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Dictionary of Southern Appalachian English

Dictionary: Southern Appalachian English

Note to the Reader: The following entries provide further documentation on highlighted words and phrases in the transcripts.  Each one includes a definition, etymological information (including cross-references to historical dictionaries, using the abbreviations below), and further dated quotations keyed to sources listed chronologically at the end of this file.

For further information and quotations on all terms, see Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English, ed. by Michael B. Montgomery and Joseph S. Hall. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2004.

Abbreviations:

DARE = Dictionary of American Regional English, ed. by Frederic G. Cassidy et al. 1985-  . Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
EDD = English Dialect Dictionary, ed. by Joseph S. Wright. 1898-1905. Oxford: Henry Frowde.
OED = Oxford English Dictionary, ed. by James A. H. Murray et al. 1888-1928. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
SND = Scottish National Dictionary, ed. by William Grant and David Murison, 1931-1976. Edinburgh: Scottish National Dictionary Association.

Note: In the etymologies, the Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) period lasted until A.D. 1100, the Middle English period from 1100-1500.

 

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A

a indefinite article (usually pronounced [ə] or uh) Used in place of an before a vowel sound.
       1937 Hall Coll. Grandfather came here on a ox wagon.  1939 Hall Coll. (Little Cataloochee NC) And the bear sort of made a ugly fuss, and finally [John] hollered pretty loud to try to scare the bear away.  1969 GSMNP-44:27 The powder would flash, and then they was a instant before the gun would fire.  1973 GSMNP-61:3 We used to have a organ, and we don't have it there anymore.  1975 GSMNP-59:33 [It] maybe might have been a epidemic of whooping cough or measles or something like that.

a-¹ prefix Added to present participles of verbs, especially in narrating a story. [from reduction of the Old English preposition on/an, as reflected in on fire => afire, first attested as a- in 1523, see OED a Preposition 13; DARE labels this usage "throughout U.S., but especially frequent in Midland, Southwest; less frequent in South, New England" in the U.S.]
       1784 Lipscomb Journal 275 Manley & Toney went a Hunting to a lick near that spring where Manley made an attack on a large Buck.  1798 Big Pigeon Minutes [T]heare is a report in Circulation that Henry Stiers is apt to drink too Excess and has been a gambeling.  1834 Crockett Narrative 159 I determined to get home to them, or die a-trying.  1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) Way back I guess forty year ago, there was a crowd of us going up Deep Creek a-deer driving.  1939 Hall Coll. (Little Cataloochee NC) Johnny ran down the hill a-aimin' to go to his uncle's.  1940 Haun Hawk's Done 150 He came a-footing it on in home.  1964 Williams Prepositions Mt Speech 53 Not always clearly a preposition, however, a is sometimes used for what would seem to be rhythmical purposes: "and me a not a-knowin' a thang about it and a nuver a-cyurin' much."  1973 GSMNP-79:1:13 I noticed two older girls a-eatin' something out of a little syrup bucket.  1981 GSMNP-122:25 Wilford was kind of sick his last years a-teachin'.

a-² prefix Added to past participles of verbs. [perhaps from Middle English y-, from Old English ge-; cf OED a- preposition 6 and a- particle, first attested in 14th century; OED calls this "now a relic form in southwest England"; DARE labels it "chiefly Midland, South" in the U.S.]
       1937 Hall Coll. You were a-scared of that place?  c1950 (in 2000 Oakley Roamin Man 71) She is for flying in a airplane to git there in a hurry but I am ascared to fly and I tell her I am not in that big of a hurry.  1954 GSMNP-19:6 Now they's people gets lost in these Smoky Mountains specially before the park has a-opened up so many bridle trails.  1969 GSMNP-46:1 I would get [the cattle] a-gentled up and then I put the yoke on them.

a-back of (also back of) preposition Behind. [from Old English on bæcc; OED aback adverb 4 labels this usage now "obsolete"; EDD labels it "Scotland, northern England" in Britain]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) They was out of hearing a-going out just a-back of Round Top.  1975 Gainer Speech Mtneer 6 = back. "The well is a-back of the house."

agin preposition Against.
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 77 I've seed hit blow here on top of Smoky till a hoss couldn't stand up agin it.  1939 Hall Coll. (Wears Cove TN) It's strictly agin the law to set a trap out in a trail.  1969 GSMNP-27:7 That scared them bears and they tore loose and they just run agin that door.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. X-2 I haven't got anything agin it, but I wouldn't know.  1989 Smith Flyin' Bullets 13 "I won't give ye no more trouble. I ain't got nothin' agin ye," pleaded Jake as he lay looking up at the face of the Sheriff.

ahold (also aholt) noun Hold. [probably a indefinite article + hold "grasp"; OED labels this usage "colloquial or dialect" in Britain]
       1940 Haun Hawk's Done 57 I took a-hold of his neck and watched his foot.  1962 Dykeman Tall Woman 23 Our troops got to keep a-holt of it till the Rebs surrender, ma'am.  1964 Stokely Harvest 153 [I w]isht I could find some way to git a-holt of some money.

along adverb Approximately, somewhere, sometime (usually followed by a prepositional phrase or an adverb). [according to the OED, this usage probably developed in the U.S. in the 19th century]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Sugarlands TN) Along back about the time the park started in here, why this country round here where I'm a-living now was just settled up thick.  1954 GSMNP-19:18 I went up one night with them to go a-fox hunting along in the autumn.  1975 GSMNP-59:17 He had two brothers that was ... hid along down on the road that they had to go, and that was why that he knowed that they wouldn't get out with him.  1981 Weals Gourmet Hogs Along when the leaves begin to turn, then we got to wanting to go hunt wild game, you know.  1997 GSMNPOHP Along about Friday we'd have spelling bees.

and subordinating conjunction What with, while, because, despite the fact that (introducing a verb-less clause usually interpretable as having the implied form  being). [Scotland and Ireland; probably from the influence of Irish or Scottish Gaelic agus "and"]
       1834 Crockett Narrative 40 [I] was, of course, left with no money, and but very few clothes, and them very indifferent ones.  1939 Hall Coll. (Sylva NC) That woman is doin' too much work, and her in a family way.  1941 Justus Kettle Creek 98 It does seem a pity that the hens have about stopped laying now and it Christmas time.  1956 Hall Coll. (Del Rio TN) He would steal the hat off your head and you a-lookin' at him.  1976 Carter Little Tree 75 Granpa said that he couldn't have done any better hisself, and him going on seventy odd years.  1985 Wear Lost Communities 23 He married them and them sitting there in the buggy.  1994 Schmidt and Hooks Whistle 140 And she took that pig out and hugged that pig and it just a-squealin' like one thing.

a-straddle adverb Having the legs spread apart across the top of (an object).
       1939 Hall Coll. A honeymoon in that day and time was a ride a-straddle of a rail.  1970 Foster Walker Valley 48 He was as close to that till he grabbed it by the back leg and it a straddle of that log.

atter Pronunciation of after. [DARE labels this “chiefly South, Midland”]
    1859 Taliaferro Fisher's River 51 True, he had many obstinate competitors, but he distanced them all farther than he did the numerous snakes that "run arter him."  1956 Hall Coll. (Newport TN) They asked the boys what was wrong, and they said the devil was atter 'em.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews 194 Atter we got our wheat sowed and everything in the cove is when we done our bear hunting. 

awful adjective Often of a person who has a fondness or propensity for doing a certain thing: good, excellent, extraordinary  [DARE labels this usage "southern Appalachians" in the U.S.]
       1931 Goodrich Mt Homespun 56 They do say it's the awfullest meetin' ever heard of.  1937 Hall Coll. (Ravensford NC) She's an awful hand to fish. (said of the legendary Mrs. Clem Enloe, who fished in the Park all year despite rules prohibiting this).  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) My daddy one time—he's an awful horse trader—he had an old wind sucker, one morning he got on him he said "I'll trade that thing if I don't get a bull yearling."  1939 Hall Coll. (Roaring Fork TN) We would have the awfullest time in the world ... He had the awfullest sight of apples I ever saw.  1939 Hall Coll. (Waldens Creek TN) He was the awfullest singer ever I heared.  1956 Hall Coll. (Mt. Sterling NC) His granddaddy was an awful hunter. He hunted bear a lot.  1969 Medford Finis 78, 149 Oh what "awful sermonts" he could preach—"awful" was the term usually used ... After they had gone on a few days, someone told me they wanted me to come, that they were having an "awful meetin'."  1976 GSMNP-114:28 I'm an awful Republican.  1981 GSMNP-121:35 I was an awful boy to hunt.  1981 Whitener Folk-Ways 40 "An awful generation of young'uns" = a large family.

ax verb Pronunciation of ask. [a form in continuous existence for over a thousand years; Anglo-Saxon had both   acsian and ascian for "to ask"; EDD labels this form "in general dialect use in Scotland, Ireland, England";  DARE labels it "now chiefly South, Midland" in the U.S.]
       1883 Zeigler and Grosscup Heart of Alleghanies 60 I heered the dogs a-comin' and knowed without axin' thet the bar war afore 'em.  1897 Brown Dialect Survivals 139 Ax for ask is still common ... it has an unbroken history from Anglo-Saxon days down to the present time. The Anglo-Saxon verb is acsian and axian as well as ascian1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 288 Ax for ask and kag for keg were the primitive and legitimate forms, which we trace as far back as the time of Layamon.  1939 Hall Coll. (Tuckaleechee Cove TN) They axed him how he ever got away from there, axed him where he stayed all night.  1953 Atwood Verbs East U.S. 5 In N.C. [ax] becomes much more common, reaching considerable concentrations in the western one fourth of [the state], where nearly all Type I informants use it.

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B

bear¹ noun pronounced bare [bæ] or, much more rarely, bar [ba]. [DARE labels both forms "chiefly South, Midland" in the U.S.]
       1942 Hall Phonetics 24 Old-timers of a former day may have said [baə] for bear, n., but I have never heard it. It is perhaps [æ] that some dialect writers seek to represent by the spelling   b'ar1978 Williams Appal Speech 175 In "bear," for example, as soon as b is articulated, blending begins. The result is a diphthong peculiar to mountain speech, which outsiders spell and pronounce "bar." However, it is not "bar," which, for the mountaineer is a castrated pig. Instead of a broad a, as the outsider would have it, the diphthong becomes vowelized in a glide from schwa to  r.

bear²noun plural form without -s. [probably by analogy to deer and the plural form of names of other wild animals]
       1956 Hall Coll. (Roaring Fork TN) There was three bear in that tree.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews 194 They weren't many bear back then ... They eat, bear eats mast, like acorns and chestnuts and hickory nuts.

bear sign noun Any indication of a bear's presence, specifically droppings, torn bushes, footprints, and other marks used by hunters to track a bear or to gauge its proximity.
       1904-07 Kephart Notebooks 4:749 Let's santer around in the laurel and see if we find any bear signs.  1926 Hunnicutt Twenty Years 40 My brother who had just come asked me if we had found any bear signs; I told him just plenty of them.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) And they found no bear signs to turn loose on, so they just turned [the dogs] all loose.  1953 Hall Coll. (Plott Creek NC) We had quite a time too getting our dogs through the bear sign in the orchard.  1959 Hall Coll. (Newport TN) Miss McSwain or some of them axed him how he could tell bear sign. He said, "Shit and tracks, madam."  1960 Burnett My Valley 22-23 Scouts went out to locate bear signs, and wherever bears are there are plenty of signs. As he travels in search of food the bear leaves his readily recognized tracks. Overturned rocks and demolished and torn-to-pieces logs line his routes of travel. He relishes grubs and honey. He is on the lookout for yellow jacket nests, and you may see where he digs for groundhogs. He likes to add grubs and honey and fresh meat to his diet of nuts. So, if he is using a given area or territory, he is sure to leave plenty of signs.

blood poison (also blood pizen) noun Blood poisoning.
       1937 Hall Coll. (Upper Cosby Creek TN) Catnip and beadwood bark are biled together and made into a poultice for blood pizen.  1939 Hall Coll. (Big Creek NC) They was a weed that they call wild indigo. You can take hit, and it'll stop blood poison. Take the roots and beat it up, put sweet milk in it, and put it on [the wound], and it'll draw it white and cure it up.

blowed verb past tense and past participle of blow. [OED dates this usage from the 16th century]
       1 (past-tense form) Blew.
       1834 Crockett Narrative 150 In the morning we concluded to go on with the boat to where a great harricane crossed the river, and blowed all the timber down into it.  1864 Forgotten Ancestors (Jefferson County, TN) 1 We got back to the regiment the other morning gest as they blowed the beugle for to get up.  1939 Hall Coll. (Mt. Sterling NC) [The dynamite] blowed Mr. Sullivan for something like a hundred yards I suppose, slapped him up again the face of another cliff.   1973 GSMNP-80:6 The wind blowed a sight in the world hard up there.
       2 (past-participle form) Blown. [DARE labels this form "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Mt. Sterling NC) [It was] nineteen and seven, December the fifteenth, when all those boys got blowed up on Big Creek on this logging job.  1980 Miles Verbs Haywood Co 88 And the snow had blowed in the door.  1981 Weals Becky Rewards She said she was going the way a big spruce pine had blowed down. It made her a pretty open route.

borned verb past participle of born.
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 355 "Borned in the kentry and ain't never been out o' hit" is all that most of them can say for themselves.  1939 Hall Coll. (Big Creek NC) I was borned up here in the foot of the Chestnut Mountain, in Tennessee.  1942 Hall Phonetics 92 [d] is added by most elderly speakers to akin and born1970 Burns Our Sthn Mtneers 12 On the other hand, they follow the modern trend and say "throwed", "growed", and "knowed", or go out of their way to be proper and say "borned" in June, "tosted" in the hay, or he "yelded" loud.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews 195 I was borned there in Cades Cove.

bresh Pronunciation of brush. [DARE labels this “chiefly South, South Midland”]
    1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 331 He removed to Pineville, in another county, under guard of the two armed men, both of whom were shot dead "from the bresh."  1939 Hall Coll. (Little Cataloochee NC) The little bresh cracked above him, and he looked around and saw the bear.

bulk noun The shape (of a person, animal, or thing), especially one obscured or disguised by darkness.
       1937 Hall Coll. (Emerts Cove TN) I keep my pistol in my pocket so as to hide the bulk of it.  1939 Hall Coll. (Hartford TN) The moon was a-shinin' bright. I seed somethin' squat down in the road, looked to be a good-sized bulk of somethin'.  1953 Hall Coll. (Bryson City NC) He said the bear come down the tree till it got where he could see the bulk of it.

