Leadership Development and Junior Leader Training -- White Stag Leadership Development

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Junior Leader Training -- White Stag Leadership Development

White Stag History Since 1933

From Gödöllõ, Hungary to Monterey, California

1933 1941 1944 1957 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1982 1983 1985 1987 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


Baden-Powell chose Brownsea Island as the location to test his idea of "Scouting for Boys". Four patrols of boys were recruited from Boys Brigade of Winton, Poole and Bournemouth and the sons of his own friends.

1933 top

The Fourth World Jamboree is held in Gödöllõ, Hungary. There are 25,792 Scouts in camp.

A young Scout knelt by his campfire when three uniformed men rode up on horseback: Count Paul Teleki, the Chief Scout of Hungary and the Chief of Staff for the jamboree; General Kisbarnaki Ferenc Farkas, a general staff officer of the Hungarian Royal Army; and Lord Robert Baden-Powell, the British hero of the Boer War and Chief Scout of the World. The men introduced themselves to the Scout and inspected his camp. They complimented him on a job well done and rode on. Later on, that Scout heard the closing address from the Chief Scout of the World, General Lord Robert Baden Powell.

Original 1933 Jamboree Patch

The Scout was impressed by the caliber and bearing of the three officers and resolved that he too would one day serve as a leader in the military. The young man's name was Béla Bánáthy.

The daily Jamboree paper is printed in Hungarian, English, French and German with contributions in other languages. The Jamboree badge: the "Miraculous Stag" of Hungary.

At the conclusion of the Jamboree, Baden-Powell speaks to the assembled Scouts:

"Each one of you wears the badge of the White Stag...I want you to treasure that badge when you go from here and remember that it has its message and meaning for you.

"Hunters of old pursued the miraculous stag, not because they expected to kill it, but because it led them on in the joy of the chase to new trials and fresh adventures, and to capture happiness. You may look on that White Stag as the pure spirit of Scouting, springing forward and upward, ever leading you onward and upward to leap over difficulties, to face new adventures in your active pursuit of the higher aims of Scouting--aims which bring you happiness.

"These aims are to do you duty to God, to your country, and to your fellow man by carrying out the Scout Law In that way, each of you will help to bring about God's Kingdom upon earth--the reign of peace and good will." [3]

Paul Sujan, Béla Bánáthy, and Joe St. Clair, three Scouts from Hungary, and R. Maurice Tripp, from the United States, are in attendance. They do not meet at this time.

Béla reports:

The highlight of the Jamboree for me was meeting Baden-Powell, the Chief Scout of the World. One day, he visited our camp with the Chief Scout of Hungary, Count Paul Teleki (who later became our Prime Minister), and the chief of the camp staff, 'Vitez' Kisbarnaki Ferenc Farkas, a general staff officer of the Hungarian Royal Army. A few years later he became the commander of the Royal Ludovika Akademia (when I was a student there). In the 1940s, he became the Chief Scout of Hungary. (I was serving on his staff as head of national junior leadership training.)

Baden-Powell also tastes some of Paul Sujan's stew. These four — Paul Sujan, Béla Bánáthy, Joe St. Clair, and R. Maurice Tripp — will much later meet and play key roles in what will be called "White Stag Youth Leadership Development."

1941-44 top

Six years after the Jamboree, the winds of war swept across the plains of Hungary, and Béla Bánáthy was accepted as a candidate officer in the Hungarian Army.

In 1940, he became a graduate student at the Ludovika Akademia (officer training school) and was commissioned in the armored infantry.

Bánáthy served two tours on the Russian front in World War II as an armored infantry officer.

In 1940, Bánáthy's unit advanced during a severe November ice storm within 140 kilometres (87 mi) of Moscow. Wounded, he returned from the front to Budapest and married his fiancé, Eva Balazs, with his arm in a sling. After the death of General Teleki, General Farkas became Chief Scout of Hungary. In 1942, he returned to the Russian front with the Hungarian Second Army. His unit was part of the larger force defending the drive by the German 6th Army against Soviet General Vasily Chuikov's 62nd Army, which was defending Stalingrad.

In January, 1942, the Russians counterattacked and destroyed the Hungarian Second Army near Svoboda on the Don River. About 120,000 Hungarian troops were killed, wounded, or captured during the battle. The Hungarian Second Army, like most of the other Axis armies of the Army Group B, ceased to represent a meaningful fighting force. Bela was seriously wounded and returned on 24 May 1943 to Hungary with the remnants of the Hungarian Second Army where he was to spend seven months recuperating from his wounds.

