California Castration Law
Canadian Bill of Rights (1960 -Canada)
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Canadian Human Rights Act (1977-Canada)
Canadian Law
capital offense
capital punishment*
caring "cost of caring"
caring & empathy
case worker
correctional officer
cause of death
chain of custody*
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982-Canada)
child abuse*
child abuse (physical)*/font>
child neglect
child prostitution*
chronic mentally ill*
chronic mentally ill offender
chronic illness
civil commitment
clandestine abuse
classical school of criminology
clinical forensic medicine*
clinical forensic nurse*
clinical forensic nursing
clinical forensic practice
clinical psychology
coca cola (1886)
cocaine abuse theory
coffin birth
collection or stash
Commissions of Corrections Report (1971-Canada)
Communications Decency Act (1996-USA)
community based intermediate sanctions
community mental health center
community notification*
community reintegration
Community Treatment Order (CTO)
competency to stand trial*
compos mentis
computer forensics
conceptual framework
conceptual model
conceptual model & theory- distinction
consent form
constitutional rights violation (1980-USA)
consultant expert
contact rapists
convicted prisoner
coroner system*
corporal punishment8
correctional facility
correctional health care
correctional milieu
correctional nurses (forensic)*
correctional nursing*
correctional officers
correctional system
corrections system
Corrections Service Canada (CSC)*
court diversion liaison scheme
court diversion project
court liaison officer (mental health court support worker)*
court reporter (1894-UK)
covert aggression
covert video surveillance (CVS)
Crime Profits Law (1996-Alberta law)
Criminal Code of Canada - (1892-Canada)
criminal harassment "stalking" legislation (Canada-1993)
criminal justice system
criminal lawyer (1869-UK)
Criminal Procedure Code (1985-Singapore)
criminal profiling
criminal responsibility
criminalization hypothesis
criminally insane
criminogenic factors
criminogenic needs
criminology (1890-UK)
crisis intervention*
crisis intervention theory*
custodial care
cycle of violence

* (multiple definitions)
(141 definitions)

California Castration Law:
"California's new law mandating castration for certain sex offenders was passed on Aug 30, 1996, and became part of the criminal code on Jan. 1, 1997. According to this law (chapter 645 of the penal code) offenders convicted for the second time of rape, oral copulation, sodomy, or lewid or lavicious acts in cases in which "the victim has not attained 13 years of age, shall, upon parole, undergo medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment or its chemical equivalent, in addition to any other punishment prescribed for that offense or any other provision of law."

Canadian Bill of Rights (1960-Canada):
"the first federal legislative enactment to� specifically set out fundamental human rights for Canadians" (Department of Justice Canada, 1993, p. 12). 

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms:
"enacted in 1984 resulted in many regulations in the code contravening the mandates contained in the Charter" (Arboleda et al, 1995, p. 226). 

Canadian Human Rights Act (1977-Canada):
"protects human rights particularly in the areas of employment, the provision of accommodation and commercial premises. Unlike the Canadian Bill of Rights the CHRA applies not only to the federal government but also to the private sector"(Department of Justice Canada, 1993, p. 12). 

Canadian Law:
"Canadian law is generally founded on common law, which has been carried over from� Anglo-Saxon countries. The exception is Quebec which has a Civil Code (Chalke et al, 1995, p. 120). 

"tall rough annual herbs with erect stems, leaves with 3-7 elongate leaflets and pistillate flowers along the leafy stem". 

capital offense:
"a very serious crime, for which the death penalty is imposed". 

capital punishment:
"the most severe of all sentences: that of death. Also known as the death penalty, capital punishment has been banned in many countries. In the United States an earlier move to eliminate capital punishment has now been reversed and more and more states are resorting to capital punishment for serious offenses such as murder" (WWLIA's Legal on Line Dictionary, 1996).�  

capital punishment:
"abolished in Canada in 1976; the same year was reenacted� in some states in the United States". 

capital punishment:
"the most severe of all sentences, that of death; also known as the death penalty; capital punishment has been abolished in many countries" (WWLIA's Legal on Line Dictionary).�  

capital punishment:
"the word "capital" in "capital punishment" refers to a person's head. In the past, people were often executed by chopping off their head" (�  

"the first definition of the concept of 'care' was offered by� Florence Nightingale in 1859 - "putting the patient in the best possible conditions for nature to act upon him" (Mason & Chandley, 1990, p. 669). 