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C

cap and ball gun noun A single-shot, long-barreled rifle that uses a percussion cap to fire its charge.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Gatlinburg TN) I had this old cap and ball gun. Well, I was just a little bit choicey and I didn't want to just shoot one and all the rest of the flock would fly away.  1960 Burnett My Valley 48 She was a splendid shot, and even after her husband and hunting sons had acquired modern rifles, she used her old cap and ball muzzle-loading rifle.  1967 Campbell Memories of Smoky 190 My father was a good hunter, and took good care of his rifle gun. He often cut new rifles in the barrel. He changed it from a flintlock to a cap and ball gun.

catched verb past tense and past participle of catch. [OED dates this usage from the 16th century]
       1 (past-tense form) Caught.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Big Bend NC) He'd kill Carl Miller if he ever catched him.  1969 GSMNP-38:148 And where he catched that sheep you could hear them talk about that ridge today.  1981 GSMNP-122:45 He's the one that catched the most bears of anybody I know about.
       2 (past-participle form) Caught.
       1937 Hall Coll. (Cades Cove TN) I didn't want to be catched in the rain an' no shelter.  1957 GSMNP-23:1:21 I never could believe Art would have catched him in a bear pen ... lots of people did but I didn't believe it.

choicey adjective Choosy, particular.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Gatlinburg TN) I had this old cap and ball gun. Well, I was just a little bit choicey, and I didn't want to just shoot one and all the rest of the flock would fly away.  1974 Fink Bits Mt Speech 4 = particular, fastidious. "You needn't be so choicey about it."

chunk of fire noun A burning coal, the burning end of a piece of wood. [DARE labels chunk "chiefly South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Burnett Gap o' Mts 3 This was the age when a man walked a mile to borrow a chunk of fire, and when the latch string always hung on the outside of the door.  1958 GSMNP-110:34 The big chunks burnt out, and it looked like a small spark wouldn't catch.

come verb past tense of come. [OED dates this usage from the 14th century]
       1834 Crockett Narrative 156 I put in, and waded on till I come to the channel, where I crossed that on a high log.  1871 Tuckaleechee Cove Minutes 4 [T]here was a door opened for the reseption of members and Sister Nancy Hannah Brickey come to the Church and was received by Esperience.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) He just laid his gun down, went right in with the dogs, and here come the bear down the tree just jumping down thataway.  1954 GSMNP-19:5 All at once something come dashing in a dark thicket. It may have been a bear, but I thought it was a wolf or something or other.  1973 GSMNP-5:12 These women [and] children would all bunch at one place, and they would put me in the front room, and so if any boogers come they would get me first.

come up verb phrase To grow up. [DARE labels this phrase "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Smokemont NC) I've been here in these mountains ever since I reared up, just come up.   1973 GSMNP-83:5-8 I come up the hard way ... I come right up with some of the fellows that was smart.

Confederate war noun The American Civil War.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Cherokee NC) We lived there till in the time of the Confederate War. It was the last of the Confederate War.

country noun The immediate area or district in which one lives. [DARE labels this usage "especially South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1835 Crockett Account 45 If you was to talk that way to a man in my country, he'd give you first-rate hell.   1939 Hall Coll. (Bradley Fork NC) I removed my mill on the waters of Flat Creek, Tennessee, Sevier County, and there I stayed a year, and I never was in such a law breaking country in my life.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee Creek NC) At that time we made a lot of liquor in this country. Very near everybody made it.  1953 Hall Coll. (Plott Creek NC) There was no noise, no wind, and you could hear everything all over the country.  1977 Weals Cove Folk Everybody got along well and I knowed every family in the country and all their children.

cursed adjective (pronounced as two syllables: cur-sed or cus-sed) Perverse, contrarious.
       1924 Abernethy Moonshine 118 [T]he hired help were so cussed no-count, that after a-tarryin' at the throne like wrastlin' Jacob with the angel, I had a sorter hunch that the Lord were willin' fer me to go a-courtin' Widder Jinkins.   1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) He hollered for mother, says "Mother, come here," he says, "Confound it, that cussed old cat scratched my horse and he's teetotally ruined him."

cut down verb phrase To aim a gun and shoot at, aim a rock and throw at.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Nine Mile Creek TN) He says, "Riley, knock its damn teeth out of there," and he cut down with a rock and right in the mouth [the bear] tuck it.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) George studied hisself agin the saplin' and cut down and just busted that bear's head wide open.  1953 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) He cut down and shot it.  1981 Weals Root-Hogs "I cut down on them with that shotgun."

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D

directly (also dreckly, toreckly) adverb In a little while, before long, as soon as is convenient, later (often used to put off or delay a request); immediately. This term is subject to variable interpretation; see 1996 citation.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) "They're not a-going [to] let [the bear] cross the Smoky," I said, "He'll turn back down directly."  1939 Hall Coll. (Smokemont NC) We was looking round and about for them, and directly we found them right in the top, laying up on a limb.  1956 Hall Coll. (Cosby TN) "If you don't speak to me," [the ghost] said, "I'll shoot you dreckly."  1965 Dict Queen's English 17 "I'll do that to-reckly."  1969 GSMNP-25:2:8 I could show you directly, but it's hard to tell you because I did have pillars laid up till I could tell you.   1976 Weals It's Owin' = soon, before long. "Directly school will be starting."  1986 Helton Around Home 377 = later.  1996 Montgomery Coll. The usual sense is "in a little while, soon," indicating a definite intention or purpose, but sometimes the term conveys "after a while" if a person wishes to procrastinate; depending on the context, it may mean "at once, immediately."

done verb past tense of do.
       1803 Pawpaw Hollow Minutes 9 The church met at Br. Ominets and after worship done no business.  1922 Tenn Civil War Ques 9 Mother done all kinds house work including cooking spinning, sewing washing & mending.  1939 Hall Coll. (Emerts Cove TN) Yeah, I think they done wrong running the boys out of here.  1969 GSMNP-37:2:12-13 So that's what we done and went on down there and stayed all night, and then we went across to Little River next morning.   1981 Whitener Folk-Ways 70 When he got out of school he set up his law office and done real good.

drain noun (sometimes pronounced dreen) A small stream with little water, either on a mountainside or in a small hollow. [OED dates this usage from 1700.]
       1926 Hunnicutt Twenty Years 147 They crossed the creek and went up through the Flat Laurel on the other side and came to another little drain that came in on that side of the creek.  1939 Hall Coll. (White Oak NC) = a small spring where there's very little water, on a mountain side or in a little hollow, not the same as a marsh or swamp. [Moonshiners] set up their still on a little dreen—a good place for a still because revenuers hunt up creeks and a dreen would be hard to find. The dreen is up so steep they could dam it up and pipe it up and pipe it to the barrel. [The word] is nearly always "dreen."

drank verb past participle of drink. [OED dates this usage from the 17th century]
       1796 Big Pigeon Minutes 24 [The church] agread to Infirmation being made to the Church that James Wiseheart hath Drank to Exces[. T]he Church hath declared their none fellowship on that account.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee Creek NC) I had drank the quart and spilled a part of it and had to go down get me some more liquor.  1975 GSMNP-59:15 Them that made whiskey had drank whiskey and red horsemint.

driv verb past tense and past participle of drive.
       1 (past-tense form) Drove.
       1937 Hall Coll. (Little Greenbrier TN) He driv many a beef off on foot.  1957 GSMNP-23:11 They driv them through Cades Cove and took them down to the end of the mouth of Tuckaseegee and back in there.  1970 Foster Walker Valley 20 We driv up to Elkmont once, but I couldn't tell when I got there.  1999 GSMNPOHP 1:5 I heared you when you driv up.
       2 (past-participle form) Driven.
       1929 (in 1952 Mathes Tall Tales 144) "Amos," he began, "here's a gent that's driv a right smart ways, an' he 'lows he might like a apple or somethin' to take the dust out o' his goozle."

drug verb past tense and past participle of drag. [OED dates this usage from 1500.]
       1 (past-tense form) Dragged.
       1937 Thornborough Great Smoky Mts 93 A party of hunters came up from Knoxville and kilt 'em a load o' bear an' drug 'em down to the head of the creek an' skinned 'em.  1939 Hall Coll. (Little Cataloochee NC) The boys passed back by there where the dead boys was lyin', and they drug 'em out just a few steps from the trail and throwed 'em in a sink hole and covered 'em up with a little leaves and stuff.  1994 Walker Life History 103 We drug along for four or five days.
       2 (past-participle form) Dragged.
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 37 Sometimes no harrow was used at all, the plowed ground being "drug" with a big evergreen bough.  1953 Hall Coll. (Bryson City NC) I heard one [dog] open, and I turned the rest loose, and they took after Bob where he had drug this bear.  1973 GSMNP-86:36 Well, something had slid down there. [It] looked like a log had been drug down that little hollow.  1979 Carpenter Walton War 162 My younguns git so dirty every day they look like they had been drug up the chimbley.

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E

eat verb past tense and past participle of eat.
       1 (past-tense form) Ate. [DARE labels this usage "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1922 Tenn Civil War Ques 867 We slept in the open, had no tents, eat when we had anything to eat.  1940 Haun Hawk's Done 11 I didn't ask Tiny if she eat breakfast before she left home.  1953 Atwood Verbs East U.S. 12-13 Eat ... covers a large area in c. Pa., part of e. W.Va., most of Va. except the Tidewater area, and nearly all of N.C.   1973 GSMNP-4:2:3 Back when I was a kid they was a lot of families that eat corn bread three times a day.  1986 Ogle Lucinda 64 One day the Anise bag was not hung high enough, and our only milk cow eat the whole thing and died.
       2 (past-participle form) Eaten. [OED dates this usage from the 15th century; DARE labels this usage "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1834 Crockett Narrative 175 We had just eat our breakfast, when a company of hunters came to our camp.  1957 Parris My Mts 70 "I've eat many a pone of bread baked right there on that hearth," he said.  1976 Lindsay Grassy Balds 177 I reckon the stock kept the weeds eat out.  1984 GSMNP-153:38 I thought that was the best stuff that I've ever eat, you know.

eat up verb phrase To bite badly, consume.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) It was one of our bear hounds, a black and tan hound, and he was just eat up, bloody all over [from a bear fight].  1939 Hall Coll. (Hartford TN) He come up to a party had been a-fightin' a bear with dogs, an' it had eaten up their dogs in a laurel bed.  2001 Lowry Expressions 5 My mother-in-law was operated on 3 weeks ago, and she was eat mortally up with cancer.

evening noun The afternoon, the time between the middle of the day, usually marked by the dinner meal, and dusk. [ OED 1788; DARE labels this usage "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 296 Evening, in the mountains, begins at noon instead of at sunset.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cades Cove TN) The middle of the evenin' is about three o'clock.  1943 Hannum Mt People 131 [F]or southern mountain people "evening" begins at twelve o'clock noon. For them the morning and the evening are the day, as it is recounted in Genesis of a world still in the making.  1973 GSMNP-78:21 At twelve we would arrange our benches and have a spelling bee all Friday evening.

