he remained two years. After a short time spent in Cincinnati College his education was committed to private teachers who came to the house at stated intervals. These were Charles Mathews, who instructed his pupil in mathematics; George C. Lindley, in Greek; Thomas S. Milligan, in Latin, and C. J. Bourgoin, Adolph H. Gerard and August Doisy, in French, the last-named gentleman, of rare acquirements, also giving him a course of English literature. From the Rev. Thomas H. Stockton he received instruction in elocution. In addition, he took lessons in music and drawing. It will thus be seen that the preparations for a thorough education were singularly complete, and it may be remarked as showing how largely the sympathy of the father was enlisted in the work which was laying the foundation of the character and usefulness of his son that he made it a point to be present at almost every recitation, which generally took place at night. Peter Neff generally recognized the fact that a man was the better in this world for having a specific employment, so that he cultivated in his son the habit of spending his spate hours in his store, where he was gradually inducted into the methods and usages of business. In November, 1848, Peter Neff found himself alone in business in his own name, his brothers, William and George W., having retired; and the firm of Neff & Brother by mutual consent having just been dissolved, John Rudolph Neff, William Peter Neff, his son, and Kirkbride Yardley, a brother-inlaw, formed a partnership under the firm name of Neff Brother & Company for the, conducting of a business similar to the old firm. This marks an important period in Peter Rudolph Neff's life. His mother having died on the 6th of March, 1844, with a strong desire that her sons should be united with their father in business, if he were associated with any one, the time for the gratification of her wishes was now at hand. In six months after the dissolution of the firm of Neff & Brother William Howard and Peter Rudolph Neff were admitted to partnership with their father in the hardware business, the name of the firm being changed to Peter Neff & Sons. The sons were first each given one-fourth interest, which, when William Howard arrived at his majority, in March, 1847, was increased to one-third, each of the two sons having a like interest with their father. From this time, for twenty-two years, the subject of this sketch was thoroughly identified with the business of the firm of which he was a partner.

Peter Rudolph was married in Brooklyn, N. Y., Jane 30, 1853, and the newly married couple soon thereafter commenced housekeeping in Cincinnati. Prior to. this he had laid the foundations for the religious work of his life, for which he has become distinguished by uniting with the Second Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati May 5, 1850. In the August following he was elected superintendent of the German Mission Sunday-school, which, under his management, became' a religious power in Cincinnati, having been brought from about 150 to 600 persons in attendance. In 1870 he, with others, organised a Mission Sabbath-school under the, auspices of the Second Presbyterian Church, which was held in the basement of the edifice of that congregation on Fourth street. Like the one already alluded to, the school grew rapidly until it became known far and wide as a model of its kind, numbering in its maximum average 545 persons and presenting for ten years the unusual average of 440 in attendance. In 1883 Col. Neff determined to organize a. Presbyterian Church on Price Hill, and late in that year, having already on his own, account leased Library Hall for three years, invited twenty-one persons, comprising his wife, his four married daughters and their husbands, and others to meet at his residence, where, on the first day of November of that year, was founded the Westminster Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati, he being at the same tinge elected and


installed a ruling older, a position which he had previously held in the Second Presbyterian Church. The first meeting of the newly-formed Church was held on Sunday, November 11, 1883, a Sabbath-school having also been commenced at the same time with an attendance of 102 persons, Col. Neff being the superintendent.