" The term `caregiver' is used in place of family member, relative or informal carer, with 'caregiver' being defined as the person providing the most emotional, physical and social support to another person on an informal basis (Lefley, 1996 , cited in MacInnes, 2000).

caring "cost of caring":
"the cost of caring is a practice that is essential in our modern profit-and-loss-orientated society, but difficult to put a price on" (Standing Bear, 1995, p. 60). 

caring "empathy":
"caring and empathy are integral and significant parts of the nursing profession that fulfills an important human need in death investigation" (Standing Bear, 1995, p. 64). 

"researchers have found that people who carve their skin are frequently bearing significant psychological scars from childhood-they feel anxious, guilty and angry" (Green, 1978; Simpson & Porter 1981; cited in (Rayner, 1994; p. 21). 

case worker:
Some Provincial Correctional Departments still use the title of case worker for employees involve in case preparation for offender release. In Correctional Service Canada this role is very complex and the title is IPO, Institutional Parole Officer (Dan Wilkinson, personal communication, October 6, 2003).

correctional officer (C.O.)
Well the C.O.'s maintains custody and security of offenders usually with the confines of a goal. This may be In a Provincial Institution or a Federal Institution. Classification Officer can also be known as a Placement Officer or Intake Officer. This role usually involves the collection of facts or history on the offender. This aids in the classification of offender security and sometimes is the beginning of the Parole or release process (Dan Wilkinson, personal communication, October 6, 2003).

"the concept of causality is based on the idea that one event is the result of another event.� The stories about the cause of disease, for example, have evolved over time" (Clark, 1996, p. 100).��  

cause of death:
the injury, disease, or combination of the two responsible for initiating the train of physiological disturbances, brief or prolonged which produced the fatal termination (Besant-Matthews, 1989, cited in Hoyt & Spangler, 1996. p. 25). 

divine, heavenly legal, pure laws (chastity, purity, virginity).(on-line Dictionary). 

chain of custody:
"at trial the authenticity of an item as evidence is crucial, whether it be a physical object like a bullet, a medical record or a photograph. The item cannot be offered in court without a testimonial sponsor who can vouch for its unaltered authenticity to the court and the jury. To validate an items unaltered authenticity. A record must be kept of each and every time the item changes hands" (Hoyt, 1991, p. 22) 

chain of custody:
"establishes each person having custody of the evidence, thereby establishing continuity of possession, and proof of integrity of the evidence collected (Osterburg & Ward, 1992, p. 178). 

chain of custody:
"the travelogue of the evidence, the continuity of possession. All individuals involved in the collection, transportation and examination of the piece of evidence must add to the written record of the item's acquisition and disposition" (Carla Noziglia, 1998). 

chain of custody:
"the principle of chain of custody is the establishment that evidence as found in situ is witnessed at time of discovery and that there is a continuous chain of custody up to presentation in a court of law" (Melbye & Jiminez, in Haglund & Sorg (ed) Forensic Taphonomy). 

Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982-Canada):�
"the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms became a fundamental part of the Canadian Constitution in 1982. Section 7 provides for "life, liberty and security of person", while Section 12 ensures no "cruel and unusual punishment" (Canada's Justice System, 1993, p. 12). 

"an "arbitrary" chronological age varying from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from country to country. In some countries it is a person under the age of 14, in other countries it is someone under the age of 18". 

"defined as a person who is or, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, appears to be under the age of 12 years (Consolidated Statutes of Canada, 1985). 

child abuse:
"general term used to describe behavior on the part of a parent or guardian that results in significant negative emotional or physical consequences for a child. However, there is no consensus in Canadian society about what constitutes abusive behavior or significant negative consequences. Abuse of children can take several different forms: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse or neglect" (Office for the Prevention of Family Violence, Alberta Social Services, 1994). 

child abuse:
"the Ontario- Child and Family Services Act RSO 1990, Section 37, has a� legal definition of child abuse: to suffer abuse, when used in reference to a child, means to be in need of protection within the meaning of the Child and Family Service Act� (Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto, 1995). 

child abuse (physical):
"in New York State the legal definition of a physically abused child is: a child�� who is less than 18 years of age whose parent(s) or other person(s) legally responsible for his/her care either: inflicts or allows to be inflicted upon such child physical injury by other than accidental means which causes or creates a substantial risk of death or serious or protracted disfigurement, or protracted impairment or the child's physical health, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ - or - creates or allows to be created a substantial risk of physical injury to such child by other than accidental means which would be likely to cause death or serious or protracted impairment of the child's physical health, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ. 

