U.S. PACIFIC COMMAND
Located at Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii, the headquarters staff consists of approximately 530 Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps officers and enlisted personnel, and approximately 110 civil service employees.
About 1,500 people belong to additional support units located in Hawaii and throughout the Command's Area of Responsibility (AOR). These units include the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the Information Systems Support Activity, Pacific Automated Server Site Japan, Cruise Missile Support Activity, Special Intelligence Communications, Joint Intelligence Center Pacific, Joint Intelligence Training Activity Pacific, Joint Interagency Task Force West, and Joint Task Force Full-Accounting.
AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY
More than 50 percent of earth's surface; approximately 105 million square miles (nearly 169 million square kilometers). From the west coast of the United States mainland to the east coast of Africa (excluding the waters north of 5° S and west of 68° E); from the Arctic to Antarctic; including the State of Hawaii and forces in Alaska. Traverses 16 time zones.
Nearly 60 percent of the world's population.
39 independent states.
The world's six largest armed forces: Peoples Republic of China, United States, Russia, India, North Korea, Republic of Korea.
Five of the seven worldwide U.S. mutual defense treaties:
- - U.S.-Republic of the Philippines (Mutual Defense Treaty, 1952)
- - ANZUS (Australia - New Zealand - U.S., 1952)
- - U.S.-Republic of Korea (Mutual Defense Treaty, 1954)
- - South East Asia Collective Defense (U.S. - France - Australia - New Zealand - Thailand - Philippines, 1955)
- - U.S.-Japan (Mutual Defense Treaty, 1960)
38 percent of U.S. trade is within the region, amounting to more than $1.1 trillion in 2006. In contrast, 14 percent of U.S. trade is with the European Union, 18 percent is with Canada, and 19 percent is with Latin America. Asia-Pacific nations, not including the U.S., account for about 24 percent of the Gross World Product (using an exchange rate basis) while the U.S. accounts for 27 percent of GWP.
A joint combatant command directing, integrating and employing ready, credible military capability in peace, crisis or war to advance U.S. interests as an active partner in pursuit of a secure, prosperous and democratic Asia-Pacific community.
U.S. Pacific Command, in concert with other U.S. government agencies and regional military partners, promotes security and peaceful development in the Asia-Pacific region by deterring aggression, advancing regional security cooperation, responding to crises, and fighting to win.
- Warfighting Readiness
- Regional Engagement
- Force Presence and Posture
- Quality of Life
Establish an environment which:
- promotes integrity, teamwork, trust, and accountability
- recruits and retains high caliber people
- demands mutual respect and professional behavior
- emphasizes speed, agility and prudent risk taking
Instill a culture that:
- is results oriented
- plans collaboratively
- encourages innovative thinking and challenges assumptions
- empowers subordinates and encourages decentralized execution
Provide solutions with:
- options based on analysis and data
- maximum return on investment
- the most efficient and effective joint force
EXERCISES AND OTHER ENGAGEMENTS
In 2006, PACOM participated in over 1,700 exercises and other engagement activities with foreign military forces. Major exercises include:
- TALISMAN SABER: A biennial Australia/United bilateral exercise merging Exercises TANDEM THRUST, KINGFISHER and CROCODILE. TALISMAN SABER is the primary training venue for Commander Seventh Fleet as a Combined Task Force (CTF) in a short warning, power projection, forcible entry scenario. The exercise is a key opportunity to train Australian and US combined forces in mid to high-intensity combat operations using training areas in Australia
- COBRA GOLD: A joint/combined exercise with Thailand designed to improve U.S./Thai combat readiness and joint/combined interoperability.
- BALIKATAN: A joint exercise with the Republic of the Philippines and the U.S. to improve combat readiness and interoperability.
- KEEN SWORD/KEEN EDGE: Joint/bilateral training exercises (field training/simulation, respectively) to increase combat readiness and joint/bilateral interoperability of U.S. Forces and Japan Self-Defense Forces for the defense of Japan.
- RIM OF THE PACIFIC: A biennial large-scale multinational power projection/sea control exercise. In 2000, participants included the U.S., Canada, Australia, Japan, South Korea, Chile and the United Kingdom.
PACOM participated in more than 20 disaster relief operations in 12 countries and one U.S. territory (Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Palau, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, India, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Guam) since 1996.