Col. Neff was one of the founders of the Home Missionary Society of the Second Presbyterian Church, organized as far back as 1850, and was also ono of the early members of the Society of Religious Inquiry, which subsequently became the Young Men's Christian Association. Of this society and its illustrious successor he filled about every office, twice having been president, for many years a member of the executive committee, a warm advocate of the purchase of the present valuable property of the association, and always its devoted friend and active supporter. He was for years a trustee of Lane (Theological) Seminary, finally becoming vice-president and a member of the executive committee. In 1878, associated with Col. George Ward Nichols, Reuben R. Springer and others, he became one of the founders of the College of Music of Cincinnati, and, without compensation, consented to become its first treasurer. At the death of Col. Nichols Col. Neff was chosen his successor in the office of president, and on the 10th day of September, 1885, entered upon the performance of the laborious duties of this office, for which his education, tastes, experience and executive ability so admirably fitted him. He was in 1883 appointed one of the trustees to administer the Woodward fund, and was elected president of the Union Board of High Schools in 1885, serving one year. He was also a member of the commission for the inspection of charitable and correctional institutions of Hamilton county, Ohio, serving in this capacity for two years from 1883. For twenty-five years he has been one of the managers of the Cincinnati Relief Fund, five years of which he was a vice-president. In 1884 he was president of the Associated Charities of the Eleventh District, and in January, 1885, was elected president of the central board, but declined a re-election because of the pressing nature of other duties. He was president of the Philharmonic Orchestra one year, and was intimately and energetically identified with the management of all the opera festivals, as well as sustaining a close relation to the May festivals; was also an active member of the Committee of Public Safety, the Tax Payers' League, and the Citizens' Committee.

Although Col. Neff was not actively in the field for any considerable period during the war of the Rebellion, he was yet busily employed from the commencement to the close of hostilities in matters pertaining to the prosecution of the war. Immediately on the organization of the military committee of Hamilton county he was appointed its secretary by Governor Dennison, and was continued in the position by each successive governor of the State until the close of the war. These duties practically engrossed his time. The committee met every day during the war; every man who enlisted in Hamilton county appeared before this committee; every recruit who took a bounty received a check from the secretary, signed by the president and himself; and when the subscribers to the fund of $250,000, which was raised in 1863 to save the county from the draft, were reimbursed, the commissioners entrusted the issuing of all the bonds to the secretary of the committee. During all this period, save when the company was for a short time in the charge of Gen. McClellan and Col. Groesbeck, the Pearl Street Rifles were commanded by Col. Neff, with which he drilled on every week day night during the war. When the expedition was authorized by Gen. Fremont to proceed to Paducah, Ky., to build a pontoon bridge for the use of Gen. Grant, who had moved across the Ohio river into Kentucky, the command was entrusted to Col. Neff; and at the time of the Kirby Smith invasion no military organization rendered more prompt or cheerful service than the one which he commanded. The firm of Peter Neff & Sons continued in existence until 1871, when it was dissolved by mutual consent, Peter Neff and Peter Rudolph Neff retiring, William Howard still for some years continuing the business in his own name.


Col, Neff was twice married; first time June 30, 1853, to Caroline Margaretta Burnet, who died August 4, 1864. This union resulted in live children---four daughters, all of whom are married, and one son, who died in early boyhood. The colonel was married, the second time, to Miss Josephine Clark Burnet, June 19, 1867, both wives being daughters of William Burnet, Esq., by different marriages and granddaughters of Judge Jacob Burnet. By his second wife he had seven children, four of whom-two daughters and two sons-are living.

Such are the salient points of the life of Peter Rudolph Neff. They exhibit a valuable life, now in the zenith of its usefulness, built upon the secure foundation of good stock, wise instruction, judicious parental control and sterling example, a life conscientiously and actively employed in good works. With a conscience which always recognized the claims of duty, and a judgment which usually saw where duty lay; with convictions that were clearly defined and with unusual ability to control men, he has identified himself with nothing on which he has not wade a tangible impression.

BENJAMIN F. POWER, one of Cincinnati's most prominent dealers in leaf tobacco, was born in Bracken county, Ky,. November l6, 1828, and is a son of Robert and Nancy (Meyer) Power, natives of Virginia and Kentucky, respectively. His paternal grandfather, who was an early settler in Virginia, served as a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Robert Power's family numbered eleven children, of whom Benjamin F. was the fourth; he has one living sister, Miss Laura Power.