In late 1943 he returned was invited to teach on the faculty of the military officers academy, Royal Ludovika Akademia, now led by Commandant General Farkas.

The Hungarian Scout Assocation had more than 300 troops of 18 year old and older young men at the time. The General and Béla renewed their acquaintance, and the General invited Béla to form a troop at the Academy for the young men, 19 years and older, and Béla accepted. Bela also became the voluntary Director of Leadership Development of the Hungarian Boy Scout Association, and he found a passion in training the young men in officer's leadership skills.

1943 top

The recreated statue of a Boy Scout honoring the 1933 Jamboree in Gödöllõ.

On October 17, 1943, a statue of a Boy Scout is erected in Gödöllõ, Hungary on the tenth anniversary of the 1933 World Jamboree. The work of the sculptor Lõrinc Siklôdy is located across from the Guard Barracks until 1948, when Communist forces, after liberating the country, occupy it and suppress Scouting.

1944-56 top

In late November 1944, as the advancing Russian Army prepared to encircle Budapest, Béla Bánáthy, his wife Eva and their sons, 1 year old Bela and two-week old Leslie, escaped into the countryside. Accompanying his commanding officer and other members of his unit, they found refuge in farmhouses, bunkers, trenches, haylofts, caves and whereever else they could find shelter. Bela left the family at times to serve with his unit. Austria was occupied by the Allies in April 1945, and Bela and his family finally crossed the border into Austria. For five years they lived in refugee camp of wooden barracks in a room 8x10 feet, serving as their living room, bedroom, kitchen and firewood storage. Their third son, Robert, was born in that camp with Bela's assistance. They subsisted on a 600-calorie per day diet for each of them. Béla traded for milk to give his boys enough protein.

Bela and his family was moved to another refugee camp, which turned out to be near a Marshall plan warehouse. Bela initially unloaded wheat sacks from railroad cars and later worked in the statistical office of the warehouse. While in the refuge camp, Bela organized a Scout troop and became active in church work. Bela contacted refugee relief organizations and the World Bureau of Scouting. He was able to develop support for youth programs and establish several scout troops in Austria.

In January 1951, the McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago sponsored Béla, Eva and their two sons Robert and Tibor. They emigrated to the United States, and Béla labored nights 60 hours a week in the cellar of a dormitory, shoveling coal to fire the furnace, learning English from a book. Bela occasionally preached at nearby Hungarian churches. Eva found work in a paper factory and Tibor, their third son, started attending American public school.

Meanwhile General Farkas visited the United States and his former adversaries, the United States Army. He recommended Béla Bánáthy as a Hungarian language instructor. In June, 1951, Béla arrived on the Monterey Peninsula and became a Hungarian Language Instructor. Eva initially found work in a restaurant.

Joe Szentkiralyi (later Americanized as "St. Clair"), had founded the Hungarian Language Department in 1948. Joe's family had been present in the United States before the outbreak of World War II, and were forcibly deported back to Hungary. Joe's family survived the war and eventually found their way to the Monterey Peninsula and the Army Language School, later the Defense Language Institute, where in 1951 Béla's and Joe's wives rediscover a girlhood friendship from Budapest. As the two immigrant men become involved in American Scouting, they meet Maury Tripp who had also attended the 1933 Jamboree, and a fifth Scouter, Fran Petersen.

In 1956, having obtained citizenship, and with the aid of a Senator and the World Council of Churches, Bela and Eva were able to bring sons Bela and Leslie from behind the Iron Curtain after nine years of separation. Paul Sujan arrived at the Army Language School in 1956.

1957-58 top

Béla Bánáthy continues his interest in leadership development and organizes an experimental troop consisting of two patrols for the purpose of trying out a leadership development program conceived by him. Bánáthy takes one patrol to camp in 1957 and tested his idea that would become White Stag with two patrols and John Chiorini as SPL in 1958. He is Chairman of the Leadership Training Committee of the Monterey Bay Area Council, Boy Scouts of America. This initial experiment takes place at the Pico Blanco Boy Scout Reservation, in summer 1958, which will remain the site of the program through 1978. The "White Stag" is chosen by Béla as the symbol of the program.

