Baikonur LC200/40 home
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Launch Complex: LC200/40.
Baikonur. Old Name: PU40. Latitude: 46.0364 deg. Longitude: 63.0379 deg. Used by: Proton. First Launch: 1977-07-23. Last Launch: 1991-03-31. Number Launches: 64.

LC200/40 Chronology

1977 July 23 - 21:15 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 291-01 Raduga 3 Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Apogee: 35,853 km (22,277 mi). Inclination: 12.70 deg. Period: 1,437.20 min. Statsionar-2. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 35 deg E in 1977-1980 As of 30 August 2001 located at 44.45 deg E drifting at 0.191 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 49.63E drifting at 0.221E degrees per day.

1977 September 20 - 17:28 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 291-02 Ekran 2 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,663 km (22,159 mi). Apogee: 35,938 km (22,330 mi). Inclination: 12.70 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1977-1978 As of 5 September 2001 located at 65.77 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.61E drifting at 0.200W degrees per day.

1978 May 27 - 01:25 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 294-02 FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch. Ekran s/n 13L Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran. Agency: RVSN. Failed launch of communications satellite.

1978 July 18 - 21:59 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 292-02 Raduga 4 Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Inclination: 12.30 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 35 deg E in 1978-1981 As of 1 September 2001 located at 42.47 deg E drifting at 0.129 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 108.35E drifting at 0.106E degrees per day.

1978 August 17 - 20:02 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 297-02 FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch. Ekran s/n 15L Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran. Agency: RVSN.

1978 October 17 - 16:04 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 298-01 FAILURE: Second stage explosion. Ekran s/n 14L Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran. Agency: RVSN.

1978 December 19 - 12:15 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 295-02 FAILURE: Block DM malfunction, wrong orbit. Gorizont 1 Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 22,193 km (13,790 mi). Apogee: 49,371 km (30,677 mi). Inclination: 22.40 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Did not achieve geostationary orbit due to malfunction of Block D. Operation of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 53 deg E in 1979-1980 As of 29 August 2001 located at 75.87 deg E drifting at 0.132 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.49E drifting at 0.119E degrees per day.

1979 February 21 - 07:49 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 294-01 Ekran 3 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,623 km (22,135 mi). Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Inclination: 14.60 deg. Period: 1,435.30 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1979-1981 As of 3 September 2001 located at 51.81 deg E drifting at 0.088 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 98.64E drifting at 0.060E degrees per day.

1979 April 25 - 03:44 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 298-02 Raduga 5 Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Inclination: 11.90 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1979-1982 As of 29 August 2001 located at 84.16 deg E drifting at 0.043 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 65.45E drifting at 0.034E degrees per day.

1979 July 5 - 23:19 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 299-01 Gorizont 2 Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 11.50 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Stationed at 14 deg W. Statsionar 4. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1979-1981; 90 deg E in 1981-1983 As of 26 August 2001 located at 59.72 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 84.05E drifting at 0.107W degrees per day.

1979 October 3 - 17:12 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 302-02 Ekran 4 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,725 km (22,198 mi). Apogee: 35,827 km (22,261 mi). Inclination: 14.50 deg. Period: 1,435.60 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1979-1981 As of 4 September 2001 located at 52.52 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 4 located at 96.71E drifting at 0.048W degrees per day.

1979 December 28 - 11:51 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 303-01 Gorizont 3 Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,831 km (22,264 mi). Inclination: 11.00 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Stationed at 53 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1980-1984; 40 deg E in 1984-1989 As of 30 August 2001 located at 47.84 deg E drifting at 0.163 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.81E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.

1980 July 14 - 22:35 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 301-01 Ekran 5 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,737 km (22,205 mi). Apogee: 35,834 km (22,266 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1980 Last known longitude (14 March 1994) 95.12 deg E drifting at 0.122 deg W per day.

1980 December 26 - 11:49 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 304-01 Ekran 6 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Inclination: 14.00 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1981 As of 3 September 2001 located at 96.55 deg E drifting at 0.071 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 55.67E drifting at 0.097E degrees per day.