His education was obtained in the public schools of his native town, and at Augusta College. Kentucky. He read law at Maysville, and was admitted to the bar in 1850, but never followed the practice of that profession. Throughout his entire business career, he has been connected, in various places and in various ways, with the tobacco trade. He began by purchasing tobacco in the country towns of Ohio and Kentucky, and selling it at New Orleans, as there was, at that time, no market at Cincinnati. In 1865 he carrie to this city, and became a member of the firm of Worthington & Power, dealers in all kinds of leaf tobacco, located on Water street. They also had a branch warehouse in New York City, of which Mr. Power had charge. About 1870 they removed to Front street, where they conducted a tobacco warehouse and dry house business. In 1888 Mr. Power organized the firm of B. F. Power & Company, which has since transacted a general tobacco commission business. It will thus be seen that Mr. Power is one of the gentlemen who were prominently identified with the establishment of the Cincinnati Tobacco Market, which is one of the most finely regulated lines of trade in the city, and the second largest tobacco market in the world. The Burley leaf tobacco alone brings to Cincinnati an annual income of nearly ten millions of dollars.

Mr. Power was married April 13, 1870, to Miss Mary E. Clark, of Augusta, Ky., where they now reside. They worship at the Presbyterian Church, and, though not an aspirant for public office, he has always affiliated with the Democratic party.

SAMUEL FOSDICK, born in New London, Conn.. in 1801, was a descendant of Samuel Fosdick, who was horn in December, 1655, at Charlestown, Mass., and a son of Richard Fosdick, who came to Ohio from Connecticut in 1810. His parents sent their effects from New York to Philadelphia by water, but as so many young men of New London had been lost at sea his mother had an aversion to going on the water, and, being unwilling to risk herself and family on the boat, she came overland to Philadelphia, whilst her brother, C. L'Hommedieu. and his family took the steamer to Perth Amboy, and traveled thence by land to Philadelphia, where the party reunited and carne over the mountains to Pittsburgh. Here they embarked on keelboats and floated down the Ohio. As the water was extremely low they did not reach Cincinnati until October 21, 1810, having been twenty-one days making the voyage.


After carefully surveying the town and its surroundings, Capt. Richard Fosdick was strongly impressed with its natural advantages, and felt assured of its future greatness. At the time of the arrival of the family the post office was kept at what is now the corner of Front and Lawrence streets, and often our subject waded through mud and water to his knees to get there. Many of the blockhouses which had been erected in the country for places of safety for the first settlers were still standing, and Fort Washington, although abandoned, had not been demolished. Only one family was living at Covington, but, the United States Arsenal had been established at Newport, and a few other houses erected. Capt. Fosdick was informed that it was useless to try to save pork or beef in this climate. He did not believe what was told him, and experimented to convince himself of the falsity of the assertion, and he had the satisfaction of living to see Cincinnati become a noted place for pork-packing. Previous to his arrival here our subject had been taught the rudiments of an English education by Ulysses Dow, a brother of the famous Lorenzo; but as the facilities for acquiring further education here were exceedingly poor, he was taken by his father, after being here five years, to Long Island, where he attended school for four months. He made the best of his time and advanced rapidly. While there he witnessed the wreck of the British war vessel Sylph," on January 8, 1815, in which one hundred and eleven lives were lost, and only the purser and five seamen were saved. This was the day on which Gen. Jackson won his brilliant victory at New Orleans. In 1816, while still engaged with his father, our subject made a trip to the Kanawha salt region with keelboats, and was thirty days going. This was probably the first venture of the kind from Cincinnati, and was a success. In 1834 he was elected sheriff of Hamilton county, being then thirty-three years old; he was re-elected in 1836, and, after the expiration of his second term, wont into the general commission business, on Sycamore street, where he continued about fifteen years with marked success. In 1844, in company with Anthony Harkness and Jacob Strader, he built the first and only cotton factory in Cincinnati. The business was conducted with excellent results for nearly twenty years, when the death of both of his partners having occurred, Mr. Fosdick became the purchaser. He was an original incorporator in the unfortunate Life & Trust Company; and also of the Hamilton & Dayton railroad. During the active years of his life Mr. Fosdick probably bought and sold more real estate than any person in Cincinnati, except the late Mr. Longworth.