1959 top

Encouraged by the success of this experiment and because of the lack of adequate official intensive and long-range junior leader training program, the Monterey Bay Area Council decides to use Bánáthy's design as a council-wide program. On June 8, 1956, the program was christened "White Stag" and formally organized. The first full-scale program takes place in the summer of 1959 with Bánáthy as Scoutmaster, Fran Petersen as Assistant Scoutmaster (Training), an adult staff of eight and a youth staff of 13, with John Chiorini as the Senior Patrol Leader. The Troop consists of 39 trainees from 24 troops. In the first two years of the program, the training of Patrol Leaders is stressed.

Also during the second year, Bánáthy's research efforts reveal an interest in leadership development by the U.S. Army's Human Resources Research Office (HumRRO). Bánáthy initiates contact with Paul Hood, a research psychologist and Task Leader of Task NCO for  HumRRO. A research team which Hood is heading publishes A Guide for the Infantry Squad Leader--What the Beginning Squad Leader Should Know About Human Relations (1959). This publication contributes greatly to elaboration of the leadership tasks, as Bánáthy finds its conceptual basis fully complimentary with his program. By this time Bánáthy focuses his research on leadership development and formalizes his efforts in his Master's Thesis at San Jose State University.

Bob Perin, Assistant National Director, Volunteer Training Service, Boy Scouts of America, a friend of Béla's, provides guidance and acts as a liaison to the National Council. Mr. Bánáthy is continually aided and supported by Fran Petersen, who is active on both the local and national levels.

Bánáthy continues as Program Director through 1964.

1960 top

At the end of the 1959 intensive summer camp event, it is announced that in the following year a two-phase program will be offered: one for the 12-14 year age group, with the objective of training Patrol Leaders in the patrol method; and another for the 14-17 year age group to train "junior trainers and impart leadership skills."

1961-65 top

During this period of time, the present three phase/three-level plan emerges in which Phase I imparts Patrol Membership skills, Phase II Patrol Leader skills, and Phase III Troop Leader skills. Each phase has a candidate (learner or trainee) level, a youth staff level, and an adult staff level.

1962 top

An advisory board of educators, psychologists, management specialists and members of the Scout professional staff is formed, chaired by Dr. R. Maurice Tripp. Dr. Maury Tripp is a research scientist and member of the National Council, BSA. As a member of the National Training Committee, he is key in attacting the interest of the National Council. (Dr. Tripp was a lifelong inventor, academic, and scientist. He had a lifelong devotion to the Boy Scouts of America. He served the Scouting movement at all levels, from local adult leader to member of the National Council.)

Explorer Post 122 is established, in which young men conduct research on leadership development. Bánáthy is advisor, Ted Minnis is Committee Chairman, and Markham Johnston is Institutional Representative.

1963 top

The Monterey Bay Area Council publishes Bánáthy's book, A Design for Leadership Development in Scouting, an expanded version of his master's thesis for San Jose State University. This book becomes the main source of information and guidance for the program. In developing his ideas on leadership development, Bánáthy receives continued scientific support from Hood, then stationed at the Presidio of Monterey.

Dr. Tripp presents a paper entitled, "Development of Leadership in Boy Leaders of Boys" at the Fifty-Third Annual Meeting of the National Council, BSA. He advocates leadership development by design in Scouting, based on the leadership competencies of White Stag.

A patrol of Scouts from the San Mateo County Council and a few boys from the Circle Ten Council in Dallas attend White Stag summer camp. The boys from Dallas are part of an experimental pilot program to take the White Stag program nationwide.

1963-64 top

Through the efforts of Maury Tripp, Bob Perin, and Fran Petersen, the National Council takes an early interest in Bánáthy's ideas. The Research Service of the BSA sends observers to Pico Blanco: Ken Wells (Director of Research Service) and John Larson (Staff Researcher).

They evaluate the local experiment, and in January of 1964 a number of key individuals assemble at Asilomar in Pacific Grove, California. The purpose is to acquaint the national council with the new design and plan for effective teaching of the skills of leadership within the design of Scouting, in a manner "similar to the way we teach Scoutcraft skills."

In attendance from National are Ken Wells; Walt Whidden (Region 12 Executive); Bill Lawrence (National Director of Volunteer Training); Marshall Monroe (Assistant National Scout Executive); Harold Hunt (Vice President of the National Council and Professor of Education at Harvard); Ellsworth Augustus (National Council President); Jack Rhey (National Director of Professional Training); and Bob Perin (National Training Representative).

