This annotated chronology is based on the data sources that follow each entry. Public sources often provide conflicting information on classified military programs. In some cases we are unable to resolve these discrepancies, in others we have deliberately refrained from doing so to highlight the potential influence of false or misleading information as it appeared over time. In many cases, we are unable to independently verify claims. Hence in reviewing this chronology, readers should take into account the credibility of the sources employed here.
Inclusion in this chronology does not necessarily indicate that a particular development is of direct or indirect proliferation significance. Some entries provide international or domestic context for technological development and national policymaking. Moreover, some entries may refer to developments with positive consequences for nonproliferation.
A total of 15 OPCW inspections are carried out in India. Four are at a Chemical Weapons Destruction Facility, six at a Chemical Weapons Production Facility, two at a Chemical Weapons Storage Facility, one inspection is done of Schedule 1 chemicals, and two inspections are conducted for Schedule 3 chemicals.
--OPCW Report, 1999.
India destroys 1 percent of its chemical weapons stocks as part of its obligation under the Chemical Weapons Convention.
--Ron G. Manley, "Overview of The Status of The Chemical Demilitarization Worldwide and The Way Ahead," Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, August 2000, <http://www.opcw.org>.
7 March 1999
In a meeting with the Director General for the OPCW, Pakistan Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz accuses India of preparing and stockpiling chemical weapons.
--"Aziz: Pakistan Not Manufacturing Chemical Weapons," Al-Akhbar in Urdu, 7 May 1999, available from FBIS, document identification number BK0903081199.
The Indian Army claims it seized Pakistani document that indicates the presence of chemical weapons in the Kaksar area of Kashmir.
--Anders Axelsson, Pal Jonson, Anders Lindblad, Lena Norlander, Anders Norqvist, Wilhelm Unge, and Lars Wigg, "Indian and Pakistani Weapons of Mass Destruction in a Security Policy Context: A Comprehensive Analysis of Capabilities, Objectives, and Consequences," Swedish Defense Research Agency, March 2002.
26 May 1999
Unidentified Pakistani sources state that India uses a "nerve gas bomb" against Kashmiri Mujahideen on the Pakistani side of Kashmir.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 45 (September 1999), p. 23.
26 May 1999
Indian denies reports that it is using chemical weapons in Kashmir. The US State Department also states that it has no evidence that India is using these weapons in Kashmir.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 44 (June 1999), p. 46.
India submits to the fifteenth session of the Council for OPCW agreed detailed plans for the verification of the destruction of chemical weapons at Chemical Weapon Destruction Facilities.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, June 1999, Issue Number 44, p. 10.
7 June 1999
Hafiz Mohammad Saeed, Chief of Markaz al Dawat al Irshad, accuses India of preparing to use chemical weapons against the Kashmiri Mujahideen. According to Saeed, India is preparing to use these weapons because it is disheartened after having been defeated by the Pakistani army and the Mujahideen.
--"Urdu Daily: India to Use Chemical Weapons on Mujahideen," Khabrain in Urdu, 7 June 1999, Available from FBIS, document identification number BK0706114599.
12 June 1999
According to Pakistan Television, India uses chemical weapons against Pakistani position along the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir. According to reports shell are launched that exploded 400 meters above ground, releasing a gas that causes suffocation and skin irritation. India describes these reports as "baseless" and as part of "Pakistani propaganda."
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 45 (September 1999), p. 29.
14 June 1999
Kashmiri politicians and militant groups condemn India's alleged use of chemical weapons in Kashmir.
--"Kashmiri Groups Condemn Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons," Agence France Presse 14 June 1999.
14 June 1999
Pakistan accuses India of using chemical weapons in Kashmir and states that it is testing the shells that are fired into its Kashmiri territory.
--Hema Shukla, "India Battles Rebel Forces in Kashmir; Talks with Pakistan fail to ease Tensions," The Atlantic Journal and Constitution, 14 June 1999, p. 3A.
17 June 1999
The US Department of State's spokesperson, James Rubin, states that the Clinton administration has found no evidence that India has used chemical weapons in Kashmir.
--"US Rejects Pak Claim on Chemical Arms," The Hindu, 17 June 1999, News.
2 July 1999
The OPCW releases its annual report on implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention for the year 1998. The report credits India with declaring its chemical stockpile. It also goes on to state that India has made declarations of either past or present capabilities to produce chemical weapons.
--OPCW Annual Report 1998 (The Hague: Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, 1998), <http://www.opcw.org>
The Defense Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, submits two patents for filing. One is for an improved process for chemical destruction of sulfuric acid. The second is for a process for the preparation of s-alkyl-aryl sulfide di-hydrochlorides.
--"DRDO Patent," DRDO Newsletter, Vol. 19, September 1999 No. 9.
8 September 1999
An editorial in the Pakistani newspaper Jang, accuses India of using chemical weapons in the Neelum valley in Kashmir. The article uses the death of two uninjured children at a border village as evidence of the attack.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 46 (December 1999), p. 27.
23 November 1999
The OPCW Secretariat issues a corrigendum to its 1998 report, declaring India as a party that had declared its Chemical Weapons Production Facilities under Article V of the Chemical Weapons Convention.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 46 (December 1999), p. 17.