In 1836 he was married to Miss Sarah A.. Wood, daughter of Mrs. John Wood, of this city, and the union was blessed with eight children, five of whom survive. The eldest son, Wood, was long associated, in an editorial capacity, with the press; the youngest, Charles Updike, graduated at Kenyon College, and is engaged in active business. Of the three daughters, Frances Daring married Frank J. Jones, a member of the Cincinnati bar; the second and youngest daughters are named, respectively, Anna Maria and Sarah L'Hommedieu. During his life Mr. Fosdick was a firm adherent of the Episcopal Church, the nucleus of which in Cincinnati was composed of Arthur St. Clair, Jr., Ethan Stone, Esq., Capt. Richard Fosdick, Elijah Bemis, Esq., and their families, who met regularly in a small building on what is called Lodge alley for about two years, when the place of meeting was changed to a schoolhouse, where they attended several years before they had any minister.

The life of Samuel Fosdick was bright, cheerful and successful, and therefore worthy of emulation; and his memory is fondly cherished by his descendants and friends for the many virtues be possessed and the noble example he set for others in the battle of life.

DAVID WADDLE MCCLUNG is of west of Scotland or Highland stock. In 1730 his great-grandfather came to this country and settled in Washington county, N. Y. His descendants mostly resided in that State, but his son Charles McClung,


grandfather of the subject of this sketch, removed to Mifflin county, Penn., where David's father and mother were both born, but were brought to Ohio by their parents in early childhood, the families settling in Fairfield county. The father's name was also David; he was married, in 1825, to Miss Elizabeth Brown, daughter of David and Elizabeth Brown. Their fifth child and fourth son was David Waddle, born December 18, 1831, in Seneca county, Ohio, whither his parents had removed two years after marriage. His brothers and sisters were, in due order of birth, Phoebe, William Clark, Robert, James, Margaret, Sarah, Harvey, John C., and Martha. The father died in October, 1867, the mother in August, 1877.

David was brought up on a farm, which had been the manual-labor school of his ancestry for generations; attended the country schools in his childhood, which were very good for the time, the residence of the family being on the border of the famous Western Reserve; and was a member of the Seneca County Academy, at Republic, then taught by Hon. Thomas W. Harvey, since State commissioner of schools. Here he prepared for college, and entered freshman at Muskingum College, New Concord, in October, 1850; remained one term, and then transferred his allegiance to Miami University, at Oxford, from which he was graduated A. B. in 1854. During much of his preparatory course he maintained himself by teaching school, beginning at the early age of fifteen, and for a large share of the expenses of his college course he served the university in various capacities, but had to create a debt, which was faithfully repaid upon his entrance into business life. After graduation he again undertook the pedagogic vocation, but in a higher field, becoming at first principal of the high schools, then superintendent of the public schools in Hamilton, in which two positions he remained three years. At the expiration of his year as superintendent he accepted the charge of the Republican organ at the same place, the Hamilton Intelligence, which he conducted or assisted in editing for two years, in association with his old friend and classmate, Col. Minor Milliken. It was the early day of the Republican party; Butler county was largely Democratic; it was an important transition; and the Intelligencer bore its full share in fixing the public opinion. The fight with opponents was, at the time, close and sharp, and Mr. McClung was himself personally attached by an infuriated Democrat, and bore from the conflict an honorable scar which he wears to this day, a testimonial of the later days that tried men's souls. He was during this time of editorial work engaged at intervals in the study of the law; and ill the winter of 1859 and 1860 he was appointed. by the governor, to the position of probate judge of the county, vice William R. Kinder, who died in office.

Upon the election of his successor----a Democrat, of course-he spent a few months desultorily in his law office, hut, immediately upon the outbreak of the war, the call for volunteers being made on Monday morning, April 16, 1861, he enlisted in a Hamilton company as a private soldier, and went with it to Camp Jefferson, Columbus, where it was sworn into service April 24th, and assigned to Company F. Third Ohio Infantry. On the twenty-seventh of the same month the regiment was sent, with five companies of the Eleventh, to establish Camp Dennison, on the Little Miami railroad, seventeen miles from Cincinnati. Mr. McClung was taken from tire ranks. where he was still serving as a private, and made quartermaster of the camp, in which place of responsibility and honor he was detained, contrary to all precedence of the service, until the following March, hundreds of thousands of dollars in Money and property passing through his bands Meanwhile, not only of quartermaster's, but of ordnance, stores. He then received a commission, to date from February 19, 1862, as captain and assistant quartermaster. He remained at the camp until June 15, 1862, having meanwhile rebuilt it, in order to fit it, for winter quarters, and was then ordered to Camp Chase, to hold the barracks for rebel prisoners there. When the call for 500,000 more men was made by President Lincoln, Camp Dennison acquired more importance that ever, and Capt. McClung was ordered