Attending from the local council are Fran Petersen, (member of the White Stag Advisory Board, Scoutmaster in Chular, and member of the National Engineering Service); Ralph Herring (member of the White Stag Committee); Ferris Bagley (a retired businessman with an interest in leadership development); Béla Bánáthy (Director of White Stag and Director of the East Europe and Middle East Division of the Army Language School); Tom Moore (Monterey Bay Area Council Executive); Dale Hirt (President of the Monterey Bay Area Council); Paul Hood (Research Scientist at HumRRO); John Barr (Chairman of the Department of Education at San Jose State University); Joe St. Clair, (Chairman, Hungarian Department at the Army Language School on the Presidio and MBAC Training Committee Chairman); Judson Stull; R. Maurice Tripp (Chairman, White Stag Advisory Committee; member, Boy Scout Committee, National Council, and organizer of this conference); and a few Scouts from the local council who provide personal testimony about the program.

This conference marks the beginning of a long process that eventually results not only in the redesigning of Junior Leader Training for the BSA, but also a new approach to the Wood Badge Adult Scouter Training Plan.

The San Mateo County Council joins the program, and a total of 80 Scouts participate.

The 1964-65 director is Fran Petersen.

1965 top

This is the first year in which the three-phase/three-level program is presented. The National Council selects the training of Scoutmasters in Wood Badge as the first area of national application of the White Stag Leadership Development design. The application is designed by Bánáthy, Perin and Larson.

The Silver Stag Award to recognize outstanding contributions by youth and adult staff members is established.

George Toole becomes Director for the years 1965-67.

1967 top

The Wood Badge program is laboratory tested in June at the Schiff Scout Reservation in New Jersey and at the Philmont Scout Ranch, New Mexico. Rex Hatch from the Indianapolis Council likes what he sees at Philmont and returns to Ohio to found a junior leader training program based on the White Stag principles.

Fran Petersen returns as co-director, along with Judson Stull, for 1967-69.

1967-77 top

Leaders of the Mexican Scout movement ask Bánáthy to guide them in the adaptation of the White Stag program concept. In 1968, Salvador Fernandez, Director of Training of the World Bureau of the Boy Scouts, visits the White Stag Camp at Pico Blanco. Appointed to the subcommittee of the Interamerican Scout Committee, Bánáthy participates in three Interamerican Train the Trainer events in Mexico, Costa Rica, and Venezuela. He assists their national training teams in designing leadership development by design programs.

Nationally, the program is experimented with. From the 1974 TLD Staff Guide:

The first [summer camp] experience was conducted at the Schiff Scout Reservation in June 1967, using the Wood Badge as a vehicle to transmit this information and concept to participants selected from nine councils across the country. This first experience, although very crude, produced enthusiastic participants, and it was not long before five of these councils were selected to conduct experimental Wood Badge sessions using a careful monitoring and evaluating plan to develop further input into this leadership development concept.

1968 top

The National Leadership Development Project is formally established for the purpose of continuing experimentation and developing a program suitable for nation-wide application. Following its revision it was field tested in five councils. The experimental national leadership program is field tested in five councils. The testing is implemented by John Larson, advised by a committee chaired by Béla Bánáthy. They also establish the goal of infusing the principles inherent in White Stag, including that of "leadership development by design," into the national training program.

An experimental Wood Badge course (#25-2, Fort Ord, California, January and February, 1968) is conducted by the Monterey Bay Area Council. The course director is Joe St. Clair; the course evaluator, R. Maurice Tripp. It is one of five councils that have been selected by National council for field testing of the revised Wood Badge program.

The two new co-directors are Frank Masamori and Darrel Minten, who will serve for 1969-70.

1969 top

The Boy Scout World Bureau (Geneva, Switzerland) publishes a paper by Béla Bánáthy under the title, "Leadership Development," Scout Reference Paper #1. This paper (reproduced in "World Scouting Reference Paper No. 1--Leadership Development") is instrumental in spreading the philosophy of White Stag to Scout organizations outside the United States. Bánáthy makes a presentation of "Leadership Development by Design" at the Helsinki, Finland conference of the worldwide Scout movement.

In the meantime, the "Monterey Bay experiment" attracts interested observers and participants from councils in California and other states. This marks the beginning of long and fruitful cooperation with many Scouts and Scouters from outside the Monterey Bay Area Council.

According to the 1974 TLD Staff Guide,

By 1969 it was determined to expand leadership development to junior leader training in ... five local councils. It proved to be successful, but the experimentation did not stop here. The Rockefeller Brothers Fund was approached to underwrite continued experimentation and evaluation at the two national junior leader instructor training areas located at the Philmont Scout Ranch in New Mexico and the Schiff Scout Reservation in New Jersey.