The U.S. Navy makes approximately 700 port visits throughout the Pacific region each year.
In the operational chain of command, USPACOM reports directly to the Secretary of Defense and President of the United States.
In the administrative chain of command, USPACOM reports through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
USPACOM exercises combatant command of assigned forces through commanders of service components, subordinate unified commands and joint task forces.
The 17 organizations responsible for Security Assistance within USPACOM report to their respective U.S. ambassadors. USPACOM maintains a significant role in coordinating U.S. military strategy with security assistance policy and program management affecting 28 foreign nations.
SERVICE COMPONENTS, SUBORDINATE UNIFIED COMMANDS, AND JOINT TASK FORCES
A unified command which includes about 300,000 military personnel from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps (about 20 percent of all active duty U.S. military forces). These forces are in three categories: Forward Deployed (about 100,000), Forward Based and CONUS (Continental U.S.) Based which comprise the remainder.
U.S. Army Pacific:
-- Headquarters, I Corps (Washington State)
-- 25th Infantry Division/U.S. Army, Hawaii (States of Hawaii & Washington)
-- U.S. Army, Japan/9th Theater Army Area Command (Japan)
-- U.S. Army Chemical Activity Pacific (Johnston Island)
-- 172nd Separate Infantry Brigade/U.S. Army, Alaska (Alaska)
-- 9th Regional Support Command (USAR)
Marine Forces Pacific:
-- I Marine Expeditionary Force (California)
-- III Marine Expeditionary Force (Japan)
U.S. Pacific Fleet:
-- THIRD Fleet (California)
-- SEVENTH Fleet (Japan)
U.S. Pacific Air Forces:
-- Fifth Air Force (Japan)
-- Seventh Air Force (Korea)
-- Eleventh Air Force (Alaska)
-- Thirteenth Air Force (Guam)
SUBORDINATE UNIFIED COMMANDS
- U.S. Forces, Japan (Yokota AB, near Tokyo)
- U.S. Forces, Korea (Yongsan Army Garrison, Seoul)
- Eighth U.S. Army (Yongsan Army Garrison, Seoul)
- Special Operations Command Pacific (Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii)
- Alaskan Command (Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage)
STANDING JOINT TASK FORCES
- Joint Interagency Task Force West (Camp H. M. Smith, Hawaii)
- Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (Hickam AFB, Hawaii)
- Joint Task Force-Support Forces Antarctica, Operation Deep Freeze (Hickam AFB, Hawaii)
ADDITIONAL SUPPORTING UNITS
- Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (Honolulu, Hawaii)
- Joint Intelligence Center Pacific (Pearl Harbor, Hawaii)
- Center for Excellence in Disaster Management & Humanitarian Assistance Studies (Tripler Army Medical Center, Hawaii)
U.S. ARMY PACIFIC
The U.S. Army, Pacific (USARPAC), is a ready, responsive and indispensable member of the joint force team under the Combatant Commander, U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM). USARPAC provides combat-ready forces in support of security operations — from theater security cooperation to warfighting — to promote regional stability and ensure successful crisis response or decisive victory.
Army forces in the Pacific are postured and ready for deployment in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout the world. The USARPAC team proudly serves as the Army’s only forward-deployed force on U.S. soil.
On any given day, approximately 12,600 USARPAC Soldiers and Department of the Army civilians are deployed to more than 20 nations and locations, participating in service, joint, bilateral and multilateral exercises and operations throughout the PACOM area of responsibility and the world.
In October 2000, USARPAC became a multi-component unit and Army Service Component Command, as part of the U.S. Army’s transformation to meet the emerging security needs of the United States, in which USARPAC continues to be a key strategic player.
Today, USARPAC is roughly 44,000 strong and oversees Soldiers stationed in Hawaii, Alaska, Japan and Fort Lewis, Wash. An important Hawaii-based organization, USARPAC provides command and control for all elements of Army forces in the Pacific, less Korea, and carries on an Army presence, that has existed here since before the turn of the twentieth century, supporting our nation in both peace and war.
USARPAC is responsible for commanding, equipping, stationing and training all assigned or attached units, as well as for wartime and peacetime contingency planning for Army forces. Other responsibilities include planning for mobilization, joint and combined exercises, security assistance, emergency evacuation of non-combatants, and disaster relief.
