Inauguration of first geothermal plant in Lithuania
Since it first regained its independence in 1990, Lithuania (population 3.5 million, territory 65 300 km2) has been in transition to a free market economy. During the last fourteen years great efforts have been made to lay foundations for the market economy: privatization of companies, liberalization of trade conditions and the prices of almost all products.
Lithuania inherited a powerful energy sector based on
foreign primary energy resources – crude oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel
– imported from Russia. Lithuania has no transmission lines from or to
The western part of Lithuania is characterized by an average depth to the Moho of 40 km, with the depth increasing to 44-47 km in the central part. It was also established that the specified large geoblocks in the structure have a number of deep faults (penetrating as deep as the mantle) with a significant subvertical displacement in the deep strata though the amplitude is insignificant at surface. Increased geothermal parameters are typical in the western part of Lithuania, with a heat flow of about 100 mW/m2.
The first geothermal investigations in Lithuania began in
1987-9. The geothermal potential was estimated for three regional
hydrogeothermal complexes: Cambrian (5.1x1018 J), Lower-Middle Devonian
(5.0x1018 J) and Middle-Upper Devonian 1.5x1018 J). Petrogeothermal
resources were estimated down to 7 km (7x1021 J).
KGDP has two production and two injection wells (KGDP-2P,
KGDP-3P, KGDP-1I and KGDP-4I respectively). They are identical in
construction, with depths of 1128 m to 1228 m.
The geothermal water is extracted from the Devonian aquifer with submersible pumps in the production wells, passed through heat pumps and returned via injection wells to the same aquifer. Low-temperature geothermal heat is extracted from the geothermal water (38°C) using an absorption heat pump and is transferred to the Klaipeda district heating network. The total installed capacity of KGDP is 41 MWt: 18 MWt of geothermal and 23 MWt from boilers (the drive for the absorption heat pumps). In June 2004 the State Commission confirmed a plant capacity of 35 MWt (geothermal 13.6 MWt).
The configuration of the absorption heat pump comprises an evaporator, an absorber, a condenser and a working fluid generator. The pump uses lithium bromide (LiBr) solution as the heat absorbent working fluid. The absorption heat pumps (4 x 4.5 MWt capacity) are driven by hot water (175oC, 10 bar) from three hot water boilers (16.2 MWt each).
In addition, more than 200 systems of ground-source heat pumps have been installed for heating in single family houses (total capacity - more than 3 MWt).
The 6th conference of the Lithuanian Geothermal Association (LGA), convened to celebrate the inauguration of KGDP, was held in Klaipeda on 25-26/11/2004. The conference began on 25 November in the Hotel Klaipeda, which is the biggest and tallest in the old part of the city. A tour (bus trip) to KGDP was organized after the opening of the conference. During the official Inauguration ceremony at KGDP the participants were welcomed on behalf of the President of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), Dr. John Lund. In his absence, IGA Board member Beata Kepinska read out his welcoming address.
Klaipeda, situated on the shore of the Baltic Sea, is the third largest city of Lithuania with more than 200 000 inhabitants. It covers 98.4 km2 and is an ice-free port, the only seaport in Lithuania. The average annual temperature is +8.4°C (January –0.6°C, July +19.4°C).
Cordial thanks are given to the Sponsors: Ministry of
Economy; DONG A/S, Denmark; AB "Geonafta"; UAB "Genciu nafta"; AB "Klaipedos
energija"; UAB "Sildymo technologiju centras"; UAB "Alropa"; AB "Montuotojas";