1970 top

This year is a milestone in the history of White Stag. Three young adults, Jim Said, Bill Roberts, and George St. Clair, who serve as Scoutmasters in the Troop Leadership Development program (Phase III) this year have come up through the ranks. Each completed the candidate levels first before serving as adult leaders. In subsequent years, many more will follow in their footsteps.

Frank Masamori continues as sole Director for 1970, '71 and '72.

1971 top

According to the 1974 TLD Staff Guide,

In 1971 more than 800 young men aged 13-17 experienced the leadership development idea at Philmont. This was evaluated by volunteers during a five-day conference held at the Rayado site on the Philmont Ranch. The unanimous decision of this group was to move ahead with leadership development.

The National Council commits to a national program.

1972 top

The leadership development by design concept and the competencies are fully integrated into the national Wood Badge curriculum and is represented in every course conducted that year.

The program implemented by the National Council is evaluated by an outside source. The 1974 TLD Staff Guide reports that:

In the summer of 1972 the people associated with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund requested that this program be evaluated by an outside source; hence the Management Analysis Center of Cambridge, Mass., was contracted to make an independent analysis of this experience by interviewing participants, staff members, and parents to determine Scouts' attitudes toward understanding the different aspects of leadership before and after they had completed this program.

In their report, the Management Analysis Center indicated that the educational methods being used in leadership development are consistent with both the current state of knowledge concerning the conditions under which people learn most effectively and within the current practice in the best leadership development programs available to managers in both public and private organizations.

1973 top

This is the first year a young man who started as a candidate will serve as Director: Jim Said. In the same year, two of three Phase Scoutmasters (Paul Davis and Larry Challis) have participated in the program as trainees.

1974 top

The National Council publishes Troop Leader Development Staff Guide (1974), #6544, which credits White Stag with its origins (pages 91-92):

Back in the 1950's the armed forces of the United States became concerned about the quality of leadership among noncommissioned officers. Experiments were carried out in noncommissioned officer schools at Fort Hood in California. Several Scouters from the Monterey Bay Area Council learned of this program and designed a junior leadership training experience using some of the competencies or skills of leadership identified in this Army training, and it was known as the "White Stag" program. [While this paragraph implies the Army research was the genisis for White Stag, this is incorrect. —Editor]

This program came to the attention of the Boy Scouts of America through a member of the national Scouting committee [Ken Wells, Director of Research Service]. As a result of several conferences, it was felt there were grounds for the Research Service to take a closer look at this White Stag program to determine the value of this approach to adult and boy leader growth.

By the mid-1960's a "blueprint for action" had been developed and approved through the Research Service to continue experimentation in the leadership development concept for adult and boy leaders...

By 1969 it was determined to expand leadership development to junior leader training in these five local councils. It proved to be successful, but the experimentation did not stop here. The Rockefeller Brothers Fund was approached to underwrite continued experimentation and evaluation at the two national junior leader instructor training areas located at the Philmont Scout Ranch in New Mexico and the Schiff Scout Reservation in New Jersey.

In 1971 more than 800 young men aged 13-17 experienced the leadership development idea at Philmont. This was evaluated by volunteers during a five-day conference held at the Rayado site on the Philmont Ranch. The unanimous decision of this group was to move ahead with leadership development.

This program is now mandated for use by every council in the United States.

Jean Petersen, Jackie Espinoza, and Terry Masamori are the first women to receive a support staff neckerchief.

The program once again welcomes Fran Petersen as Director, and he serves for 1974, '75 and '76.

1975 top

In another milestone, Troop Leadership Development Scoutmaster Bill Roberts invites young women into the program on the trainee and youth staff levels. The first female candidates are Rhonda Espinosa, daughter of long-time Morgan Hill Troop 799 Scoumaster John Espinosa; Jean Miller, sister to a Level III Youth Staff Fred Miller; and Michelle House, niece to Phase III Scoutmaster Paul Davis. Virginia Hutchins is the first female to serve on a program level as adult staff.

Women have played an important and significant role in White Stag from its very beginnings. Up to this time, however, they served only on the Steering Committee, the highest policy-making body in the program.

1976 top

The Phase I, Patrol Member Development, Scoutmaster, Wynne Hutchings, is also Senior Patrol Leader of the Monterey Bay Area Council Brownsea II course.