back to equip the regiments forming therein, From first till last, it is believed that he prepared not far from one hundred regiments for the field. When the second levy of troops had been equipped, he supervised the conversion of the barracks of the camp, during November and December, 1862, into a convalescent hospital. Thence he departed for Madison, Ind., where hospitals more convenient to the river were to be built, arid, after getting that work well under way, was ordered to Cincinnati, to take charge of the purchase of supplies, in which capacity he served until the close of the war. His money accounts with the government, during his entire term of service, aggregated about twenty-five million dollars; his property accounts more than twice as much. Like other officers in similar positions, he was from time to time inspected, investigated, "detectived," and "spied," but never once accused, and he long since had his account satisfactorily balanced by the officers of the treasury department. His services were not finally dispensed with until November 8, 1865, when he was honorably mustered out, at his own reiterated request. Shortly before this, October 30 he was breveted major of volunteers for faithful and meritorious service, on the recommendation of Gen. Ekin and other high officers of the quartermaster's department. He returned to Hamilton, and was elected president of the Second National Bank of that city, although not any stockholder. In about a year and a half he resigned that position, and began the manufacture of machinery in Hamilton, remaining in this business for two years, when be exchanged his stock ill the machine shop for an interest in the Wooddale Paper Company, of which he took charge and remained its business manager until February 1, 1879, when he removed to Cincinnati and became assistant postmaster. In January, 1881, he was nominated, by President Hayes, surveyor of the Port of Cincinnati, and again by President. Garfield, when he was promptly confirmed by the Senate and received his commission, of date March 10, 1881.

Such a career as that of Col. McClung needs no embellishment or further illustration; his qualities of mind and character are easily inferable from this outline sketch of his rapid and sure advancement to his present high position. He served as internal revenue collector for the Cincinnati District during President Harrison's administration, and his incumbency was characterized as strictly a business one. Col. McClung was married March 19, 1861, to Miss Anna Carter Harrison, only daughter of Carter B. Harrison, youngest son of Gen. William Henry Harrison, once President of the United States. Her mother was Mary Sutherland, of the family of John Sutherland, one of the pioneers of Butler county.

MELANCTHON WADE OLIVER was born in Brookville, Ind., December 27, 1825, a son of David and Mary (Wade) Oliver. David Oliver was born in Marietta in 1792, a son of Robert Oliver, who was a colonel in the Revolutionary war, and came \Vest with Gen. Putnam who colonized Harmar, Ohio, in 1788. Mrs. Mary (Wade) Oliver was born in Cincinnati in 1797. Her father, David E. Wade, was a native of New Jersey, and came to this section of the Northwest Territory, a little later in the same year, 1788. M. W. Oliver received his early education in the public schools of Warren county, Ohio. and at Woodward College, Cincinnati. He entered Miami University. in 1844, and was graduated therefrom in 1847, after which ho read law under the preceptorship of Judge Oliver M. Spencer; he was graduated from Harvard Law College in 1849 and was admitted to the Bar in 1850. He then entered upon the practice of his profession and continued therein, until his election as Democratic candidate for a common pleas judgeship, ill which capacity he served from 1857 to 1859, when he resigned, and resumed the practice of law. In 1861, he was renominated, and reelected to the common pleas bench, and served the full term of five years, when he again resumed the practice, and continued therein until

1871, when he retired from active practice. He was a member of the Ohio Legislature as representative from this county, one term ; was a member of the Board of Aldermen for four years; a trustee of Miami University for a number of years; was


a member of the hoard of park commissioners and of the Union Board of high schools, and president, since its organization, of the Price Hill Incline Plane Railway Company.