child abuse (physical):
"physical child abuse is defined as substantial and observable injury to any part of the child's body that is evidenced by a laceration, a contusion, an abrasion, a scar, a fracture or other bone injury..." (Canada-Alberta Family & Social Services, 1993, p. 3).  

child abuse & neglect:
"the Child Abuse and Treatment Act (Public Law 100-294) includes a broad definition of child abuse and neglect. It is defined as "the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation, negligent treatment, or maltreatment of a child by a person who is responsible for the child's welfare, under circumstances which indicate that the child's health or welfare is harmed or threatened thereby (Flowers, 2000)." The Child Abuse Amendments of 1984 (Public Law 98-457) expanded the definition to include "the withholding of medical treatment to an infant with a life threatening health condition or complication."

child neglect:

'failure to provide the necessities of life such as adequate living conditions, adequate nutrition,� adequate education, and adequate medical care, failure to provide adequate affection, adequate emotional support� and adequate stimulation and failure to adequately supervise, protect or control the child" (Ministry of Community and Social Services, 1998,� p. 19). 

child neglect:

"the negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child by a parent or caretaker under circumstances indicating harm or threatened harm to the child's health or welfare." The important point is that it is an act of omission on part of the parent or caretaker whereas abuse is an act of commission. The dilemma that sometimes accompanies neglect is that it is difficult to determine where acceptable parenting stops and neglect begins (Wallace, 1999).

child sexual abuse:
"The Child Abuse and Treatment Act further defines child sexual abuse as (a) the employment, use, persuasion, inducement, enticement, or coercion of any child to engage in, or assist any other person to engage in, any sexually explicit conduct or simulation of such conduct for the purpose of producing any visual depiction of such conduct, or (b) the rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual exploitation of children, or incest with children." (Flowers, 1999).

child sexual abuse
"a violation of a child's body, mind, and spirit" (Bagley & King, 1990, p55).

child prostitution:

United Nations Commission on Human Rights Thematic Report defined child prostitution as "the act of engaging or offering the services of a child to perform sexual acts for money or other consideration with that person or any other person". Under this definition, child prostitution is not "committed" by the child itself, but by the person "engaging or offering the services of a child"; this definition intends to lessen confusion concerning other forms of child exploitation and abuse

child prostitution:
all prostitution related offenses against youth are those involving persons under the age of 18 years (Children involved in Prostitution, 1997).  

child prostitution:
"the exchange of sexual favours for money or other material goods without any emotional involvement� involving a person under the age of 18 years.  

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the basic analytic technique that may extend from a simple "thin-layer" technique to use of the elaborate gas chromatographic/mass spectrophotometer, an instrument commonly recognized in "dope testing of� athletes (Alberta Justice, 1993, p. 14).  

chronic mentally ill:
"those who suffer severe and persistent emotional disorders that interfere with� functional capabilities in relation to such primary aspects of life as self care and interpersonal relationships" (Goldman, Gatozzi & Taube, 1981).�  

chronic mentally ill:
"these individuals tend to commit lesser level crimes such as obtaining food by fraud, disturbing the peace, resisting arrest, and shoplifting, etc." (Arboleda-Florez & Chato, 1985). 

chronic mentally ill offender:
individuals broadly defined� as those who suffer severe and persistent emotional disorders, that interfere with� functional capabilities in relation to such primary aspects of life as self care and interpersonal relationships. These individuals tend to commit lesser level crimes such as obtaining food by fraud, disturbing the peace, resisting arrest and/or shoplifting� (Goldman, Gatozzi & Taube, 1981; Arboleda-Florez & Chato, 1985). 

chronic illness:
"marked by long duration or frequent recurrence; not acute; suffering from a chronic disease" (WWWebster on-line). 

"indirect; concerning matters surrounding an event, rather than the event itself;� as guilt inferred from circumstantial evidence. Latin circum (around) and stare (to stand)'. 

civil commitment:
"the indefinite incarceration of the sex offender who has been deemed untreatable; presently in Canada they are incarcerated under the High Risk Offenders Bill" (Bill C-55) (John Howard Society of Alberta, 1997).  

"a group of persons of common ancestry" (WWWebster Dictionary, 1997). 