America’s Army in the Pacific plays an integral role in our nation’s latest mission, Homeland Security. The USARPAC commanding general executes the added responsibility as Commander, Joint Task Force Homeland Defense. This mission carries with it the responsibility for ensuring close coordination of Homeland Defense efforts with all armed forces in Hawaii, as well as with local, state, and federal civilian agencies, in defense of critical military resources and support to civil authorities.
USARPAC also oversees, evaluates and supports the Army National Guard in Hawaii, Alaska and Guam, and maintains command and control of Army Reserve units in Saipan, Guam, American Samoa, Hawaii and Alaska.
Major USARPAC units include the following: the 25th Infantry Division; 8th Theater Sustainment Command; 311th Theater Network Command; the 94th Army Air Missile Defense Command; 9th Regional Readiness Command; and 196th Infantry Brigade. Also, U.S. Army Installation Management Command, Pacific, which oversees U.S. Army, Alaska; U.S. Army, Japan; and U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii, is headquartered at Fort Shafter, which is also home to USARPAC.
25th Infantry Division (25th ID). A rapid strike force of nearly 17,000 Soldiers, the 25th Infantry Division focuses primarily on training for low-intensity conflict throughout the Pacific. Today, the Tropic Lightning Division is composed of four brigade combat teams (two in Hawaii and two in Alaska), the 25th Combat Aviation Brigade, the 45th Sustainment Brigade, and attached units.
8th Theater Sustainment Command. The following units constitute the 8th TSC: the 8th Special Troops Battalion, 29th Engineer Battalion (Topographical), 84th Engineer Battalion (Heavy), 125th Finance Battalion, 8th Human Resources Sustainment Center, 8th Military Police Brigade, 10th Area Support Group, and the 45th Sustainment Brigade.
45th Sustainment Brigade. The 45th Sustainment Brigade at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, provides support to the 25th Infantry Division, and to non-divisional units in 25th ID, at U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii, and Alaska areas of operation. The 45th consists of the 45th Special Troops Battalion (STB), 524th Combat Service Support Battalion (CSSB), 17th Combat Service Support Battalion (CSSB), and 8th Forward Surgical Team (FST).
Headquarters, U.S. Army Installation Management Command, Pacific (IMCOM-Pacific) The Army activated the Installation Management Command Oct. 24, 2006 to consolidate and strengthen installation support services to Soldiers and their families. For those assigned to the Pacific region, which includes Hawaii, Alaska, and Japan, the Installation Management Command - Pacific Region (IMCOM-Pacific) headquartered at Fort Shafter, Hawaii replaces the former agency and marks the next step in the evolution of Army installation management.
U.S. Army, Alaska. USARAK encompasses three posts with a total of 1.65 million acres. Joint training opportunities, breathtaking environment, and harsh climate changes provide ideal training grounds for the 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, the Army’s third unit to transform to a Stryker Brigade. The brigade headquarters is at Fort Wainwright. Fort Richardson is home to the only airborne infantry force in the Pacific Theater, the 4th Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (Airborne). Fort Greely is a launch site for anti-ballistic missiles and home of the Cold Regions Test Center (CRTC). Fort Greely is one of the coldest areas in Alaska and can accommodate cold, extreme cold, or temperate weather tests, depending on the season.
U.S. Army, Japan. USARJ & 10th Area Support Group (ASG) are committed to supporting the objectives of U.S. Army, Pacific; U.S. Forces Japan (USFJ); and Pacific Command, in one of the most dynamic regions of the globe: Japan and the Asia-Pacific region.
U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii
U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii, is a part of the Army’s installation Management Command IMCOM and reports directly to IMCOM-Pacific headquartered at Fort Shafter. Although its headquarters has changed, USAG-HI still operates all Army installations and sub-installations in Hawaii, providing installation management service and logistical support for nearly 90,000 Army and civilian personnel at 22 sub-installations located throughout the islands of Oahu and Hawaii. This command also provides base operations support to 159 tenant activities located throughout the installation. USAG-HI’s headquarters is in Schofield Barracks, with major operating elements at Fort Shafter, Wheeler Army Air Field, and Pohakuloa Training Area.
Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA)
The major training area for USARPAC and used extensively by USPACOM and Reserve forces in the Pacific for joint and combined training exercises, PTA is the largest sub-installation of USAG-HI. Encompassing 108,000 acres, it is also the largest U.S.-owned training area in the Pacific that permits the effective integration of fire and maneuver in joint and combined arms operations.
Makua Military Reservation
Located on the Waianae coast, Makua Military Reservation is one of 25th ID’s most important training areas. The reservation covers more than 4,000 acres, and the Army and other military forces perform combined arms training there.
Built on land that was once duck ponds for Hawaiian Royalty, Fort DeRussy is a 72-acre post on Waikiki Beach. Main activities on Fort DeRussy are the U.S. Army Museum of Hawaii, the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Regional Visitors Center, and the Hale Koa Hotel (an Armed Forces Recreation Center).
Other Army Organizations in Hawaii
311th Theater Signal Command. The 311th TSC, U.S. Army Reserve, is the designated Signal Command for the Army Service Component Commands within the Pacific and Korean theaters. The unit is headquartered at Fort George G. Meade, DeKalb Reserve Center, in Maryland. Its location in the Washington metropolitan area helps support the unit's unique, high-technology staffing and resource requirements.
516th Signal Brigade. Headquartered on Palm Circle, Fort Shafter, Hawaii, the 516th Signal Brigade is a forward-based, major subordinate operations and maintenance command of the U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command (NETCOM)/9th Army Signal Command, which reports to the Army's G-6/chief information officer.
30th Signal Battalion. A subordinate command of the 516th Signal Brigade, 30th Signal Battalion is based at Wheeler Army Air Field. The 30th provides C4 systems and other information systems support for USAG-HI, the 25th ID, the USARPAC headquarters, and other Army elements throughout Hawaii, as well as those on Johnston Island, Guam, American Samoa and the Trust Territories.
94th Army Air Missile Defense Command. The 94th “Sea Dragons” deploy in the PACOM area of responsibility and conduct joint and combined theater air and missile defense in support of designated operations plans and contingency operations.
9th Regional Readiness Command. The 9th Regional Readiness Command (RRC) supports units in Hawaii, Alaska, American Samoa, Korea, Japan, Guam and Saipan. It provides combat-ready forces that meet the peacetime and wartime requirements of the Warfighting Combatant Commander. As well, the 9th provides command and control of U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) forces in the USARPAC area of responsibility.
196th Infantry Brigade. This USARPAC training support brigade is a multi-component organization of Soldiers providing professional, high quality, and responsive training support to Reserve Component (RC) units throughout USARPAC, by sustaining or improving unit pre-mobilization readiness in the areas of operational capability, logistics and administration. Units perform PACOM missions, including military support to civil authorities in Hawaii, nearby islands, or American Samoa, and mobilization and demobilization assistance teams supporting RC units.
500th Military Intelligence Brigade. Operating out of the “Kunia Tunnel,” the 500th MI Brigade provides multidiscipline intelligence support to Army, joint, and coalition warfighters in the PACOM area of operations. It trains and deploys intelligence support packages to enable battle command, situational awareness, and force protection, as well as executes over-watch and fused all-source analysis to develop timely and tailored intelligence products for commanders.
Pacific Ocean Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
The Pacific Ocean Division (POD), headquartered at Fort Shafter, is the operating office of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for the Pacific and Far East Region. Under its civil works mission, POD assists local government agencies in developing their water resources, which are centered on navigation, flood control, and environmental protection in Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
599th Transportation Terminal Group
The 599th is headquartered at Wheeler Army Air Field, and its mission is to maintain command and control of the Military Traffic Management Command’s common user ocean terminals in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and to manage the ocean movement of DoD-sponsored cargo in the PACOM area of responsibility. The group handles port operations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans with the assistance of its three transportation terminal battalions located in Okinawa and Yokohama, Japan, and in busan, Republic of Korea.
Tripler Army Medical Center
One of the U.S. Army Medical Command's seven medical centers, Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) is discussed in greater detail in the Health and Welfare section. It is located on Moanalua Ridge, near Fort Shafter and Aliamanu Military Reservation. See the Medical and Dental section for more information.
MARINE FORCES, PACIFIC/ FLEET MARINE FORCES, PACIFIC
The single largest U.S. Marine field command is designated as both U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Pacific (MARFORPAC) and Fleet Marine Force, Pacific (FMFPAC). Headquartered at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Camp H.M. Smith, MARFORPAC includes nearly one-half of all active duty personnel in the Marine Corps. MARFORPAC is comprised of two of the three Marine Expeditionary Forces (MEFs), each of which has a ground infantry division, an aircraft wing, combat service support group, and command element.