Mr. Oliver was married, June 25, 1850, to Anna E., daughter of the late Isaac Gere, a retired merchant of Massachusetts, and for some years a resident of Oxford, Ohio. Three children born of this marriage survive; they are Mrs. Rees McDuffie, Mrs. George T. McDuffie, and Fielding W. Oliver, the latter the treasurer of the Tudor Iron Works, of St. Louis, Mo. Judge Oliver resides on Summit avenue, Price Hill. The family are Presbyterians.

WILLIAM HOWARD DOANE, Mus. Doc. It is one of the wondrous things of this ago that the work of a man, if it be meritorious, may have an influence on the whole world. If he invents a valuable tool or machine its use is not limited to any one country. If he writes beautiful songs, their echoes go from lip to lip the world round. The name of W. H. Doane, inventor and manufacturer, is known in every American and European manufacturing center, The name of William Howard Doane. Mus. Doe., composer of so many evangelical songs that no one would pause to count them, is familiar wherever Christian work is done and Christian songs are sung. This man of varied genies and noteworthy achievements is not, only an enterprising citizen of Cincinnati but a recognized factor in the material development and evangelization of the world. The machinery he has invented and manufactured is everywhere in use, and not. only are his songs sung wherever civilization has been planted. but it is doubtful if any missionary has gone forth, during late years, to foreign fields without taking some of them as an indispenable part of his equipment.

Mr. Doane was born February 3, 1832, at Preston, Conn., a son of Joseph H. and Fannie T. Doane, both of the sturdiest New England stock. He was educated at Woodstock Academy, and at the early age of fourteen, in recognition of his ability as a musician, he was made leader of the choir of that institution. At sixteen he had already composed his first piece of music. During the last year of his stay there he was converted. His mother being a Baptist, he united with the Baptist Church at Norwich. In 1848 he entered upon his business career as clerk in the counting house of Doane 1i Treat, cotton manufacturers, of which firm his father was the senior member. About three years later he entered the employ of J. A. Fay & Company. This concern, then and since celebrated as manufacturers of wood-working machinery, was even tit that date operating large establishments at Norwich. Conn. ; Keene, N. H., and Worcester, Mass. Mr. Doane was installed in charge of the office and books at the Norwich branch, and his superior business ability was so manifest and so practically recognized by his employers that in 1856 be was sent to Chicago to take full charge of the company's extensive interests in that city and its large tributary territory. After the death of J. A. Fay he became, in 1801, the leading member of the firm and the manager of its general interests, with offices at Cincinnati, where he has since lived. The various branches, meanwhile, had been absorbed and consolidated. The establishment at Norwich was changed to a new corporation under the title of C. B. Rogers & Company, and the Keene and Worcester branches were closed and merged into the Norwich and Cincinnati concerns. Mr. Fay's interests and that of one of the surviving partners had come into Mr. Doane's possession by purchase. During these years Mr. Doane's genius for invention had manifested itself, and he had originated and brought out many new pieces of machinery and made numerous improvements on machines already in use, which had made him as valuable to the company in its mechanical department as in its business offices. In 1866 the enterprise was incorporated under the style of J. A. Fay & Company, with Mr. Doane as president and general manager. The growth and extension of the business of this historic concern, which had its inception in New England in 1835, and whose shops were located at Front and John streets, Cincinnati, in 1852, are recognized as having been extensive factors


in the wonderful industrial development of this city; and through the long period of his residence here Mr. Doane has been everywhere bailed as one of Cincinnati's most prominent manufacturers and business men, and as the builder and successful manager of the largest concern in the country of its kind, of which be was the active head until its recent consolidation with another enterprise under the title of the J. A. Fay & Egan Company, in which be is a prominent director. He has contributed, perhaps, more than any other one man to the success of the wood-working machinery industry, a fact recognized by honors at home and abroad. A. distinction which is rarely given to citizens of a foreign nation was conferred upon him in 1889 when, at the Paris Exposition, he met the manufacturers of Europe on their own ground, and, in competition with the leading manufacturers of his class of the world combined, carried off the Grand Prix and was himself decorated with the Cross of the Legion of Honor by the government of France. He and his Cincinnati workmen also took the medal at the Paris Exposition of 1878, and, did space admit, a surprisingly long and creditable list of medals awarded to the company under Mr. Doane's management might be presented. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Society of Mining Engineers, and is a member of numerous other scientific bodies.