1976-77 top

Eighteen White Stag leaders attend Wood Badge, which is presented using the White Stag leadership competencies and methods. In 1976, Myron Haas, Foster Thompson, Rob Eidsen, John Espinoza, Paul Davis and Bill Ray attend. On staff are Holiday Neafus, Wynne Hutchings, and Bob Moger. In 1977 (WE-3-25-8), other attendees are: Margarete Davis, Rodger Hudson, Brian Phelps, Leonard and Mary Williams, Ron Anderson, Jody Stearns. On staff are Kris Anderson (Coach Counselor) and Bob Moger (the Course Director).

The Monterey Peninsula Herald publishes an article about the program in its Weekend Edition magazine section.

1977 top

A triumvirate are Directors this year: Paul Davis, Wynne Hutchings and Jean Kochems.

1978 top

The Monterey Bay Area Council decides to discontinue White Stag as part of its official council training program, substituting in its place the Troop Leader Development plan. At the end of the same year, the White Stag Steering Committee decides to organize the adult leaders of White Stag and their friends into the White Stag Association. At the same time, the youth staff form White Stag Youth Leadership Development Explorer Post 258. The Association is sponsor. The Post is officially chartered the same year.

Paul Davis solos as Director during the 1977-79 program years.

1979 top

For the first time in the history of White Stag, the intensive summer camp event is held outside Pico Blanco Scout Reservation at the Skylark Girl Scout Ranch in the Santa Cruz mountains. Later in the year, the 1979 Indaba is held at Cutter Scout Reservation, the site of the summer camp for the next several years.

The year is marked by intensive efforts to tighten the organizational framework of the program, including the White Stag Association and friends of the program. The publication of the White Stag Challenge is resumed. In an effort to revive old traditions, the Explorer Post asks for and receives permission to change its numerical designation to 122, the number under which the original White Stag Post functioned in the early 1960's (focusing on research for leadership development). The Post Advisor then was Béla Bánáthy; Ted Minnis was Committee Chairman; and Markham Johnston was the Institutional Representative. Ted is Institutional Representative this year, and Markham is a member of the Post 122 committee; Béla joins the Association.

The national council publishes Troop Leader Training Conference Staff Guide (1979), #6535, to replace the TLD Staff Guide and "also provide the Scoutcraft skills experiences of Brownsea Double Two." This revision dilutes the previous emphasis on the leadership competency curriculum and on the training troop experience.

1980 top

The first woman, Margarete Sujan, is Advisor (what had been called Scoutmaster) of Phase II, Patrol Leader Development. The Post Committee commits to a concept of total youth involvement in all phases of post operation. Paul (Uncle Paul) Sujan, Quartermaster since the program's inception, supervises the equipment section; Peggy Hudson, in her third year as commissary director, has several youth assisting her; youth members from each phase assist in registration and finance.

The fiftieth Silver Stag awards are presented to youth and adult staff members, recognized by their peers for their outstanding contributions and qualities of leadership, spirit and service to the program.

Long-time Morgan Hill Troop 799 Scoutmaster Mr. E (John Espinoza) is Director for 1979-80.

1980-82 top

A man who has not been active in White Stag for many years is invited back, upon his "retirement," to assume leadership in a difficult transition period: Wayne Rosenoff is Director for two critical years as the program adjusts to operating without the support of the local council.

1982 top

Post President Deirdre Morgan becomes the (Northern California) Area III Explorer Chairwoman. She receives the National Exploring Leadership Award at the Area III Explorer President's Congress. It is presented by the Monterey Bay Area Council in recognition of her contributions to the Council Exploring Presidents Association (EPA). Post member Iain Morgan is the Monterey Bay Area Council representative to the Western Region EPA.

The Explorer Post 122 White Stag Youth Leadership Development is rechartered to the White Stag Youth Leadership Development Association, now incorporated as a tax-exempt (501(C)3) organization. Seven board members are elected: Peggy Hudson, Chairman and President; Brian Phelps, First Vice-President; Foster Thompson, Second Vice-President; Paul Davis, Third Vice-President; Susan Morgan, Secretary; Sheila Hutchings, Treasurer; and Joe St. Clair, member-at-large. Peggy Hudson declines to serve, as her family is leaving the Monterey Bay Area. Joe St. Clair is next asked to serve as President; he accepts, and Ian Morgan is elected to serve as the seventh member of the board.

John Chiorini, the White Stag program's first Senior Patrol Leader, now Vice President, Training and Development, of Mellonics (Litton Industries), in Sunnyvale, accepts chairmanship of the Twenty-Fifth Reunion Celebration. A database of all past members is begun and over 2000 people are initially mailed invitations.

Brian Phelps is the new 1982-84 Director.