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F

fat meat (also called fatback, streaked bacon, streaky lean, etc.) noun Fatty meat from the back of a hog, usually salted; bacon. [DARE labels this form "chiefly Midland, also South" in the U.S.]
       1977 Hamilton Mt Memories 103 Kate would fry strips of fat meat—we called it bacon—and make gravy by stirring flour into the drippings and adding milk.  1982 Parris Here's How Sassafras tea is "sass" tea, and salt pork is "fat back."

fell verb past participle of fall. [OED dates this usage from the 17th century]
       1789 French Broad Petitions 7 Some of our Citizens have fell a sacrifice to [the Indians'] Cruelty.  1940 Haun Hawk's Done 21 Ma will think I have fell into the spring.  1953 Hall Coll. (Bryson City NC) Then [the bear will] go back and just step up ... lookin' for chestnuts and beechnuts on the ground after they've fell out of the trees in the fall of the year.   1973 GSMNP-84:26 They had fell out with these Tiptons over a certain preacher.

feller noun Pronunciation of fellow.
       1886 Smith Sthn Dialect 348 Well, fellers, ef you'uns cross the mountains about dinner time, you'd better come by and git yer dinner; you-uns hain't got the wuth of yer quarter yit.  1939 Hall Coll. (Gatlinburg TN) Levi Jenkins was the crabbedest old feller ever I seed.

fight fist and skull verb phrase To have a knock-down, drag-out, bare-fisted fight without weapons. [DARE labels this phrase "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       c1926 Bird Cullowhee Wordlist They fought fist-and-skull.  1939 Hall Coll. (Sugarlands TN) I got to lookin' at it, ... scared to look at a bear thinkin' a man of my age and size would jump on a bear to fight fist and skull without somethin' to fight with.

fish pole noun A light pole serving as a fishing rod.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Mt. Sterling NC) He jumped and broke to run, and the panther took after him, and he still had his fish pole in his hand.

fit verb past tense and past participle of fight.
       1 (past-tense form) Fought. [OED dates this usage from the 18th century]
       1904-07 Kephart Notebooks 4:868 They fell into it and fit.  1938 Hall Coll. (Emerts Cove TN) They fit fair in them days.  1939 Hall Coll. (Sugarlands TN) [The bear] went out in the laurel there and fit my dog a while.  c1945  Haun Hawk's Done 218 He could tell them that was the way he got his wife--he fit for her.  1953 Atwood Verbs East U.S. 14 In the area south of the Kanawha, including s.w. Va. and w. N.C., this form [i.e. fit] is nearly universal in Type I [speech] and has considerable currency in Type II as well; in most communities in w. N.C. fit is used by both older and younger informants.  1971 GSMNP-66:2 They drunk the whiskey and then they fit all night.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews 194 Mr. Oliver, he fit his case. That's the only one I know of a-fighting it.
       2 (past-participle form) Fought. [OED dates this usage from the 17th century]
       1883 Zeigler and Grosscup Heart of Alleghanies 51 Why, I've fit bars from the Dark Ridge kentry to the headwaters of the French Broad.  1929 (in 1952 Mathes Tall Tales 116) You an' the little lady has fit it out with Death an' ye've whupped him to a fare-ye-well!  1939 Hall Coll. (Sugarlands TN) He hadn't fit none of the time.

fixin' to verb phrase Preparing or getting ready to, being about to; intending to. [this is the progressive form of fix to and developed in early 19th century American English]
       1874 Swearingen Letters 165 Mary is fixing to make her some cotton dresses.  1899 Crozier White-Caps 116 I grew uneasy and was fixing to leave as soon as pay day come, but it's too late, now.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) He looked around and he saw a large panther a-laying on a log fixing to jump on him.  1940 Haun Hawk's Done 167 I was fixing to scour that second time when Miss Robinson come hunting for what she called antiques.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. VI-2 They may be fixing to get back like they once was.  1982 Powers and Hannah Cataloochee 281 It was a-fixin' to come a storm.  1995 Adams Come Go Home 73 I already heard what foolishness is a fixin' to take place up there.

frolic noun A lively party with music, games, dancing, and often drinking, usually held in a private home and sometimes in conjunction with a work activity or working (as a quilting frolic) or contest (as a rifle frolic). [OED dates this usage from 1645; DARE labels it "chiefly South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1834 Crockett Narrative 140 Before the regular frolic commenced, I mean the dancing, I was called on to make a speech as a candidate.  1838 Elijoy Minutes 35 The church on Elijoy met & 1st first the church Excludes Samuel Murrin for dancing at a frolic and threatening to leave the church.  1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 266 Be that as it may, they certainly have put a damper on frolics, so that in very many mountain settlements "goin' to meetin'" is recognized primarily as a social function and affords almost the only chance for recreation in which family can join family without restraint.  1914 Arthur Western NC 268 The country "frolics" or "hoe-downs", were necessarily less recherche than the dances, hops, and germans of the present day, for, as a rule, the dancing had to take place on the uneven puncheon floors and in a very restricted space, often procured by the removal of the furniture.  1959 Pearsall Little Smoky 12 El freely admitted to being a terrible sinner in his youth, fiddling and attending "frolics."  1972 Cooper NC Mt Folklore 21 Dancing parties, often referred to as frolics or hoedowns, occurred in most neighborhoods, but not in many homes of the neighborhood. These were held only in homes that had a room sufficiently large, after the furniture had been removed, to accommodate the dancers and musicians.  1995 Williams Smoky Mts Folklife 54 Workings and other community events provided occasions for dances, or "frolics," as they were often known.

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G

get to verb phrase (+ gerund) To begin to, reach the point of. [this construction is apparently a 19th-century American development]
       1859 Taliaferro Fisher's River 79 I had got to turnin' up my nose whenuver Molly sot turkey on the table.  1884 (in 1996 Edmondson Crawford Memoirs 130) On thinking over past events I got to thinking of my Fathers sickness and death.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cades Cove TN) We was small, both of us. They got to deviling us about sparking, you know.  1957 GSMNP-23:1:21 He went to going through there, and it got to snowing.  1960 Hall Smoky Mt Folks 52 They explained, "we put the woolen cloth (on the chest) when the fever got high or when she got to smotherin'."   1962 Dykeman Tall Woman 157 While I'm working around, when the children aren't deviling me with questions, I get to studying about it.  1973 GSMNP-5:5 We was a-picking the banjo and playing the fiddle, and we got to picking "Down the Road."  1995 Adams Come Go Home 95 I reckoned that the best thing to do was to get her to dancing.

give verb past tense and past participle of give.
       1 (past-tense form) Gave.
       1794 Big Pigeon Minutes 18 The Breathren John Mathes and Frances McKelhaney made thear report to the Church that they did apply to David Melson.s formelley and giv them word to attend this Meeting but they failing to apear the Matter prospond til meeting in Corse.  1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 284 In many cases a weak preterite supplants the proper strong one: div, driv, fit, gi'n or give, rid, riv, riz, writ.  1922 Tenn Civil War Ques 2160 [T]hree ladies in a dry goods store saw I was barefooted and give me a pair of womens shoes size 7.  1969 GSMNP-25:1:4 One of these old hog rifle guns, now that's what he give for the place when he went there.
       2 (past-participle form) Given. [DARE labels this usage "especially South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1794 Big Pigeon Minutes 14 Jesse Isbell has give his letter to the Church that he receivd it from and the church has considered the matter respecting of him and has brought it to excummunication and now he has mov.d to Caintuck.  1939 Hall Coll. (Hazel Creek NC) If I'd a knowed you fellows been a-coming and had studied up, why I could have give you fellows a whole lot of news.  1984 GSMNP-153:24 The park had give daddy twenty-four hundred dollars for what he had sold on Little Catalooch.

give in verb phrase (+ gerund) To announce, submit.
       1925 Dargan Highland Annals 159 "Well, I ain't give in yit," Snead asserted, his yellow-brown eyes shimmering.  1939 Hall Coll. (Wears Cove TN) The jury give it in that ... he'd been killed by somebody.  1966 Medford Ol' Starlin 89 "Yes, that's what the Cor'nor give in," replied McDirk.

go to verb phrase To begin to, reach the point of. [this construction is apparently a 19th-century American development]
       1926 Hunnicutt Twenty Years 11 [W]e turned the dogs loose and the dogs went to trailing at once and barking their best.  1937 Hall Coll. (Cosby TN) He went to killin' 'em [= bear] when he was twelve year old.  1940 Haun Hawk's Done 13 They both went to laughing.  1957 GSMNP-23:1:21 He went to going through there, and it got to snowing.  1976 GSMNP-114:20 One night he heard that hog go to squealin' and hollerin'.

grabs noun (also called grab chain) A device used in snaring a trapped bear. See citations.
       1937 Hall Coll. (Cades Cove TN) grab chains = chains with hooks on a steel bear trap so as to prevent a bear from dragging away the trap in which he has been caught. The hooks would grab onto a tree or rhododendron, etc. and thus anchor the trap. (Dave Sparks, who added that a hunter doesn't approach a bear caught in a trap until they "quieten down.")  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) So me and him, we decided to go to the trap one day, and it got a big bear in the trap and he'd come off down to the open woods ... The bear was hung on the laurel by the grabs.  1939 Hall Coll. (Walkers Valley TN) Bears once caught in a trap can't go far dragging the trap with them because the grabs has 'em fouled.

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H

he pronoun Repeated after a noun, especially when introducing a character in recounting a story.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Little Cataloochee NC) Grandfather, he heared the racket and he come.  1939 Hall Coll. (Swain County NC) My father, he raised me and my two sisters.  1973 GSMNP-5 Old William Palmer, he was our high sheriff for two terms, I believe.

heared verb past tense and past participle of hear.
       1 (past-tense form) Heared.
       1813 Hartsell Journal 125 General Jackson fired three Canons off which was the first that I ever heared in my life.  1845 Sevier Co Court This cause comming on to be finally heared and determined before the Honorable Robert J. Anderson Judge.  1939 Hall Coll. (Hartford TN) [The panther] sprung right up, and I heared it hit the ground two or three times, and it run out of hearing.  1973 GSMNP-84:30 I got up here at the gap of the ridge, and I heared them down there, whooping and hollering, and of course it scared me.
       2 (past-participle form) Heard.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) He throwed that cat on that poor old horse's back, and then the row started. You've never heared no such a commotion in all the days of your life down there.  1972 GSMNP-68:6 I don't know anything about that. I've heared it spoke of, but I don't remember.  1980 Miles Verbs Haywood Co 85 Have you ever heared of that?

hear tell verb phrase To be informed of, learn of by word of mouth. [DARE labels this phrase "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Tuckaleechee Cove TN) He never was heared tell of no more.  1943 Justus Bluebird 80 "Yes, I heard tell o' that," Grandy said, "and I heard tell how it happened—drunk on the devil's brew, he was, out of a moonshine still."  1962 Dykeman Tall Woman 223 I heard tell you helped bring your sister-in-law's baby.  1973 GSMNP-5:27 She was the illest-tempered youngun I've ever heard tell of in my life.  1974-75 McCracken Logging 3:17 They was hogs in them mountains 'fore that Smoky Mountain National Park was ever heard tell of.

him pronoun Used redundantly = (for) himself. [DARE labels this usage "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. He put him a turnip hull on the end of his rifle gun so that he could see the darkness of the bear ... He wouldn't eat but two messes out of a big 'un and then kill him another'n.  1940 Haun Hawk's Done 40 He would raise him some turkeys too.  1970 Foster Walker Valley 71 George built him a house up there.

hisself (also hissef) reflexive pronoun Himself. [ OED (at himself pronoun IV) dates this usage from the 14th century; EDD labels it "in general dialect use in Scotland, Ireland, England";  DARE labels it "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 81 Finally [the bear] gits so tired and het up that he trees to rest hisself.  1925 Dargan Highland Annals 99 He got frustered then, an' said he'd come fer bear, an' he was goin' to have one if he had to go on by hissef.  1937 Thornborough Great Smoky Mts 93 He built hisself a log cabin by the side of his store.  1939 Hall Coll. (Mt. Sterling NC) He went something near a mile back on into the Spruce Mountains and stayed by hisself all night.   1962 Dykeman Tall Woman 223 "Since Doc Hornsby killed hisself," Haddon whined, "there ain't nobody left to look after a woman on Thickety."  1973 GSMNP-76:31 He shot [the buck] and killed him. Well, he couldn't carry him in hisself. He was just up there by hisself.

hit pronoun It (used especially as the initial element in a clause and in other stressed positions, most often as a subject). [from Old English hit; this form was prevalent in England into the 16th century and since that time has been used primarily in Scotland, northern England, and northern Ireland, especially as an emphatic form; DARE labels it "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1836 Pawpaw Hollow Minutes 78 The Church wish Brother Lammon Jones to attend them twelve months longer & Br Jones agrees to hit.  1875 King Great South 788 Some of the mountaineers speak of "hit," instead of "it," and emphasize the word as in this case, "I meant to have brought my gun, but I forgot hit."  1895 Edson and Fairchiln Tenn Mts 376 = sometimes used almost with the force of a demonstrative; e.g. a native, upon seeing a trolley car, points first to the car and then to the trolley, and asks, "Does hit run hit, or hit run hit?"  1942 Hall Phonetics 86 Even unstressed hit often occurs without initial loss [of h], as in the sentence ... "I don't know how long hit's been." But unstressed hit, like he, him, her, etc. usually occurs without [h] ... "I guess it's been ten or fifteen years ago."  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. III-2 Hit's been handed down to him, you see, so he's the third or fourth generation.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews 194 I believe they called hit the Cable School.