MARFORPAC is the Marine service component for USPACOM and the Commander, U.S. Forces Korea. The forces are organized into Marine Air/Ground Task Forces (MAGTFs) that may range from a 2,200 member Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) to a 50,000 or larger MEF.
As the Marine component for U.S. Forces, Korea, MARFORPAC joins with the Republic of Korea (ROK) Marine Corps to form the Combined Marine Forces Command (CMFC). During hostilities, CMFC would be commanded by the MARFORPAC commander (COMMARFORPAC), who would deploy to Korea with his staff. CMFC's forces of about 100,000 ROK and U.S. personnel would play a significant role in the defense of the Republic of Korea as part of the United Nations Command/Combined Forces Command. MARFORPAC's major subordinate commands are I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF), located in Southern California and Arizona, and are III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF), headquartered in Okinawa, Japan. The Commanding General of III MEF in Japan also commands III MEF Forces Hawaii, located at Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. COMMARFORPAC is also the Commander, Marine Corps Bases, Pacific.
U.S. PACIFIC FLEET
The U.S. Pacific Fleet (PACFLT), headquartered at Makalapa Crater near Pearl Harbor, is the world's largest naval command. Forces in PACFLT include approximately 190 ships, about 1,400 Navy and Marine Corps aircraft, more than 213,000 Sailors, Marines, and civilians, and 35 shore installations.
The Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet (COMPACFLT) supports several unified commanders including USPACOM, U.S. Central Command, U.S. Strategic Command, and U.S. Atlantic Command. With its forward-deployed presence, the PACFLT protects vital U.S. interests in the region, providing a stabilizing influence and supporting allied forces afloat and ashore.
Two numbered fleet commands, THIRD and SEVENTH, make up the bulk of the Pacific Fleet's operating forces, while several other commands manage the administration of training, maintenance, and regional coordination.
The Commander, THIRD Fleet conducts operations and exercises in the Eastern Pacific from Alaska to Antarctica, training and preparing naval forces prior to their deployment to the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean operating areas. The THIRD Fleet Commander is home ported in San Diego, California, aboard the flagship USS CORONADO (AGF-11) and executes USPACOM taskings as a contingency Joint Task Force commander.
The Commander, SEVENTH Fleet is responsible for operations and exercises from west of Hawaii to the east coast of Africa and also can function as a USPACOM Joint Task Force commander. Embarked on the amphibious command ship, USS BLUE RIDGE (LCC-19), SEVENTH Fleet is forward-deployed to Yokosuka, Japan. There are 18 U.S. Navy ships forward-deployed to Japan and one to Guam as part of the operating fleet deployed overseas. The actual number of ships assigned to SEVENTH Fleet varies.
While the numbered fleets are responsible for most ship and aircraft operations within their respective areas, other Navy commands support and operate as PACFLT forces: The U.S. Maritime Defense Zone Pacific (comprised primarily of U.S. Coast Guard personnel and resources) supports harbor defense and coastal warfare of the U.S. West Coast, Alaska and Hawaii; Commander Task Force TWELVE conducts all anti-submarine operations in the Pacific, Commander Task Force FOURTEEN operates all Pacific Fleet submarines, and Military Sealift Command operates about 57 support ships.
There are five commanders responsible to PACFLT for training and readiness of specific types of ships, aircraft and Marine forces assigned to operational commanders:
Commander, Naval Air Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, based in San Diego, is responsible for PACFLT's carrier and land-based aircraft and six aircraft carriers.
Commander, Naval Surface Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, based in San Diego is responsible for approximately 100 surface ships, including combatant, amphibious and logistic support ships.
Commander, Submarine Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet based in Pearl Harbor, is responsible for approximately 40 submarines.
Commander, Third Naval Construction Brigade, located in Makalapa Crater, is responsible for providing construction support to Pacific Fleet forces.
Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, located at Camp H.M. Smith, is responsible for about providing combat-ready marine forces to PACFLT.