"abuse that is kept secret for a purpose, concealed, or underhanded" (Webster's dictionary, 1987). 

classical school of criminology
"founded by� Beccaria in 1764 - the powerful conception that man could determine his own destiny and political future by the controlled use of reason and the accumulation of knowledge based on rational discourse" (Schell-King & Finneran, 1982, p. 56). 

clinical forensic medicine:
"the medical specialty which applies the principles and practices of medicine to the elucidation of questions in judicial proceedings for the protection of the individual's legal rights prior to death" (Eckert et. al, 1986, p. 182). 

clinical forensic medicine:
"the application of clinical medicine to victims of trauma, involving the scientific investigation of trauma and proper processing of forensic evidence" (McNamara, 1987, cited in Lynch, 1991, p. 70).  

clinical forensic nurse:
"provides care for the survivors of crime related injury and deaths that occur within the health care institution. The specialist has a duty to defend patient's legal rights through the proper� documentation and collection of evidence that represents access to social justice" (Lynch, 1999). 

clinical forensic nursing:
"the application of the forensic aspects of health care in the scientific investigation and treatment of trauma and or death or related medicolegal issues to living patients or those whose death is pronounced upon arrival or during trauma treatment" (Lynch, 1991).  

clinical forensic nursing:
"the application of clinical nursing practice to trauma survivors or to those whose death is pronounced in the clinical environs, involving the identification of the unrecognized, unidentified injuries, and the proper processing of forensic evidence" (Lynch, 1995, p. 491).�  

clinical forensic practice:
"the application of clinical and scientific knowledge to questions of law and the criminal and civil investigation of survivors of traumatic injury and/or patient treatment involving court related issues" (Lynch, 1993, p. 8).  

clinical psychology:
"clinical psychology: arose from general psychology, which developed (out of philosophy) with a mission to better understand human behavior or the range of 'normal' behavior" (Grisso, 1993, p.138). 

coca cola (1886):
"in the height of the cocaine craze a drug chemist, John Pepperton began selling cocaine in a potent liquid form. He called it Coca Cola, named after its two primary substances - the cola nut from Africa and the coca leaf from South America. Originally it was sold as a medicinal product" (Nimoy, 1996). 

cocaine abuse theory:
"the theory that paranoid thinking leads to suspiciousness and misinterpretation of reality and contributes to aggressive and neglectful behavior. Addiction and the consequent compulsive preoccupation with acquiring the drugs contribute to neglectful and exploitive behavior" (Davidovich, 1990). 

coffin birth

"Coffin birth can happen when a body is decomposing and natural gases, which occur doing decomposition, build up to a point that the pressure from these gases push out the fetus. This theory is thought to be the most reasonable one for Laci Peterson case" (USA Today, 2003).

collection or stash:
"most pedophiles have a large quantity of child pornography known to experts as a "collection: or "stash" (Gooderman & Laghi, Globe and Mail, December 14, 1996). 

"conspire; act together secretly, 'The two suspects had colluded over their statements to the police'. Latin com (together),� and ludere (to play)". 

"a binocular microscope to which a 35 mm camera can be attached. This instrument allows the nurse conducting the evidential examination to magnify the vaginal area and better identify any tears in the mucosa" (Ledray & Ardnt, 1994, p. 9).�  

Commissions of Corrections Report (1971-Canada):
"recommended female registered nurses be introduced and a registered nurse required to be in charge of every shift" (Smale, 1983, p. 32). 

Communications Decency Act (1996- USA):
"censorship of indecent language and pornography. The Appeals Court in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, judged the Communications Decency Act as unconstitutional. In July 1996, the United States government appealed to the Supreme Court". 

"an ill defined concept which is difficult to delineate but has a popularist interpretation of being 'anywhere/everywhere outside of a hospital'," (Bachrach & Lamb 1989; Beale, Davies, Nixon & Smith, 1993; cited in Mason & Mercer, 1996, p. 157). 

community based intermediate sanctions:
"penalties for criminal offenses that do not involve incarceration. A commonly applied intermediate sanction is probation: conditional release to the community with monitoring by court -appointed officers" (Thorburn, 1995, p. 561). 

community mental health center:
"agency providing psychiatric services to clients in a particular catchment area" (Dunn, Selzer & Tomcho, 1996. p. 372). 

community notification:
"the distribution of information regarding released sex offenders to citizens and community organizations; in general, community notification only applies to potentially dangerous sex offenders" (Matson & Lieb, 1996, p. 1). 

community notification:
"community notification laws were thought of as a resolution to all of the issues of punishment, control and release, but a solution to child sex abuse by released sex offenders has not been found. Community notification can at its' best be thought of as a form of community policing with the community forming an active partnership with the police (Lieb, 1996). 

community reintegration:
"an alternative to community notification is community reintegration; programs emphasize that the community is also responsible for the reintegration of offenders; it involves volunteers who form support groups with released sexual offenders" (John Howard Society, 1996).  