India submits its annual report on the destruction of Category 3 chemical weapons.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 46 (December 1999), p. 13.
The Executive Council of the OPCW adopts six facility agreements with India for a Schedule 1 facility, three Chemical Weapons Production Facilities, and two Chemical Weapons Storage Facilities, all at undisclosed locations in 2000.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 46 (December 1999), p. 14.
The OPCW Annual Report states that India had met its year 2000 obligation in the destruction of chemical weapons. Also the report states that 23 inspections were done in India during 2000, with 16 at Chemical Weapon Development Facilities, 5 at Chemical Weapon Production Facilities, 3 at Chemical Weapon Storage Facilities, one of a Schedule 1 facility, and two at Schedule 3 facilities. In addition, the report says that India plans to destroy its Schedule 2 and Schedule 3 stockpile of weapons by 29 April 2002. With this India declares it has four Schedule 2 sites, but only one is available for inspection, while it declares 24 Schedule 3 sites, with 19 that can be inspected. India also declares that it has 20 Discrete Organic Plants.
--OPCW Annual Report, 2000.
A report on chemical weapon threats to China claims that before India signed the Chemical Weapons Convention, it made a crash production of chemical weapons so that it could have the status of "chemical weapons possessor state." Chinese chemical weapon defense writers noted that India possesses five chemical weapons production and storage facilities with 1,000 tons of chemical weapon agents. The report goes on to state that most of the agents are mustard and that thousands are ready for delivery.
--Chen Jisheng, "Analysis of Chemical and Biological Weapons in the 21st Century and Arms Control Developments," Fanghua Yanjiu, No. 1, 2000. p. 45.
During the third meeting of the US-India Counterterrorism Working Group, the Indian government accepts a US offer for a seminar on countering chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological terrorist threats.
--"US, India on Growing Global Menace of Terrorism," US Department of State, 26 July 2001, <http://www.state.gov>.
20 January 2000
The Pakistani English-language newspaper The News, reports that Pakistani defense officials are becoming increasing concerned about India's continued research in the field of chemical weapons. According to the unidentified officials India had supplied Iraq with phosgene before the Gulf War to test its effectiveness. They also accuse India of using chemical weapons during the Kargil crisis in 1999.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 47 (March 2000), p. 38.
19 March 2000
The Indian Defense Ministry places orders for thousands of nuclear, biological, and chemical suits from the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB). The ministry also asks the OFB to speed up its production of sophisticated gas masks. The suits are to be manufactured at ordnance factories at Kanpur and Avadi located in Tamil Nadu.
--"Defense Brass places Orders For N-suits," Hindustan Times, 19 March 2000.
27 March 2000
As part of a military agreement between India and Vietnam, India agrees to give Vietnam all of its research on countering chemical weapons effects. India agrees to release the data because Vietnam continues to claim reproductive abnormalities caused by Agent Orange in third generation children.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 48-Supplement 2 (June 2000), p. 16.
20 April 2000
In Washington, DC, senior US and Indian officials conclude talks on tightening India's chemical export regulations and bringing them on par with US guidelines.
--"India to Bring Export Control Norms at Par With US," The Times of India, 20 April 2000.
6 May 2000
The Statesman reports that India is reviewing its Chemical Weapons Implementation legislation. India is now reportedly drafting a bill to deny or restrict OPCW inspections where it felt that is national security interests were at stake. Also India is thinking of implementing a law that would prohibit samples taken from sites in India from leaving the country.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 48 (September 2000), p. 26; "Bill to Restrict Arms Inspection Insecurity Interests," The Statesman, 6 May 2000.
26 July 2000
India's Upper House of Parliament, Rajya Sabha, passes the Chemical Weapons Convention Bill, 2000. The bill makes the CWC part of Indian domestic law.
--"Indian Upper House Passes Chemical Weapons Convention Bill," Xinhua in English, 26 July 2000, available from FBIS, document identification number CPP20000726000172.
16 August 2000
The lower house of the Indian Parliament, Lok Sabha, approves the Chemical Weapons Convention Bill. With the approval of the bill, a national authority will be set up to fulfill India's obligation under the treaty.
--"Indian Parliament approves Chemical Weapons Convention Bill," All India Radio Home News Service in English, 16 August 2000, available from FBIS, document identification number SAP20000816000069.
28 August 2000
An article published in The Gazette points out that the Chemical Weapons Convention Bill, 2000, has many spelling errors, causing a major embarrassment for the government.
--Akshaya Mukul, "Jaitley to Decide on Mistakes in Act," The Times of India, 9 August 2001, <http://www.timesofindia.com>.
3 October 2000
Raja Israr Abbasi, an opposition leader in the Azad Kashmir Assembly, accuses India of using chemical weapons in Kashmir. The Pakistan also reports that India is using chemical weapons in Kashmir along the Line of Control as several people are dying due to "various kinds of diseases."
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 50 (December 2000), p. 39.
8 November 2000
The OPCW conducts the eighth lab proficiency test to be a reference laboratory for CWC treaty verification. Twelve labs participated in the test, with one Indian lab passing and two failing the test.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 52 (June 2001), p. 13.
The OPCW Executive Council reviews plans for the destruction and conversion of Indian chemical facilities.
--The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 50 (December 2000), p. 13.
Updated October 2007