PACFLT coordinates shore support activities through six naval base and naval force commanders. Three naval base commanders support operating forces from San Diego, Seattle, and Pearl Harbor. Three Western Pacific naval forces commanders coordinate support to deployed forces from Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Guam. They also serve as the Pacific Fleet's military liaison with host nations. Smaller support facilities are provided in both Singapore and Diego Garcia.
PACIFIC AIR FORCES
Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), headquartered at Hickam AFB, Hawaii, is one of nine major commands in the U.S. Air Force and is the air component to U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM). PACAF’s mission is to provide USPACOM integrated expeditionary Air Force capabilities to defend the Homeland, promote stability, dissuade/deter aggression, and swiftly defeat enemies.
PACAF is composed of approximately 55,000 military--active and reserve--and civilian personnel. There are four numbered air forces and nine wings: 5th Air Force, headquartered at Yokota Air Base, Japan, near Tokyo and overseeing operations at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa Japan and Misawa Air Base, Japan; 7th Air Force, headquartered at Osan Air Base, Korea, south of Seoul and also consisting of Kunsan Air Base, Korea; 11th Air Force, headquartered at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska, near Anchorage and also includes Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska; and 13th Air Force, headquartered at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, near Honolulu with additional units at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam.
PACAF forces include approximately 400 aircraft, including the multi-role F-15E and F-16; F-15C/D air superiority fighters; A-10 close air support and OA-10 forward air control aircraft; HH-60G and UH-1 helicopters; C-21, C-12, C-17 and C-130 airlifters; and E-3 Airborne Warning and Control System aircraft.
Beginning in the summer of 2008, F-22 Raptors will join Elmendorf Air Force Base and in 2011 F-22s will be assigned to Hickam Air Force Base. The Raptor’s highly advanced multi-role suites will significantly increase USPACOM’s operational capabilities. In addition, America’s newest intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft, the RQ-4 Global Hawk will be stationed at Andersen Air Force Base in the coming years. The Global Hawk will allow USPACOM and our friends and allies to better manage environmental, piracy, and terrorism crises.
PACAF fully supports the Air Force’s vision of global vigilance, reach, and power by persistently enhancing our warfighting capability, improving our combat support, and enabling our warfighting concepts.
U.S. FORCES, JAPAN
U.S. Forces, Japan (USFJ), headquartered at Yokota Air Base, near Tokyo, Japan, was activated on July 1, 1957 to fill the need for a command to conduct activities in Japan after the Far East Command was deactivated and the United Nations Command was transferred to Seoul, Republic of Korea. On January 19, 1960, the U.S. and Japan signed the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, which provided for the continued presence of U.S. forces in Japan.
U.S. military strength in Japan is about 37,000 ashore and 13,000 afloat. Of the total USFJ forces approximately 24,000 are stationed on Okinawa.
Major U.S. units in Japan include: U.S. Army, Japan/9th Theater Army Area Command; Commander, Naval Forces, Japan; SEVENTH Fleet; Fifth Air Force; and the III Marine Expeditionary Force
U.S. FORCES, KOREA
The longtime U.S. security commitment to the Republic of Korea (ROK) has both legal and moral sanctions. U.S. legal obligations are those under U.N. Security Council Resolutions of 1950, by which the U.S. leads the United Nations Command (UNC), and the ROK/U.S. Mutual Security Agreement of 1954, which commits both nations to assist each other in case of attack from outside forces. The U.S. is also partner in the operations of the ROK/U.S. Combined Forces Command (CFC), an integrated headquarters established in 1978, and is responsible for planning for the defense of the Republic of Korea.
U.S. Forces, Korea (USFK) is the joint headquarters through which U.S. combat forces would be sent to the CFC's fighting components - the Ground, Air, Naval and Combined Marine Forces Component Commands.
The Commander of USFK also serves as the Commander of UNC and CFC. As UNC Commander, he is responsible for maintaining the armistice agreement, which suspended the Korean War July 27, 1953.
USFK includes 70 active installations in the Republic of Korea and has about 28,000 U.S. military personnel assigned in Korea. Major U.S. units in the ROK include the Eighth U.S. Army and Seventh Air Force.
SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND, PACIFIC
Special Operations Command, Pacific (SOCPAC) is a subordinate unified command exercising operational control over Army, Navy, and Air Force Special Operations Forces (SOF) assigned to USPACOM. SOCPAC has theaterwide responsibility to train and employ joint SOF in support of USPACOM's operations and strategy, crisis response situations, and for deterrence or warfighting in a major theater war and smaller scale contingencies.