hog rifle noun A muzzle-loading hunting rifle, often home-made, with a single long barrel. See especially 1995 citation.
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 69 There is a class of woodsloafers, very common here, that ranges the forest at all seasons with single-barrel shotguns or "hog rifles," killing bearing females as well as legitimate game.  1917 Kephart Word-List 413 = a squirrel rifle. The stress falls on rifle1939 FWP Guide TN 132 A unique sport ... is the "turkey shoots" of the mountain people stemming from the rifle contests of pioneer times. Scorning modern breech loaders, the contestants use long-barreled cap and ball "hog" rifles, patterned after the famous guns of the frontiersmen.  1954 Waynesville Mountaineer Aug 2 Ancient Muzzleloaders Cocked and Primed for Cataloochee Beef Shoot [headline] ... immediate target a piece of charred wood, and their ultimate goal a quarter of beef. The shoot is open to "mountaineers" and "furriners" alike, but the "shooting-iron" must be a long-barrelled muzzleloader ... Many of the rifles are prized family heirlooms, some made in the Cataloochee area. Others are the famous "Lancasters" from Pennsylvania. Locally they are all called "hawg rifles."  1957 Hall Coll. (Del Rio TN) [The hog rifle] was used to kill any kind of game from squirrels to bears to deer. There is a few hog rifles scattered around this side of the mountains, but not used, just antiques.  1964 Greve Story of Gatlinburg 52 The hogs were hunted, too; shot when they were wanted, with the short gun called a "hog rifle" because of this use; the meat [was] brought home, salted and hung up in [the] smoke house or loft to keep for winter use.  1975 GSMNP-62:17 We used a hog rifle. You would load it and then shoot and then had to load it again, just one shot. That's what we used to, when I was a boy and a young man, kill bears with a hog rifle.  1995 Alexander Mt Fever 120-21 Mostly their armament would consist of .22-caliber rifles or single-shot shotguns, but sometimes one of the older men would be seen carrying an ancient muzzle-loading rifle, the long, graceful weapon of the type used by Daniel Boone and the frontier fighters of the American Revolution. These shoot homemade round lead balls, much larger than a .22 bullet, and possess greater killing power for dispatching large animals such as bear or deer. Compared to a modern high-powered rifle cartridge, the lead and black-powder ammunition costs almost nothing, so muzzle-loaders were frequently used to shoot pigs at hog-killing time and are still known throughout the mountains as "hog rifles." Most old families still had one or two, however rusted or in disrepair.

holp (also holped) verb past tense and past participle of help.
       1 (past-tense form) Helped. [OED dates this usage from the 16th century; DARE labels it "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1889 Mooney Folk Carolina Mts 97 Gwine and obleeged, tote and holp are universally used, and many words obsolete or almost unknown in other sections of the country are still retained here.   c1945 Haun Hawk's Done 306 He always went and holp cut wood when somebody was sick.  1969 GSMNP-44:10 If somebody was down and out, the rest holp them on their feet. That's the way it was.  1972 GSMNP-93:3:35 My daddy holp run 'em out of Gatlinburg.  1975 Chalmers Better 37 I 'lowed I'd send fer you, but I done what you told me afore, and it holp me some.
       2 (past-participle form) Helped. [OED dates this usage from the 16th century; DARE labels it "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Sugarlands TN) He'd had the axe to fight the bear with, and he'd laid it down and burnt the handle in two. He couldn't hardly find the axe, but he hadn't holp me a bit.  1975 Chalmers Better 33 But the doctor-medicine had holp, a'ready, an' he'd be back next week, Lord willing.

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I

iffen (also effen) conjunction If. [DARE calls this form "perhaps pronunciation-spelling for if + and conjunction and labels it "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Cherokee NC) Iffen you folks now knows anything about when the Confederate War ended, why you can tell just how long I've been in Jackson and in Swain.  1942 Hall Phonetics 93 Come into the fire iffen you-ones wants to.  1962 Dykeman Tall Woman 249 "Iffen you've helped save Old Thunder, I'll be beholden to you," Morgan Bludsoe said.  1990 Aiken Wiley Oakley Don't complain. People ain't a-goin' to like you eff'n you are allus a grouching ... They like to do the grouchin themselves.

in under prepositional phrase Beneath, below, underneath. [found in Scotland and Ulster;  SND (at anunder 1) "under"]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) When I got out to the Bear Pen Gap, why the dogs was a-fighting the bear right in under the top of Smoky, pretty close up to the top.  1969 GSMNP-37:2:12 I told my brother, I says, "We'll have to go right around this, in under these big pines."

is verb Are. [occurs with a third-person-plural subject that is a noun, but not when the subject is the pronoun they (this rule can be traced to Scotland in the early 14thcentury; DARE labels this usage "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1794 Big Pigeon Minutes 14 [T]he members is Jesse Isbell and wife and Vine Taylor.  1841 Elijoy Minutes 43 The church passed an act against all kinds of plays that is against the word of God.  1862 (in 1999 Davis Civil War Letters) 78 [W]e all will get back home when the Yankees is whipt back.  1939 Hall Coll. (Gatlinburg TN) I have now different kind of stories to tell. I have some true and some is not true.  1939 Hall Coll. (Wears Cove TN) All the people that left the mountains is a-wanting back.  1979 Carpenter Walton War 163 Them gals is purty, but they're crazy as Junebugs.  1983 Pyle CCC 50th Anniv B:2:15 I know a lot that has gone on, and lots that is a-livin' yet.

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J

job verb To strike, stab, thrust. [OED job v¹ 2 dates this usage from 1573; DARE labels it "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1904-07 Kephart Notebooks 2:429 Job that wood into the stove so it won't fall out on the floor.  1939 Hall Coll. (Nine Mile Creek TN) He run in there and jobbed his knife in him, and the old bear jumped.  1974 Fink Bits Mt Speech 13 He was jobbed with a knife.  1984 GSMNP-153:29 [The stack pole] would job down in the hay, and that helt the hay, kept the wind from [blowing it away].  1990 Cavender Folk Medical Lex 26 = used to refer to a sharp, stabbing pain. "The pain in my neck jobbed me all day."

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K

kindly adverb Kind of, somewhat, rather, to some degree. [cf  EDD kindly adverb 9 "rather, somewhat"; DARE labels this form "chiefly South, South Midland, especially southern Appalachians" in the U.S.]
       1937 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee CCC Camp NC) I feel kindly tough [= sick] today.  1939  Hall Coll. (Gumstand TN) He kindly hid and got into some bushes.  c1950 (in 2000 Oakley Roamin Man 38) If its kindly late at night I open the restaurant door and stand a bit, and soon Mrs. Wiley will say, "Why don't you come and sit down with me."  1975 Chalmers Better 37 How true is the old saying in the mountains that "Men and dogs has it kindly easy in these here parts, but wimmen and steers has it mighty hard."  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. X-2 We'd kindly get our lessons out of a spelling book.  1982 Maples Memories 6 I don't remember whether it was at night or not, but I bet it was kindly spooky anyway.

knowed verb past tense and past participle of know. [OED dates this usage from the 15th century; EDD labels it "northern Ireland, England"; DARE labels both usages "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1 (past-tense form) Knew.
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 284 In many cases a weak preterite supplants the proper strong one: ... drawed, growed, knowed, throwed.  1937 Hall Coll. (Mingus Creek NC) I never knowed nothin' about cannin' fruits and vegetables when I was a girl.  1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) We learned to spell purty well, but that's all we knowed was just spellin'.  1969 GSMNP-37:3:7 I knowed Old Man Aden ever since I knowed anybody.  1980 Miles Verbs Haywood Co 92 I never knowed him to work a day in his life.
       2 (past-participle form) Known.
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 170 I've knowed him from a boy.   1939 Hall Coll. (Hazel Creek NC) If I'd a knowed you fellows been a-coming and had studied up, why I could have give you fellows a whole lot of news.  1939 Hall Coll. (Catons Grove TN) I've never knowed it to fail to cure hives in a baby.  1973 GSMNP-83:21 I've knowed him as long as I've knowed anybody.  1980  Miles Verbs Haywood Co 92 I wouldn't have knowed no better.

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L

laurel noun The mountain term for evergreen rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum and Rhododendron catawbiense), which grows profusely at elevations below 5000 feet and covers extensive tracts in thicket.  [DARE labels this usage "chiefly southern Appalachians, especially North Carolina" in the U.S.]
       1883 Zeigler and Grosscup Heart of Alleghanies 196 The arborescent kalmia and rhododendron, which grow along almost every mountain stream, have a practical use. The ivy and laurel, as they are locally called, attain, in some of the fertile coves, a diameter of three inches, and the roots are even larger.  1890 Carpenter Thunderhead Peak 142-43 There for the first time we saw the tangle of rhododendron, which is called "laurel" and forms a dense thicket along all the mountain streams.  1937 Hall Coll. (Cosby Creek TN) We have white laurels and red laurels here in the mountains.  1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) They fought right down to the foot of the ridge into the flat laurel and commenced barkin'. I thought [the bear] was treed.  1982 Ginns Snowbird Gravy 130 The laurel, the "rhododendron," now they call it, won't poison [cattle], but it'll just starve 'em to death. It'll just cause 'em to vomit all their eating up all the time. But what we called "ivy," what they call "laurel" now, it'd kill 'em dead. There was no way to save 'em when they'd eat a mess of it.

laurel bed (also called laurel hell, laurel patch, laurel rough, laurel slick, laurel thicket, lettuce bed, etc.) noun A dense growth of rhododendron (called laurel in the mountains).
       1939 Hall Coll. (Proctor NC) [Kephart would] go out on them high knobs and look all about over them rough slicks, you know. We call 'em slicks, but it was just roughs, just laurel beds and ivy growed up, nothing in it hardly, just a tree once in a while.  1939 Hall Coll. (Hartford TN) He come up to a party had been a-fightin' a bear with dogs, an' it had eaten up their dogs in a laurel bed.

lay out verb phrase To camp out, spend the night out of doors.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Hartford TN) Me and a party were on Big Creek a-fishin', layin' out, campin' out in the woods, and we heard somethin' a-hollerin'.  1939 Hall Coll. (Mt. Sterling NC) They had old flint rocks to strike fire out of when they lay out.  1957 GSMNP-23:1:18 We'd go out there and lay out, just me and him ourself.

leave out verb phrase To leave, depart (from), disappear. [DARE labels this phrase "South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Nine Mile Creek TN) He left out and went back around by the standers and then come back.  1973 GSMNP-87:1:17 When the park come along Davis and them had to leave out.  1974-75 McCracken Logging 9:20 They might have left out in thirty-nine.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. I-3 They go to the drugstore, and they discuss the world problems and leave out convincing themselves that they knew very little concerning the world problems, because everyone has a different idea.  1983 Pyle CCC 50th Anniv B:6:50 Archie left out of there same time I did, thirty-four.

let the latch down in his barn verb phrase To take advantage of, get the better of.

lettuce bed noun A dense growth of rhododendron (called  laurel in the mountains).
       1917 Kephart Camping & Woodcraft 2:24 Those great tracts of rhododendron ... cover mile after mile of steep mountainside where few men have ever been. The natives call such wastes "laurel slicks," "woolly heads," "lettuce beds," "yaller patches," and "hells."  1939 Hall Coll. (Nine Mile Creek TN) We hit in after [the bear], and it wandered around through them roughs, what we called the lettuce beds. Dark catched us in there, [and] we let the bear get away.

light out verb phrase To depart, leave in haste. [DARE labels this phrase "especially South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1895 Edson and Fairchild Tenn Mts 374 They jes squandered and lit out.  1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 297 I tuk my foot in my hand and lit out.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) He lit out and he was gone about three days and nights, come back in.  1954 GSMNP-19:6 But anyway I lit out home next morning.

listen at verb phrase To listen to. [DARE labels this phrase "chiefly South, Midland" in the U.S.]
       1905 Miles Spirit of Mts 125 I'm well used to that; hit don't disturb me none, and won't disturb nobody else that really wants to listen at the gospel.  1937 Hall Coll. (Emerts Cove TN) Listen at them rocks a-rollin' down the creek! [said during a heavy rainstorm].  1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) Listen at that pack of hounds! Does that sound like a wild-cat to you?  1953 Hall Coll. (Bryson City NC) Everybody was setting and listening at him.