Community Treatment Order (CTO):

"A Community Treatment Order is a legal tool or mechanism, a form, issued by a medical practitioner, which defines the treatment (medical or otherwise) and conditions under which a person with a mental illness may live in the community. The consequence to the individual for failing to follow the order is return to a psychiatric facility for assessment, but not hospitalization. The duration of a CTO is six months; it may be renewed at any point during the six months or one month after expiry. Other terms commonly used in place of CTO are: coercive community treatment; compulsory community treatment; involuntary outpatient commitment and community committal" (Centre Addictions & Mental Health -CAMH, 2000, p.2).

Community Treatment Order (CTO):

"In Ontario, Bill 68, an act to amend the Mental Health Act and the Health Care Consent Act, 1996, states: The purpose of a community treatment order is to provide a person who suffers from a serious mental disorder with a comprehensive plan of community-based treatment or care and supervision that is less restrictive than being detained in a psychiatric facility. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, a purpose is a provide such a plan for a person who, as a result of his or her serious mental disorder, experiences this pattern: the person is admitted to a psychiatric facility where his or her condition is usually stabilized; after being released from the facility, the person often stops the treatment or care and supervision; the person's condition changes and, as a result, the person must be re-admitted to a psychiatric facility" (Bill 68, Chapter 9, Statutes of Ontario, 2000

competency to stand trial:
"the issue of 'competency to stand trial' in the United States is equivalent to 'fitness to stand trial' in Canada" (Kent-Wilkinson, 2000).  

competency to stand trial:
"the question of competency to stand trial is may arise if a person is charged with a felony or a misdemeanor and has a behavioral problem. This issue must be resolved before proceeding with the charges, especially if the crime is a felony (Laben & Blum, 1997, p. 371). The query concerns the person's current mental condition, plus the following questions: Does the defendant understand the charges? Can the defendant appropriately advise council? Does the defendant understand the consequences of those charges? An evaluation is conducted by a mental health professional trained to perform these assessment at an inpatient facility, the jail, or an outpatient facility of private mental health practice (Laben & MacLean, 1989). 

compos mentis:
" if a person is considered 'compis mentis' (of sound mind) they are responsible for their actions (McCall-Smith, 1987, in Mason & Mercer, 1998).  

compos mentis:
"persons considered 'compis mentis' (of sound mind) are those responsible for their actions (McCall-Smith, 1987, in Mason & Mercer, 1998).

computer forensics:
"the application of computer investigation and analysis in techniques in the interest of determining potential legal evidence. Evidence might be sought in a wide range of computer crime or misuse, including but not limited to theft of trade secrets, theft of or destruction of intellectual; property, and fraud. Computers specialist can draw on an array of methods for discovering data that resides in a computer system, or recovering deleted, encrypted, or damaged file information. Any or all of this information may help during discovery, depositions, or actual litigation" (Judd Robbins,  

conceptual framework:
"made up of ideas and interrelationships. The main ideas in any nursing framework are health, environment, person, nurse and nursing. How the interrelationships are described form the distinctive features of specific nursing frameworks" (A.A.R.N. Nursing Practice Standards, 1991).�  

conceptual model:
"composed� of� abstract and� general concepts and propositions. These global ideas and statements are expressed in a distinctive manner in each model. Conceptual model is a term� synonymous� with� conceptual� framework,� conceptual� system,� paradigm� and disciplinary� matrix" (Fawcett, 1989). 

conceptual model & theory- distinction:
"a conceptual model is highly abstract....a theory in contrast contains more concrete concepts (Fawcett, 1980). 

"protection of participants in a study such that their individual identities will not be linked to the information they provided, and publicly divulged" (Polit & Hungler, 1987). 