1983 top

Post President Barbara Clough is selected by the Monterey Bay Area Council to attend the National Explorer's Congress in Dallas, Texas in April. The Post elects to organize a Campfire group for its members less than the minimum age (14) for Post membership. The President of the Monterey Bay Area Council Explorer President's Association is Post 122 Vice-President Tim Tuscany.

Paul Davis is elected Assocation Board President.

Over 150 people attend the 25th Anniversary Indaba held at Grant Ranch near Morgan Hill. An informal group meets and begins to talk about the next twenty-five years: What will White Stag Leadership Development do to meet this challenge?

In a closing address, former Director Jim Said offers a challenge:

The doubling time for information has gone from 100 years to a mere five years. In the next 25 years this time will shorten at an ever-increasing rate... Those who will secure the future of White Stag must make themselves known... The task before us is not an easy one. Some of you will succeed and impart that which you have learned effectively to others. I challenge you, when the cry "Follow me" rings out, answer it.

A subcommittee is formed to begin analyzing strategies and alternatives.

1985-86 top

Dave Stein assumes the role of Program Director. Camp is held at Cutter Scout Reservation for the next five years.

1987-89 top

Scott Weylan becomes Program Director for 1987-89.

1990-92 top

Bill Southam, himself a Scout in White Stag participant and youth staff leader in the 1960s, accepts the challenge and becomes Program Director for 1990-92.

Camp Cutter is unavailable and the program returns to Skylark Girl Scout Camp on the San Mateo coast while a more suitable site is scouted out.

Béla Bánáthy,a long-standing member of the Hungarian Scout Association Abroad, returns to Hungary following its renewed freedom. He helps restart the Hungarian Scout Association. Hungary is the first formerly Soviet block country to win readmission to the World Scout Conference.

1992 top

Camp Marin Sierra, off Highway 80 near Nevada City, is secured as the site of the summer program. Fees are set at $150, or $135 for early registration.

1993-94 top

Phil Smith, a veteran of 17 years continuous activity in White Stag, is named Program Director for 1993-94.

1994 top

The Boy Scout
The Boy Scout

Democracy is reestablished in Hungary. The idea emerges of setting the statue of a Boy Scout, once across from the Guard Barracks in Gödöllõ back in its place. After a long search, it is established that the original statue by Lõrinc Siklôdy cannot be found. A committee established for erecting the statue decides to have Zsigmond Kisfaludy Strobl's statuette entitled The Boy Scout enlarged. The enlargement of the 50 cm high statuette is completed by a student of Kisfaludy Strobl, Istvân Paâl. The new statue of a Boy Scout standing on the original pedestal is unveiled on April 23, 1994, commemorating once again the 1933 World Jamboree.

Back in the United States, the leadership of Patrol Member Development commit to two complete troops for the next program year. Camp is set for August 14-20 at Camp Marin Sierra. In the end, two Patrol Leader Development troops along with a single Patrol Member Development troop and a single Troop Leader Development troop are trained.

To the south, the Monterey Bay Area Council invites local White Stag alumni to provide the council's Troop Leader Training program using the White Stag method. The alumni set June 14-20 as the date for a second camp to be held at Camp Pico Blanco. A new generation of youth staff are trained in the White Stag method. Later that summer 87 candidates once again attend White Stag Leadership Development at Camp Pico Blanco led by Program Director Steve Cardinalli. The adult staff once again stand at The Rock to receive their neckerchiefs.

1995 top

A White Stag is engraved in a six-foot redwood log and a plaque are dedicated at Camp Pico Blanco commemorating the founding of White Stag by Béla Bánáthy, Joe St. Clair, Paul Sujan, and Fran Petersen.

Steve Cardinelli continues to serve as Program Director for the Pico camp through 1997.

1996 top

Two camps are again held, one in June at Pico and the second in August in the Sierra Nevada. Over 300 individuals receive training in the White Stag program that summer.

The eleven leadership competencies continue to be taught to thousands of participants in the Wood Badge training program each year.

1997 top

Three of the founding fathers of the White Stag program gather at a reunion and a dedication of the plaque at Pico Blanco Scout Reservation. Béla Bánáthy, Joe St. Clair, and Uncle Paul Sujan are present--only ill health keeps Fran Petersen away. The leaders from both summer camp programs are present. Bánáthy issues a ten point challenge to a new generation of What Stag leaders outlining a future vision for the program.

Inquiries are received from individuals and groups in distant locations in California requesting assistance in creating a White Stag program in their local area.