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M

make verb To study for and become, train to be. [DARE labels this usage "especially South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1953 Hall Coll. (Bryson City NC) In his early married life he went into and made a preacher, Baptist preacher, and he followed that all the rest of his life.  1969 Medford Finis 109 We named him after a school teacher; and I think I'd like to see him make a school teacher.  1973 GSMNP-88:104 He made a judge and went on to Maryville.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. I-1 He was born and raised here, and he made a doctor, and he came back to White Pine.

me pronoun
       1 Used redundantly = (for) myself. [OED me pronoun 5 dates this usage from the 12th century and labels it now "archaic and poetic except in U.S."; DARE labels it "especially South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1834 Crockett Narrative 157 I then cut me a pole and crawled along on my sapling till I got to the one it was lodged against.  1939 Burnett Gap o' Mts 42 "As the congregation began coming out" Don said, "Let's look them over: I want to pick me out the prettiest girl in the settlement."  1956 GSMNP-22:16 I always just got me a gun and killed them, got shed of them.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. VIII-2 As soon as I get out of school, I'm going to get me a job, try to get me one as a mechanic.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews 194 I generally lay down in the afternoon and take me a nap.
       2 Used as part of a compound subject.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Tuckaleechee Cove) TN Me and my brother-in-law one time left the White Oak ... and went a-coon huntin' one night.  1941 Hall Coll. (Hot Springs NC) Me and Blondie got up backwards this morning.  c1945 Haun Hawk's Done 325 Me and her had borrowed Howard's axe and had been cutting wood during the cold days.  1953 Hall Coll. (Bryson City NC) We went out, me and my father-in-law, to Hall's cabin.  1995 Adams Come Go Home 86 So me and four cousins began right then and there to lay our plans to go.

meeting noun A gathering of people, usually for a religious service or a series of such services; a worship service. [originally applied to services of dissenters (as opposed to those of the established church) in the British Isles; OED meeting verbal noun 3b dates this usage from 15936; DARE labels it "chiefly Northeast, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1789 Big Pigeon Minutes 3-4 [I]f any Member shall Neglect theare attendance Two Church Meetings togeather shall be liable to the Churches Censher without rendering a reasonable satisfaction for the same.  1856 Elijoy Minutes 89 [T]he Church met at Elijoy meting house & after Sermont they put the sacrement of till the next meting and all other business on the account of Sickness.  1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 239 She actually changed her eyes to jet black whenever she went to "meetin'" or other public gatherings.  1956 Hall Coll. (Gatlinburg TN) Generally the fall of the year they'd have what they called revival meeting one, two, three, or four weeks sometimes. They had meeting morning and evening or morning and night one all the time.  1970 Foster Walker Valley 28 You went to school there and you went to Sunday school, you went to meeting.  1973 GSMNP-90:8 Old people talk about what kind of meetings they had when Preacher Evans come around.  1982 Ginns Snowbird Gravy 146 They would dress up to go to meeting.

mind verb To watch, attend to. [OED dates this usage from 15th century]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Sugarlands TN) I heard him a-hollerin'. He called for me to come up there and mind the coons up the tree ... We minded [the bear] up there a good long while. Finally it come down from up there.  1986 Pederson et al. LAGS Always, one of the women, a mother or one of the girls, would have to mind them—flies, during meal.

mule lot noun A pen for mules.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Nine Mile Creek TN) John Cable and Allen Crisp, they was to go to the mule lot.

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N

near adverb Nearly.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Mt. Sterling NC) He was near a mile away from the little boy at this time. He went somethin' near a mile back on into the Spruce Mountains.

nigh way (also called nigh cut) noun A short cut, shorter distance. [DARE labels this phrase "chiefly South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1937 Hall Coll. (White Oak NC) "Nigh cut" is also used, but not as much as "nigh way."  1939 Hall Coll. (Maggie Valley NC) I give [the raccoons] to my brother and told him to come back the nigh way and I'd go up to balsam corner to see if I could locate some bear sign.  1989 Hannah Reflections 60 He turned off too quick and missed Hobart's nighway.  1990 Bailey Draw Up Chair 13 There and back Will had some twelve miles to walk even though he'd take [the] "nigh way" that cut across the ridge.

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O

of preposition Used to indicate a habitual or frequent activity in phrases such as of a day, of an evening, of a night, etc. [DARE labels this usage "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) We would gather our apples in of a day and peel our apples of a night and put them out on a scaffold.  1953 Hall Coll. (Bryson City NC) He farmed of a summertime, growed a crop of vegetables, corn, potatoes [etc.]  1956 Hall Coll. (Big Bend NC) [Mother] would get up soon of a mornin' and git out and work all day.  1973 GSMNP-70:2:9 We would have singing of a night and of a Sunday.  1973 GSMNP-74:38 We could put anything in that you wanted to of a winter.  c1999 Sutton Me and Likker 48 We run [the still] of a night because we didn't want anyone to see us.

open verb Of a hunting dog: to begin to cry when finding a scent, especially that of a bear.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) We had some old trained bear hounds that turned off in the roughs, the laurel on the Bear Creek side, and picked up a cold trail and started out up to the Bear Creek a-trailing, opening along.  1953 Hall Coll. (Bryson City NC) I heard one [dog] open and I turned the rest loose, and they took after Bob where he had drug this bear.

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P

passel noun Pronunciation of parcel. A company or large, usually indefinite number of people, animals, or things. [OED parcel 6a labels this usage now "obsolete except dialect" in Britain]
       1937 Hall Coll. (Cosby TN) He put a passel of corn on a old mule.  1939 Hall Coll. (Nine Mile Creek TN) [A] passel of us fellows gathered up here to bear hunt.  c1945 Haun Hawk's Done 328 A whole passel of men had gathered themselves together and followed them, just to let them know they didn't have any use for their ways.   1962 Dykeman Tall Woman 139 You're a kindly passel of folks to share like this, but Lydia's got to have a chance to collect herself.

piece noun A distance, usually a short or indefinite one. [OED labels this usage "chiefly dialect"; EDD labels it "Scotland, northern England"; DARE labels it "chiefly South, Midland, Texas" in the U.S.]
       1914 Arthur Western NC 266 We "pack" our loads in "pokes," and "reckon we can't" if invited "to go a piece" with a passerby.  1939 Hall Coll. (Hazel Creek NC) I run [a raccoon] a little piece and catched it.  1973 GSMNP-76:3 They was a big hollow run down here. They call it the Groundhog Hollow, and he went up it [a] little piece and got down on Little Dry Ridge here ... He'd have went up the road a piece to get on the main road that went to Townsend.

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Q

 

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R

rare verb (pronunciation of rear) To raise (a child).
       1940 Oakley Roamin'/Restin' 15 As I was the youngest of 8 and was reared up without any mother my oldest brothers wife said she had to take the place of my mother for a few years.

rattle trap noun A noise-making device swung in the air, often used by pranksters at serenades (for its construction, see 1975 citation).
       1939 Hall Coll. (Catons Grove TN) I guess you people would like to know about serenades and how young folks got along back seventy years ago and longer. We had serenades. They'd make old big rattle traps they'd call 'em ... My, My! How they'd rattle and bang around.  c1975 Lunsford It Used To Be 128 A rattletrap is made by taking a piece of hard wood, first trimming it in such a way that you can hold it in the hand. And on the end you shape the wood into a cog that is longer on one face — rather in the form of a ratchet. One side of the tooth of the cog is trimmed long, the other short. Then on the end of that cog a piece is screwed down, just tight enough till it can revolve around as you swing it. You put in three pegs in that piece — that'd be, say, an inch and a half long. You take a tough, springy white-oak strip of wood so one end will rest on the cog. And as you swing it around it will make all the noise you want. That's what they call the rattletrap.

recollect (usually pronounced REE-collect, also recollect of) verb To remember.
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 122 I recollect you'uns said every one o' them miles was a thousand rods long.  1969 GSMNP-37:2:5 They had all moved out early when I got big enough to recollect.   1973 GSMNP-85:1:21 I'm not a good hand to recollect back so much.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews 194 I can recollect of him a-going to school.  1997 Montgomery Coll. I recollect seeing the man, but I jest don't recollect when.

residenter noun An inhabitant of the mountains, especially an older one or one of long standing. [ OED labels this usage "Scotland and U.S."]
       1788 French Broad Petitions 3 [A] land office shall be opened for that purpose of entering such lands, that is to each settler or residenter a survey of six Hundred and forty Acres att as low Rates as possible.  1939 Hall Coll. (Nine Mile Creek TN) This here's the old residenter bear hunter.  1970 Foster Walker Valley 59 The old man John Huskey was the oldest residenter that I knew that lived up here.

retch (also retched) verb past tense of reach. [DARE labels this form "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1883 Zeigler and Grosscup Heart of Alleghanies 61 I never hed no objections ter meetin' a varmint in a squar, stan'up fight, — his nails agin my knife, ye know; so without wunct thinkin' on gittin' outer the way, I retched fer my sticker.  1939 Hall Coll. (Smokemont NC) The bear retch around and snapped the drawin' chain in two.  c1950 (in 2000 Oakley Roamin Man 42) Before we retched the cabin, we saw where a large snake had crawled acrost the road near the home of the Walker Sisters.  1959 Hall Coll. (Newport TN) I retch over and got a limb and swung down.  1996 Landry Coll. He retch out and wove at me.

rifle gun noun A long-barreled firearm, one whose bore has been grooved or rifled. [probably from  rifled gun; DARE labels this form "now chiefly southern Appalachians, Ozarks" in the U.S.]
       1796 Dunlap Will To son Adam Dunlap—the plantation on which I now live agreeable to the lines already mentioned to the other boys and the dwelling house at his mother's death, a black mare, one cow and calf, the rifle gun he now has.  1914 Arthur Western NC 280 The word "rifle" is too generic a term for the average mountaineer; but he knows what a "rifle-gun" is. Some of the older [people] have seen them made—lock, stock and barrel. The process was simple: a bar of iron the length of the barrel desired was hammered to the thickness of about three-sixteenths of an inch and then rolled around a small iron rod of a diameter a little less than the caliber desired.  1939 Hall Coll. (Mt. Sterling NC) He put him a turnip hull on the end of his rifle gun, till he could see the darkness of the bear.  1991 Haynes Haywood Home 44 About the only thing I can remember that wasn't shared much or loaned out was a man's rifle-gun.

right adverb Very, rather. [DARE labels this usage "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1874 Swearingen Letters 164 We had a right funy runaway scrape in the neighborhood last Sunday.  1939 Hall Coll. (Gatlinburg TN) A right old lady come in.  1940 Haun Hawk's Done 141 He said them two years seemed right long because the folks there weren't like the folks he had always knowed in Cocke County.  1965 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) I had a young horse that was right wild and foolish, and it was too fur for me to walk and carry [the lumber] on my back.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. III-2 I was right proud of it. It was right nice to do, and I appreciate it.

rising noun A swelling, inflammation, pustule. [OED labels this usage "now dialect or U.S."; DARE labels it "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 296 Many common English words are used in peculiar senses by the mountain folk, as risin' for exceeding (also for inflammation).  1939 Hall Coll. (Big Creek NC) Catnip tea is the best thing in the world for a risin'.  1975 Chalmers Better 34 Splinters and briars, a "risin'" to incise for drainage, a "creeled foot" strapped to relieve strained muscles, and "pizen-vine" rash.

rock verb To throw rocks at (especially an animal) in order to intimidate or to drive away or back. [DARE labels this usage "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Nine Mile Creek TN) He'd run a bear in on them, and they got to rocking it.  1953 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) [The bull] belonged to old man Collins. I told him if he tackled me I would have to shoot him ... I tried rockin' him to keep him off of me.  1970 Hall Witchlore 32 Incidentally, "rocking" (that is, throwing rocks at) was mentioned in two tales as the treatment for cows thought to be boogers or ghosts.

rough (also called roughs, rough slick) noun A dense thicket of laurel or rhododendron. [DARE labels this usage "chiefly South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1915 Bohannon Bear Hunt 462 Lying grounds, you must know, are, in this country, always on the north or Tennessee side of the mountains, where are those laurel growths known variously as "woolly heads," "slicks," "roughs" and "yellow patches" ... Nearer they bear some resemblance to a negro's head, if it were covered with green wool, hence "woolly head," and when you get into one you find it very distinctly rough, therefore "roughs."  1937 Hall Coll. (Cades Cove TN) Bears hide in the roughs and have trails through them.  1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) Those bears always fight up [i.e. not down a creek] into the roughs.  1953 Hall Coll. (Bryson City NC) We would avoid huntin' on the Tennessee side as much as we could to keep from out of the roughs. It was so awful rough and laurely, and not much open woods on that side of the mountain ... The bear had left to go to his denning place in the rough ... Matt Hyde used to do some trapping back in there for bear, and they done that in back of the Smokies in those rough slicks, we call them.

ruin verb To injure, inflict short-term or limited damage on. [OED dates this usage from 1656]
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 294 "I'm bodaciously ruint" (seriously injured).  1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 296 Many common English words are used in peculiar senses by the mountain folk, as ... ruin for injure.  1956 Hall Coll. (Roaring Fork TN) And I was taught not to use no bad language, and I bumped my toe, and I cut the nail off of it and I grabbed my foot up and I said, "God damn, I've ruint my foot."

run verb past tense of run. [OED dates this usage from the 16th century]
       1844 Willnotah Ms 15 [H]is friends run out to see the site but could see nothing.  1922 Tenn Civil War Ques 1019 My father was a shoemaker by trade and run his own shop.  1939 Hall Coll. (Little Cataloochee NC) Johnny run to the fence and jumped the fence and never, never knocked a rail off, and it was about a eight-foot rail fence.  1969 GSMNP-43:16 My father run a store there for years before he died.

run ago (also called run and go, running go) noun phrase A running attack on, energetic move toward or against. [perhaps influenced by run and + verb, as "run and tell your mother"; DARE labels run ago² "southern Appalachians" in the U.S.]
        1939 Hall Coll. (Hartford TN) An' [the bear] wheeled back on the dogs. [The bear hunter] took a run-ago an' run his arm into that hole he cut into it an' run it right up about his heart.  1956 Hall Coll. (Newport TN) She took a runnin'-go at him.  1973 GSMNP-79:17 You could play out in the hallway where they'd waxed it, you know. We'd make that for a slide. Take a run and go and just slide all the way down to the hall and then up again.