"includes any situation where an individual is prevented from leaving a particular place; this would include a hospital or its grounds, a room, a vehicle, specific area or even a chair" (Paterson, Tringham, McCormish, & Waters, 1997, p. 128). 

consent form:
"a written agreement signed by a subject and researcher concerning the terms and conditions of the subject's voluntary participation in a study" (Polit & Hungler, 1987). 

constitutional rights violation (1980-USA):
"US courts have declared that failure to provide adequate health care to� individuals confined in Correctional Institutions is a violation under� the Eighth and the Fourteenth Amendments (Duber, 1981; Isele, 1979; cited in Droes, 1994, p. 201). 

consultant expert:
"no expectation to testify; consults with the attorney-client behind the scenes; can analyze a variety of different cases and all aspects of the case; the work product is generally not discoverable". 

contact rapists:
"tend to commit their crimes with relative frequency with few victims reporting the crime; offender is known to the victim, through either business, personal or casual relationship" (Merrill, 1996). 

"smuggled goods; 'Custom officers seized contraband at the border'. Italian contra (against) and bando (proclamation)". 

convicted prisoner:
"once the trial has taken place the accused is either found not guilty, in which case he will be released, or guilty in which case he may be sentences to a term of imprisonment" (Manning, 1997). 

"a public official who is primarily charged with the duty of determining how and why people under the coroner's jurisdiction die (these jurisdictions vary from state to state, but typically include sudden, unexpected, unexplained, or traumatic deaths" (Cumming, 1995, p. 29).  

"the coroner is generally a popularly elected county official who need not be medically trained" (Chien, 1996, Available: 

"in 1192, the title of "Coroner" in England was given to each knight who took custody of a deceased felon's property, thereby enriching the royal treasury. The title derives from the Latin "Custom placitorum coronae" or" Supervisor of the Crown's pleas" (Chien, 1996, Available: 

"original name for the coroner was "Crowner" who investigated the death to see if the death allowed crown property as taxes were to be paid to the crown" (Dr. Butt, 1995). [In England and Wales - Coroners; Scotland - Proctutor fiscal]. 

"in contrast to most medical examiners, coroners possess more legal power and� they have the power to subpoena witnesses" (Kowalski, 1990, cited in Schramm, 1991, p.673). 

coroner system:
"is headed by an elected official. In some jurisdictions this system is run much like a medical examiner system, with only properly qualified candidates nominated for election. Some states, including Pennsylvania and Kentucky, require candidates running for election to have basic training. But in other locals, coroners aren't required to have any training whatsoever in science, medicine or the law" (Descheneaux, 1991, p. 55). 

coroner system:
"the two types of systems available in Canada in the investigation of sudden death are the coroner system and the medical examiner system; the medical examiner and the coroner both collect medical and other evidence in order to determine the medical cause and manner of death; the medical examiner system is physician -based where the coroner system is not; the coroner system involves medical, administrative and� judicial elements; the coroner is also in a position to conduct a public inquest with a courtroom procedure" (Alberta-Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1988, p. 1). 

corporal punishment:
"a punishment for some violation of conduct which involves the infliction of pain on, or harm to the body. A fine or imprisonment is not considered to be corporal punishment. The death penalty is the most drastic form of corporal punishment and is also called capital punishment. Some schools still use a strap to punish students. Some countries still punish habitual thieves by cutting off a hand. These are forms of corporal punishment, as is any form of spanking, whipping or bodily mutilation inflicted as punishment" (WWLIA Legal Dictionary (on-line), 1996). 

corporal punishment:
"corporal punishment is a discipline method that uses physical force or, the threat thereof, as a behavior modifier" (Helfer, Kempe & Krugman, 1997).  

corporal punishment (1972-Canada):
"corporal punishment (whipping) as a punishment for disciplinary offences in federal Canadian penitentiaries is abolished"(Eksted & Griffiths, 1994).�  

correctional facility:
"a federal, state, or local institution providing confinement for those convicted of a crime or those awaiting trial. Jails are generally used for those awaiting trials and prisons for those serving sentences" (Dunn, Selzer & Tomcho, 1996. p. 372). 

correctional health care:
"a specialty in which nurses, technicians, and doctors provide health care to individuals incarcerated in juvenile detention facilities, municipal and county jails, state and federal prisons, and other detention type centers. A wide variety of health care needs is encountered from AIDS to Zits" (Folsom, 1992, p. 6).�  

correctional milieu:
"secure or controlled settings, commonly jails, prisons, correctional settings, or penitentiaries, including those for women, juveniles and the mentally ill" (Peternelj-Taylor, 1998). 