The Commander of SOCPAC is also designated commander of Joint Task Force (JTF) 510, USPACOM's crisis response, rapid deployment JTF. JTF 510 can deploy forward during a crisis situation to provide situation assessments, recommend courses of action, and/or conduct military operations. Typical JTF 510 operations include humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, noncombatant evacuation or other contingency support. Depending on JTF 510's initial assessment of the situation, USPACOM might decide to assign this mission to a larger JTF. In this case, JTF 510 serves as an advance party to facilitate the arrival of the larger JTF, and then normally transitions into a Joint Special Operations Task Force (JSOTF). The JSOTF can plan and execute joint special operations in support of the JTF commander.
The Alaskan Command (ALCOM) headquartered at Elmendorf Air Base, Alaska, is one of four sub-unified commands under the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command. More than 20,000 soldiers, sailors, airmen Marines and U.S. Coast Guardsmen make up the total force in the state of Alaska available to ALCOM.
ALCOM has three main roles. First, to integrate military activities to maximize the readiness of theater forces and expedite deployment of forces from and through Alaska in support of worldwide contingencies. Second, to serve as a joint task force headquarters for protection of critical infrastructure. Third, to coordinate military assistance to civil authorities in Alaska in times of emergency or disaster.
JOINT INTERAGENCY TASK FORCE WEST
Interagency Task Force West (JIATF West) has been providing support to the U.S. counterdrug effort since 1989 when it was established as Joint Task Force - 5 (JTF-5) and headquartered on Coast Guard Island, Alameda, California. With additional interagency authorities, JTF-5 was renamed Joint Interagency Task Force West in 1994. In 2004, JIATF West was relocated to Camp H.M. Smith Hawaii and collocated with USPACOM to restructure and refocus counterdrug efforts on Asia and the Pacific exclusively.
The JIATF West staff consists of approximately 82 uniformed and civilian members of all five military services as well as representatives from the national intelligence community and U.S. federal law enforcement agencies. Law enforcement representatives include the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). JIATF West is Commander U.S. Pacific Command’s (USPACOM’s) executive agent for Department of Defense (DOD) support to counterdrug initiatives in the USPACOM Area of Responsibility (AOR).
With the relocation and mission refocus, JIATF West is closely aligned with USPACOM’s Theater Security Cooperation, War on Terrorism, and Maritime Security priorities in planning, developing and implementing counterdrug programs in Asia and the Pacific.
JOINT POW/MIA ACCOUNTING COMMAND
Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC), located on the island of Oahu in Hawaii, was activated Oct. 1, 2003. JPAC’s mission is to achieve the fullest possible accounting of all Americans missing as a result of our nation’s previous conflicts. Our highest priority is the return of any living Americans that remain prisoners of war.
JPAC was created from the merger of the 30 year old U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii, and the 11 year old Joint Task Force - Full Accounting. This 425-person organization, commanded by a flag officer, is committed and dedicated to bringing home the nation’s service members and civilians who made the ultimate sacrifice.
JPAC recognizes that the efforts and involvement of our POW/MIA families contribute significantly to our success. JPAC owes a great deal of gratitude to the families and veterans who support our mission.
It is a jointly manned unit with handpicked Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines with specialized skills and Department of the Navy civilians who make up about 25 percent of the organization. The laboratory portion of JPAC, referred to as the Central Identification Laboratory (CIL), is the largest forensic anthropology laboratory in the world.
The JPAC mission is daunting, with approximately 78,000 Americans missing from World War II (of those, an estimated 35,000 are deemed recoverable, with the others lost at sea or entombed in sunken vessels), 8,100 missing from the Korean War, 1,800 missing from the Vietnam War, 120 missing from the Cold War, and one serviceman missing from the Gulf War.
JOINT INTELLIGENCE CENTER PACIFIC
Based at Pearl Harbor, the Joint Intelligence Center Pacific analyzes, produces and disseminates accurate and timely all-source fused intelligence for Pacific Command, its component and subordinate commands and their operating forces. JICPAC's core functions include providing indications and warnings, targeting and combat intelligence, current/operational intelligence, and political-military and regional intelligence analysis.