With such large business interests on his mind it seems remarkable that he should have attained such eminence in music. But the genius that was in him would not be made little of, and it asserted itself at every stage of his career, and made him prominent in musical circles while yet young in years. In 1852 he was conductor of the Norwich Harmonic Society. Two years later appeared his first book, " Sabbath School Gems," followed in 1864 by " Little Sunbeam," and in 1867 came that notable book " Silver Spray," perhaps the most popular Sunday-school book of its day. Then followed, in 1868, " Songs of Devotion " for use in churches, which came very largely into use. Since 1868 his name has been associated as author with many musical works, most of which have been issued by Bigelow & Main, New York. Mr. Doane fairly popularized the Christmas cantata by the issue of one entitled "Santa Claus" about eighteen years ago, and his other compositions of this class have found great favor, The circulation of books bearing his name has been world-wide, and the copies sold are counted by millions; his music has been carried to all lands where music is enjoyed, and while some of the multitudes who have suing his songs may not be familiar with his name, the conviction that he has added to their happiness and furnished to their emotions wings on which are borne their praises to our common Father should be glory enough for him. In 1875 Denison University bestowed upon him the degree of Doctor of Music. His study or music room, an unique feature of his beautiful home on Mount Auburn, is as complete in all respects as taste, culture, research and money can make it. In the transom over the entrance is wrought in ground glass in musical characters the opening strains of " Home, Sweet Home." On the ceiling inside are frescoed bits of celebrated musical compositions beautifully and artistically arranged.. Fine pictures, mostly of musical subjects, adorn the walls. The apartment contains a fine collection of antique instruments from Egypt, Mexico, Burmah, Japan, Africa, Russia, Turkey and Syria, some of them centuries old, besides pianos, a cabinet organ and about every modern instrument. Here too is a grand pipe organ, run by water motor, and over it, in fresco, are four measures of the " Hallelujah Chorus." The library is one of the finest, of its kind in America, containing vellum nass. dating from the eighth century, fac-similes of the original score of Handel's Messiah, and original mss. and autographs of nearly all the old masters and modern composers of note. It is here, in his home, amid such surroundings, that he has written his music, evenings, for the most part, when relieved from the cares of business; yet he is never without a little note book in which to jot down, wherever he may be, the inspirations that may come to him. The style of his music is peculiarly his own,


and evidences the remarkable versatility of his talent. Some of his moat popular pieces, such as " Safe in the Arms of Jesus," " The Old. Old, Story," " Pass Me Not," " A Few More Marchings," " More Love To Thee, O Christ,," " Every Day and Hour,'' " Rescue the Perishing," " Near the Cross," "Draw Me Nearer," " Will He Find Us Watching?" are familiar to Christian sinners everywhere.

Mr. Doane is an active member of the Mount Auburn Baptist Church. and for more than twenty years, as superintendent of its flourishing Sunday-school, contributed to make it one of the largest and most efficient in the city. He is known as a most liberal man, and his benefactions have beet) neither few or stinted. Prominent among them is " Doane Hall " of Denison University, In association with the late John Church, of the John Church Company. he donated the magnificent pipe organ, which now adorns the hall of the Young Men's Christian Association of Cincinnati. He is an active member and a most generous supporter of this organization. In everything that has pertained to the upbuilding and development of Cincinnati he has always taken a very helpful interest. He has been prominently identified with the Chamber of Commerce, and has given his support to every measure for the general good calculated to enlist the sympathies of an able and enterprising citizen of the most progressive character. The great, business world knows him as a prominent manufacturer and inventor. whose marvelous machinery may be seen in use throughout America and Europe; the world of music knows him as a most prolific composer of much power and pathos, whose songs inspire youth, give strength to the wavering, and bring hope to the despairing. His career may be said to be a dual one in the noblest sense, influencing the people's industries and their Christian and home lives. To the world he has given the whirring music of the factory and the grateful song of the fireside and of the Church and Sunday-school. Here in Cincinnati he is known as the roan and the citizen, honored for his abilities and his achievements, and held in grateful respect for the good that be has in one way and another conferred upon his fellow citizens.