correctional nurses "forensic":
"specializes in the care and treatment of large institutionalized populations in jail, prisons and other correctional facilities, may be cognizant of the legal and custody� requirements of their patients, document and report problems, common to large institutionalized groups confined in close quarters" (Lynch, 1999). 

correctional nurses (forensic):
"the provision of biopsychosocial nursing care to individuals who have been charged or convicted of a crime" (Kent-Wilkinson, 1995). 

correctional nursing:
"the provision of nursing care (not necessarily psychiatric) to all individuals who have been detained by the courts.� The health care of� patients who have been charged or convicted of a crime is provided by correctional nurses at remand centres, correctional institutions, penitentiaries or half-way houses" (Kent-Wilkinson, 1986).  

correctional nursing:
"a� global�� term�� referring� to� the�� nursing�� care� provided� to� all individuals detained by the courts" (Day, 1983, p. 36).�  

correctional officers:�
"charged with overseeing individuals who have been arrested, are awaiting trial or other hearing, or who have been convicted of a crime and sentenced to serve time in a jail, reformatory, or penitentiary. They maintain security and observe inmate conduct and behavior to prevent disturbances and escapes. Regardless of the setting, correctional officers maintain order within the institution, enforce rules and regulations, and may supplement whatever counseling inmates receive from psychologists, social workers, or other mental health professionals" (Available: <> 

correctional system:
"viewed as a subculture of the larger culture with its own rules, regulations language and formal and informal procedures" (Bernier, 1990, p. 696).  

corrections system:
"is comprised of prisons, jails, juvenile detention centers, or training schools, and the probation and parole process. Corrections is a structured system with the main goal of maintaining order in a basically chaotic system"(Bernier, 1986, p. 20).  

Corrections Service Canada (CSC):
"CSC is divided into five regions- Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, Prairie and Pacific. Each federal institution provides comprehensive health care including medical-surgical, psychiatric, dental and optical care, and nursing services" (Correctional Service Canada, 1994). 

Corrections Service Canada (CSC):
"administers 41 federal penitentiaries, 16 community based correctional facilities, 65 parole offices and 14 district offices. Responsibility for corrections in Canada is shared by federal, provincial and territorial governments" (Correctional Service Canada, 1994).  

Corrections Service Canada:
"Mission - Correctional Service Canada, as part of the criminal justice system, contributes to the protection of society by actively encouraging and assisting offenders to become law abiding citizens, while exercising reasonable, safe, secure and humane control"� (Correctional Service Canada, 1994). 

"confirm; provide supporting evidence; 'His story was corroborated by witnessed'. Latin com and roborare (to strengthen)". 

"means a person who has jurisdiction in the territorial division where the subject matter of the proceedings is alleged to have arisen. (p. CC 1013). 

court diversion liaison scheme:
"a system which gives professionals who may come into contact with potential MDOs (mentally disordered offenders), the opportunity of referring such people to health care professionals with psychiatric assessment/diagnostic skills. The aim of this referral is to provide the court with a mental health assessment that suggest alternatives to custody via treatment or support in the least secure environment possible" (Kitchiner, 1996, p. 66). 

court diversion project :
"specific programs that screen defined groups or detainees for the presence of a medical disorder, use mental health professionals to those detainees identified in screening; negotiate with prosecutors, defense attorneys, community based mental health providers, and the courts to provide a mental health disposition as a condition of bond, in lieu of prosecution, or as a condition of a reduction in charges whether or not a formal conviction occurs): and link the detainee directly to community based services" (Steadman, Morris & Dennis, 1995, p. 1630).

court liaison officer (mental health court support worker):
"a� health care professional� i.e.� nurse� who� acts� as a consultant to the courts and conducts on-site assessments and makes recommendations to the courts when called upon". 

court liaison officer (mental health court support worker):
"a� health care professional i.e. nurse who is an on site consultant to the family courts. In this role they evaluate children and families and make recommendations to the judge regarding disposition, treatment needs, etc. The cases may� involve neglect, abuse, custody, juvenile delinquency, orders of protection, and persons in need of supervision.� Also they may interpret psychiatric records and suggest questions regarding mental health testimony.� They usually are� not employed by the court, but rather are employed by a state children's mental health facility and spend 2 days per week in court by interagency agreement.� Their salary as a Community Mental Health Nurse is determined by civil service" (Merle Bercow, New York, MRC forensic listserv posting, Jan 6, 2000). 

court reporter (1894-UK):
"a stenographer who records and transcribes a verbatim report of all proceedings in a court of law" (Merriam Webster Dictionary). 

covert aggression:
"the emotional and cognitive components of aggression such as anger and hostility" (Lange et al, 1995, cited in Collins & Robinson, 1997, p. 67). 

covert video surveillance (CVS):
"the observation and recording of actions and bevaiours on video camera without the knowledge or consent of the participant" (Gulland, 1997). 