In early fall, a group of past and present program leaders gather at the Presidio of Monterey to chart the future of the White Stag program.

1998 top

Nearly 140 candidates attend the summer camp program in Pico Blanco and 80 youth attend camp at Camp Marin Sierra. Eight youth from the Redding area participate on staff as they move towards launching the new White Stag program in the northern reaches of California.

Two books--Follow the White Stag and Resources for Leadership-- are republished, detailing the program and the leadership competencies. These help to make the ideals and ideas of White Stag Leadership Development and the competencies available to future generations.

1999 top

Summer camp at Pico Blanco sells out for the first time in several years. Over 176 candidates are preregistered.


The council in Chico, California, commits to a Junior Leader Training program incorporating the White Stag methods. The first camp is held in summer 2001. Jon Wren is Program Director. This becomes the third location that the White Stag methods are officially implemented, the second where the program is incorporated directly into the Council's JLT program.

The National Council began to look at how JLT might more follow closely follow the Wood Badge program. White Stag Director Steve Cardinalli serves on the JLT Task Force who are given the charge of revising junior leader training.


For the first time ever, camp is cancelled part way through the week when a wildfire sweeps through Tahoe National Forest. Scouts are evacuated to a school in Truckee and everyone is reunited with their parents and families without incident.

Of 29 particpants who attend Junor Leader Training in Chico, 25 sign up for staff for the next year.


Co-founder Fran Peterson passes away. In 1959, during the second year of the program, Fran Petersen had been Assistant Scoutmaster (Training) for White Stag. He remained with the program for another 15 years, serving in various capacities, and returned again later on. Fran has been instrumental in attracting the attention of the National BSA Council Training Committee to White Stag. The National BSA later adapted the White Stag model as a nation-wide model for junior leader training.


The program lost two great leaders. Béla H. Bánáthy, educator, researcher and author, had a lifelong involvement with the Boy Scouts. The genesis was the 1933 Boy Scout World Jamboree in Hungary. At that Jamboree, Lord Baden Powell, the chief of the Boy Scout Movement, inspired him through his message of forever seeking and following the ideal.

Another long-time friend was lost when Paul Sujan died. Paul was a young Sea Scout attending the 1933 World Jamboree when Boy Scouts founder, Lord Robert Baden-Powell, rode into his camp and tasted his stew. Paul served as Quartermaster during White Stag Leadership Development camp every summer from 1957 to 1996.


Leaders from the MBAC White Stag course ran an additional White Stag program.  This program was open to girls only, sponsored by the Girl Scouts of Monterey but conducted by Crew 122. Open to ages 11-18 and was held at Cutter.  Steve Cardinalli was Director, Gary Casper Phase 1 Scoutmaster, Carmen Gonzalez was Phase 2 Scoutmaster, and John Donnelly was the Phase 3 Scoutmaster. This course ran as a Girl Scout-based “White Stag” training for 2004 and 2005.

The Pico White Stag course ran concurrently under the Directorship of Jeff Harber.

White Stag Director Steve Cardinalli is asked to serve on the National Task Force that is charged with updating the junior leader training program.

2006 top

Once again, the garrison flag flew over the lake at Cutter: Steve Cardinalli was Director, Wynn Kagamaya led Phase 1, Craig Kennedy led Phase 2 and Tim Pecka led Phase 3.

The Girl Scouts of Monterey adapted the White Stag program and called it Artimas.  It is the first leadership training course opportunity for Monterey Bay Area Girl Scouts.

White Stag at Cutter had 70 candidate participants.

The Monterey Bay Area Council planned to run the national youth training NYLT in 2006 but cancelled the course and sent their boys to the Pacific Skyline Council NYLT training course.


To satisfy local council needs, White Stag is studying how to offer NYLT as an adjunct to the rest of our program. Over 100 candidates attend White Stag at Cutter.

Preparations are begun to observe the 50th anniversary of the program in 2008.

[1] This history was initially based on A History of White Stag Leadership Development by Joe St. Clair, 1978. 8pp. Béla Bánáthy also made significant contributions to this record.

[2] From the Public Relations Department, Baden-Powell House, London, England.

[3] As reported in The Scouter, England's Scouting Association magazine, September, 1933.

[4] According to Béla, "Vitez" is the name of a military order established by the Regent of Hungary. Members of the order were selected based on their heroism during the First World War. (Vitez means hero.) These where "knighted" by the Regent. Béla says, "My father was a member of the order and I, as the oldest son, inherited the title." (From the   Pine Tree Web, by Lew Orans.)

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