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S

says verb Say (this is the so-called "historical present," used with first-person and other subjects in recounting a story). Cf. thinks.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Smokemont NC) I says, "I know what the work is, and I know how to learn the boys to work or I'll try it as hard as anybody."  1939 Hall Coll. (Hartford TN) "Father," I says, "I'll have to quit eating this meat,"  1939 Hall Coll. (Cades Cove TN) I says, "I don't know whether I'll have any work or not."

seed verb past tense and past participle of see; [OED dates this usage from the 18th century; DARE labels these usages "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1 (past-tense form) Saw. [OED dates this usage from the 18th century]
       1886 Smith Sthn Dialect 348 Like all mountaineers, he was contented with his lot, would not live any where else, thought the mountaineers had most of the good things of life, and seemed to be quite of the opinion of another mountaineer who said "Nashville was the nastiest place he ever seed".  1939  Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) I went just on up to the top of the mountain, till I seed the dark was on me, and then I set down and stayed there all night.  1953 Atwood Verbs East U.S. 20 In the mountain areas south of the Kanawha [seed] becomes quite common, being used by most Type I informants as well as by a few of Type II. Seed extends more or less all across N.C., in some areas being the only preterite form in use other than saw1956 Hall Coll. (Cosby TN) He looked and he seed something comin' across the air, just over the top of the timber.
       2 (past-participle form) Seen.
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 120 [T]hey've seed the revenuers in flesh and blood.  1937 Thornborough Great Smoky Mts 39 I've seed him out as early as January or February.  1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) Law, yes, I've seed a many a bear and eat the meat of them, coon too.  1940 Haun Hawk's Done 32 Joe would have been proud to have seed me with her.  1969 GSMNP-44:18 I've seed big steers that would weigh a thousand pound sell for ten dollars.

seen verb past tense of see. [OED dates this usage from the 14th century]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Proctor NC) We never seen it then. It run back down there again and was coming back in, and they catched it before it got back to us.  1973 GSMNP-70:2:7 They took up together, and wherever you seen one of them, you seen the other one.  1980 Miles Verbs Haywood Co 108 That's the first time I ever seen it.

serenade (also called serenading) noun A raucous, spontaneous celebration after a wedding, usually late on the wedding night and at the residence of the newly married couple, characterized by the beating of pots and pans, ringing of cowbells, and various pranks (for the description of which, see citations), but not music; hence verb = to engage in this celebration. Same as charivari/shivaree, but more common, especially in Tennessee mountains; DARE labels this usage "southern Appalachians, Atlantic" in the U.S.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Catons Grove TN) I guess you people would like to know about serenades and how young folks got along back seventy years ago and longer. We had serenades. They'd make old big rattletraps they'd call them, and they'd have bells and plows and every old noise, and they'd run around the house, and they'd have awful times, and [if] they couldn't get in, why they'd just keep right on, and whenever they'd get in, they'd go through the house and my, how they'd rattle and bang around.  1962 Dykeman Tall Woman 235 Then, led by Gib and Burn, and joined by Fayte and Tim, they gathered up old pans and a cowbell and set out down the valley to serenade Martha and Tom as soon as they thought the young people were alone together.  1972 Cooper NC Mt Folklore 22 When a couple was married, within a few nights it was serenaded or given a chivaree. The leader—every neighborhood had one—summoned his followers to meet him on a given night. The serenade consisted of dynamite and shotgun blasts, tootings of horns, the ringing of cowbells, beating of tin pans until the couple opened the door and invited everyone to come inside.  1974 GSMNP-51:27 They'd just serenade, you know, they'd have bells and they'd shoot and march around the house.  1974 Russell Hillbilly 32 The community "serenade" often consisted of riding the groom on a fence rail and the bride in a big wash tub.  1981 Brewer Wonderment 8 The young folks in the neighborhood gave them a shivaree, called a "serenade" in some communities.  1988 Russell It Happened 48 The serenade, or shivaree, would take place later at night, on after the supper and music making.

set verb Sit.
       1792 Bent Creek Minutes 12 [T]he church met and delegated br[ethre]n Tidence Lane Isaac Barton & John Murphy members of conference to Set at Bent Creek meeting house the fourth saturday inst.  1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 226 We'd set around and sing until he died.  1939 Hall Coll. (Saunook NC) She honed all evenin' to come over and set beside me.  1980 Miles Verbs Haywood Co 112 When they get up there that big, they don't set down and play ... He said he'd set on the porch over there.

several adjective, pronoun A good many, quite a few. [OED states this usage to be now obsolete; DARE labels it “especially Appalachians, Ozarks]
    1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 77 "You'll spy, to-morrow, whar several trees has been wind-throwed and busted to kindlin'." I recalled that several in the South, means many--"a good many," as our own tongues phrase it.  1937 Hall Coll. (Collins Creek NC) [Did you have many blackberries this year?]: Yes, they was several of them.  1974 GSMNP-62:8 It was several of them, you know ... I guess forty or fifty.

stay all night verb phrase To spend the night (sometimes used in an expression at parting).
       1924 Raine Saddlebags 4 The lad conducted me across the three fords and bade me good night, adding in response to my hearty thanks—for it would have been an insult to offer him money—"Well ye better go home with me and stay all night."  1939 Hall Coll. (Smokemont NC) They got down to the creek. There they overhauled [the bear], killed him, taked him, dressed him up, took him up to the camp and stayed all night.  1954 GSMNP-19:15 Now you can't stay all night unless you're pretty well known, because [in] this here log cabin they all have to sleep together and sometimes the beds ain't two foot apart.

stob verb Pronunciation of stab, past tense stobbed.
       1913 Kephart Our Sthn High 126 I'll bet he's stobbed somebody and is runnin' from the sheriff!  1939 Hall Coll. (Hartford TN) [The bear] had the dogs down, and [my father] run up and stobbed his knife into it and cut a big long gash, plumb to the hollow of the bear.  1973 GSMNP-83:9 He was cutting the life out of him, stobbing him everywhere he could.

strike verb (past tense struck) To find (an animal's track or scent).
       1926 Hunnicutt Twenty Years 51 We had not gone up Bear Creek very far until Old Muse struck a coon's track.  1939 Hall Coll. (Smokemont NC) [We] hunted all night till ten o'clock the next mornin', never struck nary track ... We took right up the creek and dogs struck right out upper branch, over a ridge, treed. We went over there, and they's two coons up the tree. We shot them out. Then we went on around on the Chestnut Springs Branch. Dogs struck right over on the Chestnut Springs Branch and down hit about a mile.  1982 Ginns Snowbird Gravy 137 Now, when they "strike" is when they hit the track, when they scent the fox.

sweet milk noun Fresh, whole milk (in contrast to butter milk).
       1939 Hall Coll. (Big Creek NC) Take the roots and beat it up, put sweet milk in it, and put it on [the wound] and it'll draw it white and cure it up.  1981 Whitener Folk-Ways 62 When I was growing up there were but two kinds [of milk]: sweet milk (whole raw milk) and buttermilk, though we did recognize the fact that sweet milk could be divided into cream and skim milk. Or perhaps I should say that the sweet milk simply divided itself by allowing the cream to rise and the skim milk to stay put.

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T

take up verb phrase To arrest.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Wears Cove TN) The law took him up, and they couldn't prove it direct on him, and they just turned him loose.  1974 Fink Bits Mt Speech 27 = arrest. "John was took up fer stealing corn."

teetotally adverb Completely, entirely, absolutely.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) My daddy, he hollered for mother, says, "Mother, come here," he says, "confound it, that cussed old cat scratched my hoss, and he's teetotally ruined."  1974 Fink Bits Mt Speech 26 I'm most tetotally wore out.  1974-75 McCracken Logging 5:61 That branch is hopelessly and teetotally dry.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. X-2 You didn't get no rest. [You were] just wore teetotally plumb out.

thar adverb Pronunciation of there.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Proctor NC) [Did you organize a party for a hunt?]: Yeah, we'd all just fix us up a sack of rations ... and every feller would take his rations up thar.  1942 Hall Phonetics 25 A number of old people, and a few others, still say [ða] there, a form which is preserved as a kind of fossil in ['ov,a] over there, heard on Cosby Creek.  1981 GSMNP-117:6-7 When he tuck a notion to whup a boy, he'd bring him up thar, and talk about the dust a-flyin'. [H]e'd whup the tar out of him.

them demonstrative adjective Those. [OED dates this usage from the 14th century]
       1937 Hall Coll. (Cades Cove TN) I'm afeared of them copperheads.  1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) They was just enough of us to fill them three benches.  1940 Haun Hawk's Done 41 Them things he made up hisself and sung.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews 194 I've went up over them rocks a many a time.  1992 Gabbard Thunder Road 36 So, when them son-of-a-guns checked me, I had to pay taxes on all that money.

the most noun phrase Most.
       1813 Hartsell Journal 103 [T]he most of the men was melted into teeres under the sermont.  1922 Tenn Civil War Ques 9 The most of the schools was privat scools.  1939 Hall Coll. (Gatlinburg TN) I always made the feathers fly, but the trouble was the meat went with it the most of the time.  1973 GSMNP-4:1:21 I think that's where the most of the trouble came from was the people coming in there from them logging companies.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews 194 Old man Sparks, he spent the most of his life on that mountain.

they¹ pronoun Repeated after a noun, especially when introducing characters in recounting a story.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee, NC) The bears, they commenced snapping at the dogs and the dog was just a-grabbing at them.  1939 Hall Coll. (Smokemont NC) So one day Mister Allman and Mister Bishop, they come up there. 1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) Nearly all of the people in these sections back in the older times, why they thought they wasn't living unless they had some kind of a gun.

they² adverb There (when introducing a clause). [from Scotland and northern Ireland; SND dates this usage from the early 18th century]]
       1937 Hall Coll. (Ravensford NC) They used to be a puncheon floor in it, but my father tuck it up.  1939 Hall Coll. (Hazel Creek NC) That's about all they is to the pound cake except a little flavoring she'd use.  1953 Hall Coll. Down around the foot of that mountain [is] about as a rough place as they is in the Smokies.  1973 GSMNP-1 Nobody dreamed during that time that they would be a park here.  1973 GSMNP-78 They are one or two blue back spellers in existence now.  c1999 Sutton Me and Likker 31 I told him I couldn't do that or they would be a whole bunch of people after my ass for not saving them a jar of it.

they's contraction of they + was. See also previous entry.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Smokemont NC) [The] dogs struck right out upper branch over a ridge, treed. [we] went over there and they's two coons up the tree, we shot them out,  1939 Hall Coll. (Hazel Creek NC) They's two fellows that come right here now and surveyed this branch out from the mouth to Deep Gap right up here.  1969 GSMNP-37 They's a little old hut that stood right there beside of my house on that ridge,

thinks verb Think (the so-called "historical present," used with first-person and other subjects in recounting a story). Cf. says.
       1969 GSMNP-27 I thinks to myself they was in the mud hole.  1973 GSMNP-86 I thinks, "Well, will I ever see my children any more that's in Knoxville?"

thow verb Pronunciation of throw.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) That's the nature of a turkey, to th'ow its head up.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. VIII-2 It has thowed a stick at us before, for disturbing it.

throwed verb past tense and past participle of throw.
       1 (past-tense form) Threw. [OED dates this usage from the 17th century and labels it now "obsolete except dialect" in Britain]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Little Cataloochee NC) They drug them out just a few steps from the trail and throwed them in a sink hole.  1987 Oliver and Oliver Sketches 24 He told her that he had found the Lord and was happy and that he wanted her to seek the Lord and be happy too and throwed his arms around her.
       2 (past-participle form) Thrown. [OED dates this usage from the 18th century and labels it now "obsolete except dialect" in Britain]
       1973 GSMNP-84:29 They was an old abandoned house, an old, big log house down here in an old big field, great big farm, that had been throwed out and growed up.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. X-2 Maybe it had been throwed off down there or something.

till subordinating conjunction So that, to the point that. [SND till conjunction 3 "in order that"]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Hazel Creek NC) I'd have my mustache to freeze [in the cold weather] till I could hardly get my breath.  1939 Hall Coll. (Indian Camp Creek TN) They told her that somebody was a-witching the cows till they couldn't churn the milk.  1976 Lindsay Grassy Balds 160 Now then it's growed up in sarvis bushes till there's no field there.  1979 GSMNP-118:2 My mama had rheumatiz. She got till she couldn't walk and I was thirteen and I had to cook and wash.

took verb past participle of take.
       c1945 Haun Hawk's Done 266 "Is that all that has took place?" I ast her.  1975 Chalmers Better 58 Tim's wife is took right bad.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. V-2 He had took his car and ran into her house.  1980 Miles Verbs Haywood Co 100 They was took better care of than when I was growing up.

top out verb phrase To reach the top of a ridge or mountain.
       1922 Kephart Our Sthn High 212 At a few minutes past 3 p.m., we "topped out" in the Gap.  1930 Fink Trails 69 Let the clothes be stout, to resist the dense underbrush that often intrudes on the trail, and preferably of wool, to guard against chill after a drenching in an unexpected shower or when, after a strenuous climb, one "tops out" on a high ridge to face the searching breezes of the upper levels.  1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) I went on and topped out at the Bear Pen Gap that's at the far winter range, at the back of Round Top.  1986 Rader Mt Legacy 22 Just before we topped out on the main lead of the mountain top, we passed through a small natural bench covered with small poplars on one end and sheltered by its saucer-like topography.

tuck verb past tense of take.
       1997 GSMNPOHP 5:19 It tuck us a day to go from Cades Cove to Maryville.

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U

us pronoun Used redundantly = (for) ourselves.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Proctor NC) We'd all just fix us up a sack of rations, you know, and every fellow would take his rations up there.  1973 GSMNP-78:12 We had us a fence around the pasture between the barn and the house.  1973 GSMNP-79:21 We could dig us some worms or catch the grasshoppers or the crickets or the wasp bait.