1981 March 18 - 04:40 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 306-01 Raduga 8 Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,411 km (22,003 mi). Apogee: 36,115 km (22,440 mi). Inclination: 10.80 deg. Period: 1,434.90 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. As of 3 September 2001 located at 8.37 deg E drifting at 0.322 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 69.95E drifting at 0.520E degrees per day.

1981 June 25 - 23:55 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 305-01 Ekran 7 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Apogee: 35,819 km (22,256 mi). Inclination: 10.50 deg. Period: 1,437.00 min. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1981-1982 As of 1 September 2001 located at 78.87 deg E drifting at 0.201 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 66.59E drifting at 0.197W degrees per day.

1981 October 30 - 06:04 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D-1 311-01 Venera 13 Mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. Agency: MOM. Venera 13 and 14 were identical spacecraft built to take advantage of the 1981 Venus launch opportunity and launched 5 days apart. After launch and a four month cruise to Venus, the descent vehicle separated and plunged into the Venus atmosphere on 1 March 1982. As it flew by Venus the bus acted as a data relay for the brief life of the descent vehicle, and then continued on into a heliocentric orbit. After the descent vehicle braked to subsonic speed a parachute was deployed. At an altitude of 47 km the parachute was released and simple airbraking was used the rest of the way to the surface. Venera 13 landed about 950 km northeast of Venera 14 at 7 deg 30 min S, 303 E, just east of the eastern extension of an elevated region known as Phoebe Regio. The area was composed of bedrock outcrops surrounded by dark, fine-grained soil. After landing an imaging panorama was started and a mechanical drilling arm reached to the surface and obtained a sample, which was deposited in a hermetically sealed chamber, maintained at 30 degrees C and a pressure of about .05 atmospheres. The composition of the sample, as determined by the X-ray flourescence spectrometer, put it in the class of weakly differentiated melanocratic alkaline gabbroids. The lander survived for 127 minutes (the planned design life was 32 minutes) in an environment with a temperature of 457 degrees C and a pressure of 84 Earth atmospheres. The bus carried instruments built by Austrian and French specialists, as well as Soviet scientific equipment.

1982 February 5 - 09:12 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 308-01 Ekran 8 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,756 km (22,217 mi). Apogee: 36,010 km (22,370 mi). Inclination: 10.00 deg. Period: 1,441.00 min. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1982-1983 As of 28 August 2001 located at 30.39 deg W drifting at 1.165 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.74E drifting at 1.235W degrees per day.

1982 April 19 - 19:45 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 306-02 Salyut 7 Mass: 18,900 kg (41,600 lb). Spacecraft: Salyut 7. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 279 km (173 mi). Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Second Soviet replenishable long-duration ‘civilian’ space station. Objectives: Continuation of scientific research on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the Soviet national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Continuation of the scientific research in progress on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Although of the same design as Salyut 6, technical breakdowns throughout its life made Salyut 7 a much less productive station. Replaced finally by Mir. Two different TKS resupply craft, originally designed for the Almaz military station, docked with Salyut 7 to provide a larger complex. With the cancellation of Almaz, a large proportion of the experiments carried out on board had military objectives. As of January 1990 out of fuel, unable to manoeuvre, uncontrolled re-entry expected in three to four years. Re-entered in 1991 with 70 kg fuel remaining over Argentina. Controllers attempted to control impact point (set for Atlantic Ocean) by setting Salyut 7/Kosmos 1686 assembly into a tumble. This however failed and Salyut 7 re-entered February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Many fragments fell on the town of Capitan Bermudez, 25 km from Rosario and 400 km from Buenos Aires, Argentina. At 1 am local time the sky was lit up with hundreds of incandescent meteors travelling from Southwest to Northeast. At dawn the inhabitants discovered numerous metal fragments, which seemed to have fallen in distinct groups at various locations in the city. Luckily no one was hurt in the metallic shower. Additional Details: Salyut 7(2822).

1982 July 22 - 22:11 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 307-02 FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch. Ekran s/n 23L Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran. Agency: UNKS.