ASIA-PACIFIC CENTER FOR SECURITY STUDIES
The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) officially opened Sept. 4, 1995, in Honolulu, Hawaii. The APCSS addresses regional and global security issues, inviting military and civilian representatives of the United States and 45 Asia-Pacific nations to its comprehensive program of executive education and outreach, both in Hawaii and throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
The Center supports the U.S. Pacific Command's objective of developing professional and personal ties among national security establishments throughout the region. With a non-warfighting mission, the Center focuses on a multilateral and multi-dimensional approach to defining and addressing regional security issues and concerns. The most beneficial result is building relationships of trust and confidence among future leaders and decision-makers within the region.
APCSS provides a focal point where national officials, decision makers and policy makers can gather to exchange ideas, explore pressing issues and achieve a greater understanding of the challenges that shape the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. As well, the Center gives attention to the increasingly complex interrelationships of military, economic, political and diplomatic policies relevant to regional security issues through its three academic components: executive education, conferences, and research and publications efforts.
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT & HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE
Established in 1994 by the U.S. Congress as part of the Department of Defense, COE reports directly to the U.S. Pacific Command and receives policy guidance from the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Global Security Affairs. Subject Matter Experts from around the world supplement a full-time staff of thirty that include civilian aid practitioners and retired U.S. and foreign military personnel.
Vision: Reduced human suffering and loss of life through excellence in humanitarian assistance, disaster management, and peace support operations enabled by effective partnerships, with emphasis in the Asia-Pacific region.
Mission: To promote effective civil-military management in international humanitarian assistance, disaster response, and peacekeeping through education, training, research, and information programs.
The Center for Excellence in Disaster Management & Humanitarian Assistance (COE) works to improve international civil-military relations, through education, training, consultations, and information sharing in an unclassified environment. COE partners with a wide variety of local, national, and international governmental and non-governmental organizations including academic institutions and United Nations (UN) organizations.
Training Courses. COE currently offers two flagship training courses designed to familiarize participants with issues and challenges to coordination and effective performance in complex emergencies. COE offers Combined Humanitarian Assistance Response Training (CHART) up to four times a year and annually co-sponsors the Health Emergencies in Large Populations (HELP) course with the International Committee of the Red Cross. COE co-sponsors UN Civil-Military Coordination (CMCoord) courses with the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs up to twice a year, and also offers tailored Training Assistance Program (TAP) courses.
Peacekeeping Workshops. COE co-sponsors multilateral peacekeeping events in the Asia-Pacific region with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Each event brings together military and civilian representatives from approximately 20 nations to examine various planning and operational challenges to increasing national and regional capabilities to support international peace operations.
Medical and Public Health Activities. COE supports U.S. Pacific Command’s work to improve military readiness and promote public health through a comprehensive military-to-military education and training program for HIV/AIDS prevention, mitigation, and treatment in the Asia-Pacific region. COE executes the HIV/AIDS program in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on behalf of U.S. Pacific Command and the U.S. Department of Defense. COE works alongside U.S. Pacific Command to promote and strengthen regional contingency planning for bioterrorism, pandemic influenza, and other public health threats.
Exercise Support. COE provides technical assistance in planning, scenario development, and role-playing to integrate the complex issues and emerging trends in multi-dimensional operations into international military exercises. COE facilitates the participation of a diverse array of civilian actors to help create a more realistic military training experience. COE also facilitates military support to humanitarian training programs.
Operational Support. While COE’s role is primarily education, training, and technical assistance, staff occasionally deploy to support crisis response. COE staff were seconded to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to serve as military liaison officers in response to the December 2004 tsunami disaster, and to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in Pakistan in response to the October 2005 South Asia earthquake. They have also been deployed in advisory roles to support civil-military planning for INTERFET in East Timor in 1999 and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan in 2001.
Situation Reports and Publications. COE assists civilian and military decision-makers through the publication of an Asia-Pacific Daily Report as well as situational reports on current complex emergencies, all available on the COE website. COE produces Liaison, an annual journal of civil-military coordination; a quarterly newsletter; and instructional videos that address civil-military issues. COE conducts after-action reviews of disaster responses.
Published by the Public Affairs Office, Headquarters, United States Pacific Command. For additions and/or changes, please contact USPACOM Public Affairs Office, (808) 477-1341; FAX (808) 477-6247.