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V

 

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W

was verb past tense of be, used with both plural nouns and plural pronouns as its subject. [OED dates this usage from the 14th century; DARE labels this usage "especially South, Midland" in the U.S.]
       1801 Meigs Journal 4 A Spectator even without knowing the Language would be convinced that matters was well arranged.  1866 Elijoy Minutes 110 [T]he meeting lasted 16 days & nights during which time there was 27 baptised & there was 48 Joined the church.  1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) We went over and put us up a still, and we was a-making some awful good [liquor]. It was so good you could taste the gal's feet in it that hoed the corn it was made out of.  1939 Hall Coll. (Sugarlands TN) They'd bunch up if you was sick and come work your corn for you and make quiltings and roll logs and grubbings, one thing and another, and help you when you was sick and disabled or you couldn't help yourself, but they don't do that anymore.  1969 GSMNP-44:12 They come from Ireland. They was Scot Irish.  1973 GSMNP-76:15 You had to work the roads six days a [year] after you was twenty-one years old.  1974 GSMNP-50:1:23 We was poor folks and hired out [to] get enough money to buy cloth to make me a dress. They didn't have dresses made up in the stores then.

ways noun Way, a distance. [from Middle English wayes, genitive case of way]
       1926 Hunnicutt Twenty Years 62 Just a little ways up the hill, the dogs will trail it up in the morning if you have killed it.   1973 GSMNP-2:5 But during them days if they got five miles away, they was a long ways from home.  1973 GSMNP-83:2 Just down a little ways is where he lived.  1974-75 McCracken Logging 24:10 For a good ways you went through the spruce quite a while.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. VIII-2 It was a long ways to them woods.

we pronoun Repeated after a noun, especially when introducing characters in recounting a story.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Cataloochee NC) Me and him, we decided to go to his traps one day, and it got a big bear in the trap.  1939 Hall Coll. (Wears Cove NC) Me and my brother Baus and brother George, we all hunted together.   1954 GSMNP-19 Me and three boys, we decided we wanted to go a-courting.

were (also war) verb past tense of be, used with singular subjects (especially in the negative). [DARE labels this usage "chiefly South, South Midland" in the U.S.]
       1849 Lanham Allegheny Mts 89 [A]t this time they were draining the pond, and it warn't so very large.  1870 Tuckaleechee Cove Minutes 3 [T]he fellowship of the Church was tried and it ware in union.  1883 Zeigler and Grosscup Heart of Alleghanies 51 Thet day war a tough un. Hit war a hot summer day.  1924 (in 1952 Mathes Tall Tales 18) I were on one side of the water an' he were on the other.  1937 Hall Coll. (Cades Cove TN) Dad gone it, there weren't even a sprig of fire in his place! The fire were plumb out.  1973 GSMNP-85:2:18 A little young bear were right down below on top of the Sugarland Mountain.  1976 Lindsay Grassy Balds 115 There weren't no money, much.  1983 Pyle CCC 50th Anniv A:2:25 I'd never been given the job to do it myself, you see, because I were really too young.   1997 GSMNPOHP 4:19 There were one in the upper end of the cove up towards where the picnic area is at.

whup verb Pronunciation of whip.
       1999 McNeil Purchase Knob 36 They didn't always understand his vocabulary and that "whupped" meant "whipped" and "fur piece" a goodly distance.

whup off verb phrase (pronunciation of whip off) To rush away.
       1939 Hall Coll. (Nine Mile Creek TN) One of the old dogs seen me and whupped off under the hill and went to hollerin'.

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X

 

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Y

year noun Years (used after a numeral or other quantifying word). [Reflects plural partitive genitive cas in Old English.]
       1939 Hall Coll. (Bradley Fork NC) Just after the [Civil] war a few year I was married.  1939 Hall Coll. (Proctor NC) I don't know how long it's been. I guess it's been ten or fifteen year.  1939 Hall Coll. (Deep Creek NC) I plowed a steer for several year till I got able to get a horse.  1969 GSMNP-46:25 I am nearly ten year older than my brother right over there.  1989 Landry Smoky Mt. Interviews 194 Electricity ain't been in the cove many year.

yet adverb Still.
       1922 Tenn Civil War Ques 9 [I] still work at the business yet when I am able to work.  1939 Hall Coll. Emerts Cove TN They's one man living there yet, though that man was a man born when I was just a little boy.   1957 GSMNP-23:1:14 The rocks is still there yet.  1969 GSMNP-46:4 I have got the old collar up there yet that I used on him.  1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. IX-1 I believe that old good book will do to live by yet.

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Z

 

Sources

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1788-89 French Broad Petitions = "Petitions to the North Carolina General Assembly from Inhabitants South of the French Broad. 2001[1784-89]. Transcribed by Cherel Bolin Henderson," Tennessee Ancestors 17.208-27.

1789-98 Big Pigeon Minutes = Minutes of the Big Pigeon Baptist Church [Cocke County], 1787-1874. Transcribed copy on deposit in McClung Collection, Knox County Public Library, Knoxville, Tenn.

1792 Bent Creek Minutes = Bent Creek Baptist Church [Hamblen County] Minutes, 1785-1844. Historical Records Project 465-44-3-115, WPA. 1938. Transcribed copy on deposit in McClung Collection, Knox County Public Library, Knoxville, Tenn.

1796 Dunlap Will = "Some Early Blount County Wills." 2002. Blount Journal: A Tennessee Genealogical Magazine 49.1.6.

1801 Meigs Journal = Return J. Meigs. 1996. "Journal of Return J. Meigs, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Cherokee Nation and Agent for the War Department for the State of Tennessee," 1801-07," East Tennessee Roots 8.1-5, 12-17.
1803-54 Pawpaw Hollow Minutes = Paw Paw Hollow Baptist Churdh [Sevier County]. 1803-54. Transcribed copy on deposit in McClung Collection, Knox County Public Library, Knoxville, Tenn.

1813-14 Hartsell Journal = Jacob Hartsell. 1939-40[1813-14]. "The `J. Hartsell Memora': The Journal of a Tennessee Captain in the War of 1812, ed. by Mary Harden McCown," East Tennessee Historical Society Publications 11.93-115; 12.118-46.

1834 Crockett Narrative = David Crockett. 1834. Narrative of the Life of David Crockett of the State of Tennessee. Baltimore, Md.: Cary, Hart and Company. Facsimile edition published by University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 1973.

1835 Crockett Account = David Crockett. 1835. An Account of Col. Crockett's Tour to the North and Down-east in the Year of Our Lord One-Thousand Eight-Hundred and Thirty-Four. Philadelphia: Grey and Hart.

1838-66 Elijoy Minutes = Elijoy Church (Baptist)—Blount County ("Arm of Miller's Cove Church on Elijoy") Records, 1818-1878. 1989. Transcribed by Betty R. Davis, Copy on deposit in McClung Collection, Knox County Public Library, Knoxville, Tenn.

1844 Willnotah Ms = Willtonah. 1844. "The Life and Memory & Death; of My Brother Yona Gus Kah" [transcribed and published in 1995. Bone Rattler 11.2.15-16.

1845 Sevier Co Court = Sevier County Court. 1997[1845]. "Two Deeds." Transcribed by Pollyanna Creekmore. Smoky Mountain Historical Society Journal and Newsletter 23.14-15 (Spring).

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1859 Taliaferro Fisher's River = H[arden E.] Taliaferro. 1859. Fisher's River (North Carolina) Scenes and Characters. New York: Harper and Brothers. (based on Surrey County, North Carolina, in the 1820s).

1864 Forgotten Ancestors = "The Reb was Croosing the River." 1864. Jefferson County Tennesee Letters of Forgotten Ancestors. <www.tngenweb.org/tnletters/jeff.htm>

1870-71 Tuckaleechee Cove Minutes = Records of the Primitive Baptist Church of Christ in Tuckaleechee Cove [Blount County], Tennessee, April 1870 through August 1912. 1988. Transcribed by Betty R. Davis and on deposit in McClung Collection, Knox County Public Library, Knoxville, Tenn.

1874 Swearingen Letters = Janelle Swearingen. 1994[1874-96]. "Letters from Home," Tennessee Ancestors 10.163-68.

1875 King Great South = Edward King. 1875. The Great South, ed. by W. McGruder Drake and Robert R. Jones and republished by Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1972. Hartford, Conn.: American Publishing Company.

1883 Zeigler and Grosscup Heart of Alleghanies = Wilbur Gleason Zeigler and Benn S. Grosscup. 1883. The Heart of the Alleghanies: or, Western North Carolina; Comprising Its Topography, History, Resources, People, Narratives, Incidents, and Pictures in Travel, Hunting and Fishing, and Legends of Its Wildernesses. Raleigh, N.C.: Williams and Company.

1886 Smith Sthn Dialect = Charles F[orster] Smith. 1886. "Southern Dialect in Life and Literature," Southern Bivouac 4.343-50.

1889 Mooney Folk Carolina Mts = James Mooney. 1889. "Folk-lore of the Carolina Mountains," Journal of American Folklore 2.95-104.

1890 Carpenter Thunderhead Peak = Frank O. Carpenter. 1890. "The Great Smoky Mountains and Thunderhead Peak," Appalachia 6.138-46.

1895 Edson and Fairchiln Tenn Mts = H. A. Edson and Edith M. Fairchild. 1895. "Tennessee Mountains in Word Lists," Dialect Notes 1.370-77.

1897 Brown Dialect Survivals = Calvin S. Brown. 1897. "Dialectal Survivals from Chaucer," Dial 22.139-41.

1899 Crozier White-Caps = E. W. Crozier. 1899. The White-Caps: A History of the Organization in Sevier County. Knoxville, Tenn.: Bean, Warters and Gaut.

1904-07 Kephart Notebooks = Horace Kephart. 1904-07. Notebooks (unpaginated). On deposit at Manuscripts Division, Hunter Library, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, N.C.

1905 Miles Spirit of Mts = Emma Bell Miles. 1905. The Spirit of the Mountains. Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press.

1913 Kephart Our Sthn High = Horace Kephart. 1913. Our Southern Highlanders. New York: Macmillan.

1914 Arthur Western NC = John Preston Arthur. 1914. Western North Carolina: A History. Raleigh, N.C.: Edwards and Broughton.

1915 Bohannon Bear Hunt = J. S. Bohannon. 1915. "A Bear Hunt in the Great Smoky Mountains," National Sportsman, October, 461-65.

1917 Kephart Camping & Woodcraft = Horace Kephart. 1917. Camping & Woodcraft: A Handbook for Vacation Campers and for Travelers in the Wilderness. New York: Macmillan.

1917 Kephart Word-List = Horace Kephart. 1917. "A Word-List from the Mountains of Western North Carolina," Dialect Notes 4.407-19.

1922 Kephart Our Sthn High = Horace Kephart. 1922. Our Southern Highlanders. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan. (used for pages 191-264, three chapters added to the original 1913 edition).

1922 Tenn Civil War Ques = Gustavus W. Dyer, et al., eds. 1985[1922]. Tennessee Civil War Veterans Questionnaires. 5 vols. Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press.

1924 Abernethy Moonshine = Arthur Talmage Abernethy. 1924.  Moonshine, Being Appalachia's Arabian Nights. Asheville, N.C.: Dixie.

1924 Raine Saddlebags = James Watt Raine. 1924. Land of Saddle-Bags: A Study of the Mountain People of Appalachia. New York: Council of the Women for Home Missions and Missionary Education Movement of the United States and Canada.

1925 Dargan Highland Annals = Olive Tilford Dargan. 1925. Highland Annals. New York: Scribner's Sons.

c1926 Bird Cullowhee Wordlist = William Bird. c1926. "Wordlist Compiled at Cullowhee, North Carolina." Typescript in Horace Kephart Collection, Hunter Library, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, N.C.
 
1926 Hunnicutt Twenty Years = Samuel J. Hunnicutt. 1926. Twenty Years Hunting and Fishing in the Great Smoky Mountains. Knoxville, Tenn.: Newman.

1930 Fink Trails = Paul M. Fink. 1930. "Trails of the Great Smokies," Appalachia 18.1.63-69.

1931 Goodrich Mt Homespun = Frances Louisa Goodrich. 1931. Mountain Homespun. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

1937-1959 Hall Coll. = Joseph S. Hall. 1937-1987. Interviews and Other Material Collected by Joseph Sargent Hall, on deposit at Library, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tenn., and at Archives of Appalachia, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tenn.; includes items recorded or noted in speech or from personal letters.

1937 Thornborough Great Smoky Mts = Laura Thornborough. 1937. The Great Smoky Mountains. New York: Crowell. Rev. ed. published 1956 by University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

1939 Burnett Gap o' Mts = G. L. Burnett. 1939. Gap o' the Mountains. Knoxville, Tenn.: Newman.

1939 FWP Guide TN = Federal Writers' Project. 1939. A Guide to Tennessee. New York: Viking.

1940 Haun Hawk's Done = Mildred Haun. 1968. The Hawk's Done Gone and Other Stories, ed. by Hershel Gower, 1-197. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt University Press. (originally published in 1940)

1940 Oakley Roamin'/Restin' = Wiley Oakley. 1940. Sevierville, Tenn.: Oakley Enterprises.

1941 Justus Kettle Creek = May Justus. 1941. Cabin on Kettle Creek. New York: Lippincott.

1942 Hall Phonetics = Joseph S. Hall. 1942. The Phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain Speech. American Speech reprints and monograph no. 4. New York: King's Crown.