1982 September 16 - 18:31 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 309-01 Ekran 9 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,704 km (22,185 mi). Apogee: 35,877 km (22,292 mi). Inclination: 13.10 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1982-1983 As of 3 September 2001 located at 99.83 deg E drifting at 0.132 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.75E drifting at 0.063E degrees per day.

1982 October 20 - 16:26 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 312-01 Gorizont 6 Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Inclination: 12.80 deg. Period: 1,436.60 min. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1982-1984; 140 deg E in 1984-1988; 170 deg W in 1988-1989 As of 31 August 2001 located at 45.17 deg W drifting at 0.179 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 146.19W drifting at 0.287W degrees per day.

1983 March 12 - 14:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 304-02 Ekran 10 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 37,194 km (23,111 mi). Apogee: 37,453 km (23,272 mi). Inclination: 14.30 deg. Period: 1,515.30 min. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 5 September 2001 located at 6.05 deg E drifting at 18.878 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 154.32W drifting at 18.879W degrees per day.

1983 April 8 - 04:45 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 315-02 Raduga 12 Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Inclination: 8.40 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 4 September 2001 located at 65.56 deg E drifting at 0.028 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.54E drifting at 0.059W degrees per day.

1983 June 7 - 02:32 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D-1 321-02 Venera 16 Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Spacecraft: Venera 4V-2. Agency: MOM. Venus radar mapper; entered Venus orbit 10/14/83. Venera 16 was part of a two spacecraft mission (along with Venera 15) designed to use side-looking radar mappers to study the surface properties of Venus. The two spacecraft were inserted into Venus orbit a day apart with their orbital planes shifted by an angle of approximately 4 degrees relative to one another. This made it possible to reimage an area if necessary. Each spacecraft was in a nearly polar orbit with a periapsis at 62 N latitude. Together, the two spacecraft imaged the area from the north pole down to about 30 degrees N latitude over the 8 months of mapping operations.

1983 August 25 - 20:02 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 316-02 Raduga 13 Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 36,323 km (22,570 mi). Apogee: 36,447 km (22,647 mi). Inclination: 8.00 deg. Period: 1,466.80 min. Operation of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1983-1987 As of 28 August 2001 located at 174.92 deg W drifting at 7.555 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 42.12E drifting at 7.563W degrees per day.

1983 September 29 - 17:37 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 318-01 Ekran 11 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Apogee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 8.60 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min. Launch date suspect Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 28 August 2001 located at 73.31 deg E drifting at 0.215 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 73.35E drifting at 0.222W degrees per day.

1983 December 29 - 00:52 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 320-02 Cosmos 1519 Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,108 km (11,873 mi). Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Inclination: 66.50 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.

1984 March 2 - 03:54 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 316-01 Cosmos 1540 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Potok. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,761 km (22,220 mi). Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Inclination: 8.10 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 79 deg E. Investigation of outer space; experiments in relaying telegraph and telephone information in the centimetre wavelength range. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1984-1988 As of 28 August 2001 located at 75.35 deg E drifting at 0.041 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 69.92E drifting at 0.020W degrees per day.

1984 March 29 - 05:53 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 319-02 Cosmos 1546 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,709 km (22,188 mi). Apogee: 35,856 km (22,279 mi). Inclination: 11.70 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Stationed at 24 deg W in 1984-1985; 80 deg E in 1986 As of 5 September 2001 located at 72.67 deg E drifting at 0.068 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 81.39E drifting at 0.003E degrees per day.

1984 May 19 - 15:11 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 323-02 Cosmos 1554 Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Apogee: 19,159 km (11,904 mi). Inclination: 65.50 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.

1984 August 1 - 21:37 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 324-01 Gorizont 10 Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Apogee: 35,810 km (22,250 mi). Inclination: 6.80 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min. Stationed at 80 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1984-1989; 170 deg W in 1989-1990 As of 5 September 2001 located at 157.76 deg W drifting at 0.193 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 46.55W drifting at 0.187W degrees per day.

1984 September 4 - 15:49 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 320-01 Cosmos 1593 Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,090 km (11,860 mi). Apogee: 19,170 km (11,910 mi). Inclination: 65.90 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.

1984 December 21 - 09:13 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D-1 325-02 Vega 2 Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Spacecraft: Vega 5VK. Agency: MOM. Investigations of the planet Venus and Halley's Comet. The APV-V plasma antenna did not deploy until the first mid-course correction burn. Deployed lander and balloon at Venus on June 14, 1985. The surface experiments of the lander failed to send back data because they were inadvertently switched on at an altitude of 20 km. Apparently high winds activated a G-force sensor that was to automatically switch on the surface package after the jolt of touchdown. The bus continued in heliocentric orbit and rendezvoused with comet Halley on March 9, 1986. The images of the comet were nearly lost when a television sensor failed shortly before the flyby. A back-up sensor was activated just in time. Fitted with scientific apparatus and equipment built in the USSR, Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Poland, France, Federal Republic of Germany and C zechoslovakia.

1985 March 22 - 05:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 328-01 Ekran 14 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 37,333 km (23,197 mi). Apogee: 37,457 km (23,274 mi). Inclination: 12.70 deg. Period: 1,519.00 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1985-1987 As of 5 September 2001 located at 178.66 deg E drifting at 19.729 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 122.42E drifting at 19.716W degrees per day.

1985 May 30 - 14:59 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 313-02 Cosmos 1656 Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Spacecraft: Tselina-2. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 802 km (498 mi). Apogee: 852 km (529 mi). Inclination: 71.10 deg. Period: 101.40 min.

1985 October 25 - 15:45 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 332-02 Cosmos 1700 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Luch . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 5.90 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 95 deg E. Experimental retransmission of telephone and telegraph data in the centimetre band. First launch in Altair/SR system for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. First tests with Mir were conducted on 29 March 1986 using Mir’s large aft antenna communicating with Cosmos 1700 stationed in geosynchronous orbit at 95 degrees East. In September 1986 Cosmos 1700 ceased operating and drifted off its geosynchronous orbit position. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 95 deg E in 1985-1986 As of 4 September 2001 located at 85.03 deg E drifting at 0.142 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 76.37E drifting at 0.157E degrees per day.

1986 January 17 - 10:20 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 331-02 Raduga 18 Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,909 km (22,312 mi). Apogee: 36,493 km (22,675 mi). Inclination: 5.80 deg. Period: 1,457.30 min. Stationed at 335 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 25 deg W in 1986-1989; 170 deg W in 1989-1991 As of 28 August 2001 located at 163.25 deg W drifting at 5.255 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 22.49E drifting at 5.257W degrees per day.

1986 April 4 - 03:45 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 302-01 Cosmos 1738 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Potok. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,712 km (22,190 mi). Apogee: 35,847 km (22,274 mi). Inclination: 5.60 deg. Period: 1,435.70 min. Stationed at 13.5 deg W. Continuation of the investigation of outer space; experimental retransmission of telephone and telegraph data in the centimetre band. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1986-1989 As of 3 September 2001 located at 0.26 deg W drifting at 0.077 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 55.28W drifting at 0.287W degrees per day.

1986 June 10 - 00:49 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 322-02 Gorizont 12 Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 10.10 deg. Period: 1,435.70 min. Stationed at 345 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1986-1989; 40 deg E in 1989-1990 As of 28 August 2001 located at 84.75 deg E drifting at 0.265 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.79E drifting at 0.142E degrees per day.

1986 September 16 - 11:38 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 336-01 Cosmos 1778 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Apogee: 19,138 km (11,891 mi). Inclination: 66.00 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.

1986 October 25 - 15:43 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 335-02 Raduga 19 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 36,252 km (22,525 mi). Apogee: 36,353 km (22,588 mi). Inclination: 5.10 deg. Period: 1,462.60 min. Stationed at 36 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1986-1991; 34 deg E in 1991-1993. Raduga 19 performed an end-of-life maneuver in September, 1993. As of 28 August 2001 located at 160.57 deg E drifting at 6.520 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.63W drifting at 6.529W degrees per day.

1986 November 29 - 08:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 338-01 FAILURE: Second stage explosion. Almaz-T s/n 303 Failure Mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Spacecraft: Almaz-T. Agency: UNKS. In the second half of 1986 the first Almaz-T s/n 303 was readied for launch. General V V Favorskiy ordered it to be completed and launched with a full-up lab module in place of trials equipment. Unfortunately did not reach orbit.