1943 Hannum Mt People = Alberta Pierson Hannum. 1943. "The Mountain People," The Great Smokies and the Blue Ridge, ed. by Roderick Peattie, 73-151. New York: Vanguard.

1943 Justus Bluebird = May Justus. 1943. Bluebird, Fly Up! New York: Lippincott.

c1945 Haun Hawk's Done = Mildred Haun. 1968. The Hawk's Done Gone and Other Stories, ed. by Hershel Gower, 201-354. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt University Press. (previously unpublished stories written in the early 1940s)

1952 Mathes Tall Tales = C. Hodge Mathes. 1952. Tall Tales from Old Smoky. Kingsport, Tenn.: Southern.

1953 Atwood Verbs East U.S. = E. Bagby Atwood. 1953. A Survey of Verb Forms in the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press.

1954-1984 GSMNP = Great Smoky Mountains National Park Interviews. 1954-83. Recorded interviews on deposit in Library, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tenn.

1954 Waynesville Mountaineer = Waynesville Mountaineer, August 2.

1957 Parris My Mts = John Parris. 1957. My Mountains, My People. Asheville, N.C.: Citizen-Times.

1959 Pearsall Little Smoky = Marion Pearsall. 1959. Little Smoky Ridge: The Natural History of a Southern Appalachian Neighborhood. Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press.

1960 Burnett My Valley = Fred M. Burnett. 1960. This was My Valley. Ridgecrest, N.C.: n.p.

1960 Hall Smoky Mt Folks = Joseph S. Hall. 1960. Smoky Mountain Folks and Their Lore. Asheville, N.C.: Cataloochee.

1962 Dykeman Tall Woman = Wilma Dykeman. 1962. The Tall Woman. Newport, Tenn.: Wakestone.

1964 Greve Story of Gatlinburg = Jeanette Sterling Greve. 1964. The Story of Gatlinburg. Gatlinburg, Tenn.: Mangrum.

1964 Stokely Harvest = Janie May Jones Stokely. 1964. Years of Harvest: Poems and Tales from the Smoky Foothills. Newport, Tenn.: n.p.

1964 Williams Prepositions Mt Speech = Cratis D. Williams. 1964. "Prepositions in Mountain Speech," Mountain Life and Work 40.1 (Spring), 53-55.

1965 Dict Queen's English = A Dictionary of the Queen's English. 1965. Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Natural and Economic Resources.

1966 Medford Ol' Starlin = W. Clark Medford. 1966. Great Smoky Mountain Stories and Sun over Ol' Starlin. Waynesville, N.C.: Miller Printing.

1967 Campbell Memories of Smoky = Carlos Campbell. 1999[1967]. Memories of Old Smoky. Nashville, Tenn.: Publishers' Graphics.

1969 Medford Finis = W. Clark Medford. 1969. Finis and Farewell. Waynesville, N.C.: self-published.

1970 Foster Walker Valley = Lloyd Foster. 1970. History of Walker Valley. Transcribed by Mary Ruth Chiles. Typescript in Library, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tenn.

1970 Hall Witchlore = Joseph S. Hall. "Witchlore and Ghostlore in the Great Smoky Mountains," Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 36.1.1-6; 36.2.21-26.

1972 Cooper NC Mt Folklore = Horton Cooper. 1972. North Carolina Mountain Folklore and Miscellany. Murfreesboro, N.C.: Johnson.

1974 Fink Bits Mt Speech = Paul [M.] Fink. 1974. Bits of Mountain Speech. Boone, N.C.: Appalachian Consortium.

1974-75 McCracken Logging = Weaver H. McCracken, III. 1974-75. Interviews about Logging in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 24+ volumes of transcripts made by Mary Ruth Chiles and deposited in Library, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tenn.

1974 Russell Hillbilly = Gladys Trentham Russell. 1974. Call Me Hillbilly: A Personal Account of Growing Up in the Smokies near Gatlinburg. Alcoa, Tenn.: Russell.

1975 Chalmers Better = Marjorie Chalmers. 1975. "Better I Stay": An Invitation in the Great Smokies. Gatlinburg, Tenn.: Crescent.

1975 Gainer Speech Mtneer = Patrick W. Gainer. 1975. "Speech of the Mountaineers," Witches Ghosts and Signs: Folklore of the Southern Appalachians, 1-18. Morgantown, W.V.: Seneca.

c1975 Lunsford It Used To Be = Bascom Lamar Lunsford. 1975. It Used To Be: Memories of Bascom Lamar Lunsford, ed. by Mildred Frances Thomas. N.p.: n.p. Typescript on deposit at Appalachian Library, Appalachian State University, Boone, N.C.

1976 Carter Little Tree = Forrest Carter. 1976. The Education of Little Tree. New York: Delacorte.

1976 Lindsay Grassy Balds = Mary Lindsay. 1976. History of the Grassy Balds in the Great Smoky Mountains. Management Report No. 4. NPS Southeast Regional Uplands Field Research Laboratory, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Typescript on deposit in Library, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tenn.

1976 Weals It's Owin' = Vic Weals. 1976. "It's Owin' to How a Word is Used," Knoxville Journal, September 6, 9.
1977 Hamilton Mt Memories = Alice McGuire Hamilton. 1977. Blue Ridge Mountain Memories: The True Story of a Mountain Girl at the Turn of the Century. Atlanta, Ga.: Conger.

1977 Weals Cove Folk = Vic Weals. 1977. "Cove Folk Knew a Stranger by His Factory-Made Track," Knoxville Journal, January 17, 7.

1978 Burns Our Sthn Mtneers = Inez Burns. 1978. "Our Southern Mountaineers," Smoky Mountain Historical Society Newsletter 4.2.10-13.

1978 Montgomery White Pine Coll. = Michael Montgomery, 1978. Interviews conducted in White Pine, Tennessee, analyzed in the author's 1979 University of Florida Ph.D dissertation, A Discourse Analysis of Appalachian English. Interviews are referenced according to the list of speakers on page 163 of this work.

1978 Williams Appal Speech = Cratis Williams. 1978. "Appalachian Speech," North Carolina Historical Review 55.174-79.

1979 Carpenter Walton War = Cal Carpenter. 1979. The Walton War and Tales of the Great Smoky Mountains. Lakemont, Ga.: Copple House.

1980 Miles Verbs Haywood Co = Celia H. Miles. 1980. Selected Verb Features in Haywood County, North Carolina: A Generational Study. Indiana, Pa.: Indiana University of Pennsylvania dissertation.

1981 Brewer Wonderment = Carson Brewer. 1981. A Wonderment of Mountains: The Great Smokies. Knoxville, Tenn.: Tenpenny.

1981 Weals Becky Rewards = Vic Weals. 1981. "Becky Rewards Family Coffinmaker," Knoxville Journal, December 31, 3.

1981 Weals Gourmet Hogs = Vic Weals. 1980. "Gourmet Hogs Fattened on Mountain Chestnuts," Knoxville Journal, October 8, A13.

1981 Weals Root-Hogs = Vic Weals. 1981. "Root-Hogs Unwelcome on High Cattle Range," Knoxville Journal, December 10, C12.

1981 Whitener Folk-Ways = Rogers Whitener. 1981. Selections from "Folk-ways and Folk Speech." North Carolina Folklore Journal 29.1-86.

1982 Ginns Snowbird Gravy = Patsy Moore Ginns. 1982. Snowbird Gravy and Dishpan Pie: Mountain People Recall. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press.

1982 Maples Memories = Alie Newman Maples. 1982. Memories of My Mountains. N.p.: n.p.

1982 Parris Here's How = John Parris. 1982. "Here's How to Understand Mountain Folks," Asheville Citizen-Times, July 18.

1982 Powers and Hannah Cataloochee = Elizabeth D. Powers and Mark E. Hannah. 1982. Cataloochee: Lost Settlement of the Smokies. Charleston, S.C.: Blazer.

1983 Pyle CCC 50th Anniv = Charlotte Pyle. 1983. CCC Fiftieth Anniversary Interviews. 3 volumes. Typescript on deposit in Library, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tenn.

1985 Wear Lost Communities = Jerry Wear, ed. 1985. Lost Communities of Sevier County Tennessee: Greenbrier. Sevierville, Tenn.: Sevierville Heritage Committee.

1986 Helton Around Home = William W. Helton. 1986. "In a Manner of Speaking," Around Home in Unicoi County, 373-81. Johnson City, Tenn.: Overmountain Press.

1986 Ogle Lucinda = Lucinda Ogle. 1986. "Lucinda Oakley Ogle and Early Settlers," Sugarlands: A Lost Community of Sevier County, ed. by Jerry L. Wear, 37-77. Sevierville, Tenn.: Sevierville Heritage Committee.

1986 Pederson et al. LAGS = Lee Pederson, et al. 1986. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States: Basic Materials. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms.

1986 Rader Mt Legacy = Ron Rader. 1986. "A Mountain Legacy," Sugarlands: A Lost Community of Sevier County, ed. by Jerry L. Wear, 17-22. Sevierville, Tenn.: Sevierville Heritage Committee.

1987 Oliver and Oliver Sketches = Hugh R. Oliver and Margaret T. Oliver. 1987. Sketches of the Olivers: A Family History 1726 to 1966. Pinehurst, N.C.: privately published.

1988 Russell It Happened = Gladys Trentham Russell. 1988. It Happened in the Smokies: A Mountaineer's Memories of Happenings in the Smoky Mountains in Pre-Park Days. Alcoa, Tenn.: Russell.

1989 Hannah Reflections = Mark E. Hannah. 1989. Smoky Mountain Reflections. N.p.: Sev-Hannah.

1989 Landry Smoky Mt Interviews = Bill Landry. 1989. Interviews conducted under the auspices of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. On deposit in the Library, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tenn.

1989 Smith Flyin' Bullets = Ersa Rhea Noland Smith. 1989. Flyin' Bullets and Resplendent Badge. Sevierville, Tenn.: Nandel.

1990 Aiken Wiley Oakley = Gene Aiken. 1990. "Wiley Oakley: Roaming Man of the Mountains," The Star, April 13.

1990 Bailey Draw Up Chair = Louise Howe Bailey. 1990. Draw Up a Chair. Skyland, N.C.: Hickory Printing.

1990 Cavender Folk Medical Lex = Anthony Cavender. 1990. A Folk Medical Lexicon of South Central Appalachia. Johnson City, Tenn.: East Tennessee State University.

1991 Haynes Haywood Home = Alice Hawkins Haynes. 1991. Haywood Home: Memories of a Mountain Woman. Tallahassee, Fla.: Rose.

1992 Gabbard Thunder Road = Alex Gabbard. 1992. Return to Thunder Road: The Story behind the Legend. Lenoir City, Tenn.: Gabbard.

1994 Schmidt and Hooks Whistle = Ronald G. Schmidt and William S. Hooks. 1994. Whistle over the Mountain: Timber, Track and Trails in the Tennessee Smokies. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Graphicom.

1994 Walker Life History = Cas Walker. 1994. My Life History: A True Living Legend. N.p.: self-published.

1995 Adams Come Go Home = Sheila Kay Adams. 1995. Come Go Home with Me. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press.

1995 Alexander Mt Fever = Tom Alexander. 1995. Mountain Fever. Asheville, N.C.: Bright Mountain Books.

1995 Williams Smoky Mts Folklife = Michael Ann Williams. 1995. Great Smoky Mountains Folklife. Jackson, Miss.: University Press of Mississippi.

1996 Edmondson Crawford Memoirs = Kenneth L. Edmundson. 1996. "Hugh Forgey Crawford: Family Memoirs, Letters, and New Year's Notes," Tennessee Ancestors 12.125-37.
1996 Landry Coll. = Bill Landry. 1996. [Interviews conducted for the Heartland Television Series], on deposit at WBIR-TV, Knoxville, Tenn.

1996-97 Montgomery Coll. = Observations and responses by consultants to queries collected by Michael Montgomery in editing Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English.

1997-99 GSMNPOHP = University of Tennessee/Great Smoky Mountains National Park Cooperative Oral History Project. Recorded interviews on deposit in Library, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tenn.

1999 Davis Civil War Letters = Hattie Caldwell Davis. 1999. Civil War Letters and Memories from the Great Smoky Mountains. Maggie Valley, N.C.: self-published.

1999 McNeil Purchase Knob = Kathryn K. McNeil. 1999. Purchase Knob: Essays from a Mountain Notebook. Santa Barbara, Cal.: Fithian.

c1999 Sutton Me and Likker = Popcorn Sutton. c1999. Me and My Likker. [Maggie Valley, N.C.]: self-published.

2000 Oakley Roamin Man = Harvey Oakley. 2000. Rememberin' the Roamin' Man of the Mountains, Wiley Oakley. Gatlinburg, Tenn.: Oakley Books.

2001 Lowry Expressions = Houston Lowry. 2001. "Expressions, Sayings, Descriptions of Patients in My Practice: Notes Sporadically Made from about 1965 through 1998." typescript.