1987 January 30 - 09:19 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 341-01 FAILURE: Block DM-2 ignition failure, remained in LEO. Cosmos 1817 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Apogee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Launch vehicle failure; left in unusable orbit. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1987 March 19 - 03:54 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 323-01 Raduga 20 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 36,922 km (22,942 mi). Apogee: 37,159 km (23,089 mi). Inclination: 5.10 deg. Period: 1,500.60 min. Stationed at 85 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1987-1991 As of 30 August 2001 located at 6.40 deg W drifting at 15.515 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 6.61W drifting at 15.520W degrees per day.

1987 April 24 - 12:42 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 335-01 FAILURE: Block DM-2 failure, remained in LEO. Cosmos 1838 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Apogee: 10,401 km (6,462 mi). Inclination: 64.80 deg. Period: 208.50 min. Glonass; upper stage failure; unusable orbit. Fourth stage failure

1987 July 25 - 09:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 347-01 Cosmos 1870 Mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Spacecraft: Almaz-T. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 263 km (163 mi). Apogee: 278 km (172 mi). Inclination: 71.90 deg. Period: 89.90 min. First flight of Almaz radars imaging satellite taken out of mothballs after death of Ustinov. At the beginning of 1987 it was decided not to man the Almaz-T, instead operate it in a fully automatic mode. Thus the final Almaz cosmonaut training group was disbanded. Cosmos 1870 conducted remote sensing of the earth's surface, oceans and seas in the interests of various branches of science and the economy. Its side-looking radar had a 20-25 m ground resolution and functioned throughout its two year service life.

1987 September 16 - 02:53 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 339-02 Cosmos 1883 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,119 km (11,879 mi). Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Inclination: 64.90 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.

1987 October 28 - 15:15 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 325-01 Cosmos 1894 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Inclination: 4.10 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1987-1991 As of 5 September 2001 located at 165.32 deg W drifting at 0.190 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 85.03W drifting at 0.375E degrees per day.

1987 December 10 - 11:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 343-01 Raduga 21 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 3.90 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Stationed at 128 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg E in 1987-1991; 170 deg W in 1991-1997 As of 3 September 2001 located at 140.92 deg W drifting at 0.213 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 154.31W drifting at 0.091W degrees per day.

1988 January 18 - 09:58 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 341-02 FAILURE: Third stage malfunction. Gorizont s/n 25L Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont. Agency: UNKS.

1988 March 31 - 04:18 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 343-02 Gorizont 15 Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 36,343 km (22,582 mi). Apogee: 36,630 km (22,760 mi). Inclination: 3.70 deg. Period: 1,472.00 min. Stationed at 346 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1988-1991; 11 deg W in 1991-1992 As of 31 August 2001 located at 29.28 deg W drifting at 8.804 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 152.02W drifting at 8.807W degrees per day.

1988 July 12 - 17:01 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D-2 356-01 Phobos 2 Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 850 km (520 mi). Apogee: 79,750 km (49,550 mi). Inclination: 1.00 deg. Period: 4,590.00 min. First of two Mars missions to Mars' moon Phobos; carried two landers; entered Mars orbit 1/29/89; failed 3/27/89; extremely limited science data. Phobos 2 operated nominally throughout its cruise and Mars orbital insertion phases, gathering data on the Sun, interplanetary medium, Mars, and Phobos. Shortly before the final phase of the mission, during which the spacecraft was to approach within 50 m of Phobos' surface and release two landers, one a mobile 'hopper', the other a stationary platform, contact with Phobos 2 was lost. The mission ended when the spacecraft signal failed to be successfully reacquired on 27 March 1989. The cause of the failure was determined to be a malfunction of the on-board computer.

1988 August 18 - 19:52 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 333-02 Gorizont 16 Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Inclination: 3.20 deg. Period: 1,440.30 min. Stationed at 80 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1988-1992 As of 28 August 2001 located at 176.78 deg W drifting at 1.036 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 169.61W drifting at 1.046W degrees per day.

1988 December 10 - 11:54 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 329-02 Ekran 19 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 36,684 km (22,794 mi). Apogee: 36,980 km (22,970 mi). Inclination: 8.80 deg. Period: 1,489.90 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1996 As of 28 August 2001 located at 156.78 deg W drifting at 13.031 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 173.37E drifting at 13.036W degrees per day.

1989 January 26 - 09:16 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 351-02 Gorizont 17 Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 36,034 km (22,390 mi). Apogee: 36,224 km (22,508 mi). Inclination: 8.40 deg. Period: 1,453.60 min. Stationed at 53 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. The Rimsat network was initiated when Gorizont 17 was leased to the corporation and transferred from 53 degrees E (where it was then a backup to Gorizont 27) to 134 degrees E during late-June and July, 1993. At the close of 1994, Gorizont 17 was still on station but nearing the end of its operational life after six years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1989-1993; 134 deg E in 1993-1995; 34 deg E in 1995-1997 As of 30 August 2001 located at 22.84 deg W drifting at 4.340 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 147.41W drifting at 4.350W degrees per day.

1989 May 31 - 08:31 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 352-02 Cosmos 2022 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,119 km (11,879 mi). Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Inclination: 64.50 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.

1989 July 5 - 22:45 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 340-02 Gorizont 18 Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,902 km (22,308 mi). Apogee: 36,165 km (22,471 mi). Inclination: 8.00 deg. Period: 1,448.70 min. Stationed at 140 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 140 deg E in 1989-1996 As of 5 September 2001 located at 100.49 deg E drifting at 3.169 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 90.76W drifting at 3.156W degrees per day.

1989 September 28 - 17:05 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 346-01 Gorizont 19 Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Apogee: 35,827 km (22,261 mi). Inclination: 7.90 deg. Period: 1,437.30 min. Stationed at 97.5 deg E. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 97 deg E in 1989-1996; 34 deg E in 1996-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 105.39 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg E per day. As of 2007 Feb 28 located at 84.84E drifting at 0.295W degrees per day.

1989 December 1 - 20:20 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D-1 352-01 Granat Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Spacecraft: Granat. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 53,697 km (33,365 mi). Apogee: 149,862 km (93,119 mi). Inclination: 86.60 deg. Period: 5,899.90 min. X-, gamma-ray observatory; Danish, French, Bulgarian payloads. Granat orbital observatory. Conduct of studies of X-ray and soft gamma ray radiation sources in space by the USSR jointly with France, Denmark and Bulgaria.

1990 May 19 - 08:32 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 350-01 Cosmos 2079 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,062 km (11,844 mi). Apogee: 19,195 km (11,927 mi). Inclination: 65.30 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet.

1990 June 20 - 23:36 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 342-02 Gorizont 20 Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Inclination: 1.50 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 90 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes, continuation of work in the context of the 'Intercosmos' programme for the development of new frequency ranges and the creation of long-range systems of space c ommunications jointly with the Byelorussian SSR, GDR, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1990; 14 deg W in 1990-1995; 26 deg E in 1995-1998; 96 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 77.53 deg E drifting at 0.186 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 83.10E drifting at 0.160E degrees per day.

1990 December 8 - 02:43 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 366-02 Cosmos 2109 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 18,988 km (11,798 mi). Apogee: 19,271 km (11,974 mi). Inclination: 66.00 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.

1991 March 31 - 15:12 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 365-01 Almaz 1 Mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Spacecraft: Almaz-T. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Inclination: 72.70 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Second flight of Almaz radar imaging satellite. Surveyed the territory of the Soviet Union and of other countries for purposes of geology, cartography, oceanology, ecology and agriculture, and studied the ice situation at high latitudes. Launched eight months after its target date into an initial operational orbit of approximately 270 km with an inclination of 72.7 degrees, slightly higher than the 71.9 degrees inclination of Cosmos 1870. Unfortunately, the failure of one of the SAR antennas to deploy fully rendered that side inoperable. Returned images of 10 to 15 meter resolution through 17 October 1992. Its radiometer provided images of 10 to 30 km radiometer resolution over a 600 km swath. Its engines completed 760,000 firings during its 18 month service life.


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