"under Anglo-Canadian law, a crime is an illegal act committed by� a person who has criminal intent (Caswell, 1997). 

"that form of behavior defined as illegal by� criminal law. At various times in history, acts judged as criminal have been redefined or even removed from the statute book (for example homosexuality and suicide" (Prins, 1973; Prins, 1981, p, 421). 

"definitions of crime and the behaviour of criminals are offered by legal and social institutions (Anderson, 1997, p. 244). 

Crime Profits Law (1996 - Alberta law):
"to prevent criminals from profiting by writing books. Legislation would be able to seize the money made from writing books, articles and screen plays to the list of crime forfeited to the crown. This law copies the so-called Son of Sam Law in the US. Ontario had already passed a law giving book and movie profits to victims" (Chase, 1996). 

"1) law - relating to crime or pertaining to the administration of penal as opposed to civil law; 2) implying crime or heinous wickedness; 3) guilty of crime, one who has been committed an offense punishable by law" (Webster Dictionary, 1996 on-line). 

Criminal Code of Canada - (1892-Canada):
"Canada's criminal law is rooted in the common law of England. The 1892 Canadian
Criminal Code which copied much of the English 1878 Bill, has since been revised many times. The codification sets out the procedure to be followed in criminal cases. Available: <>. 

criminal harassment ("stalking") legislation (Canada-1993):
"criminal harassment ("stalking") legislation was first enacted in Canada, in 1993 to respond to cases of women stalked by men, particularly by former partners" (Juristat, 1996- Statistics Canada-Catalogue no. 85-002-XPE Vol. 16 no. 12). 

criminal justice system:
"pertaining to the criminal justice system; this system consists of law enforcement operatives the courts and corrections" (Wood, 1991, cited in Day, 1983, p. 36). 

criminal justice system:
"this system consists of law enforcement, the courts and corrections. The criminal justice system� "has one overriding goal: to maintain order and security in such a way as to ensure that the rights and privileges of citizens are maintained to the greatest possible degree" (Wood, 1991, cited in Day, 1983, p. 36) 

criminal lawyer (1869-UK):
"a lawyer who specializes in criminal law; a lawyer who represents defendants in criminal cases" (Merriam Webster Dictionary). 

Criminal Procedure Code (1985-Singapore):
"prescribes procedures to be complied with when a person accused of committing an offense is suspected to be of unsound mind". 

criminal profiling:
"a field that draws upon all other fields of Forensic Science. It is only one investigative tool-whether or not a conviction is made is dependent on the availability of physical evidence and investigative ability. Profiling will only help to narrow down possible suspects and lead to an understanding of the physical evidence" (Turvey, 1997). 

criminal responsibility

"in 1891, Hans Gross, Examining Magistrate and Professor of criminal law at the University of Graz, Austria, published Criminal Investigation, the first comprehensive description of uses of physical evidence in solving crime. Gross is also sometimes credited with coining the word criminalistics (Rudin, 1999, 

criminalization hypothesis:
"Teplin (1983) suggested that the increase in arrest rates for the mentally ill may be part of what Abramson (1972) called the "criminalization hypothesis", which postulates that mentally ill are not necessarily more dangerous, but are more likely to be arrested" (Richman, Convit & Martell, 1992, p. 933). 

criminally insane:
"those whose criminal acts were attributed to their insanity - once recovered they would again be respectable members of the community" (Quen, 1989; Quen, 1994, p. 1010). 

criminogenic factors:
"dynamic risk factors that contribute� to criminal behavior,� for example: a� past history of violating the law while under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol; criminal associations or acquaintances; past criminal behavior; and antisocial behavior and attitudes" (Peternelj-Taylor, 1997). 

criminogenic needs:
"characteristics that, when influenced, are associated with changes in the chance of recidivism" (Andrews, 1996, p. 42). 

criminology (1890-UK):
"the scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon, of criminals, and of penal treatment; word originating in 1890" (Merriam WWWebster Dictionary). 

crisis intervention:
"includes standardized police and medical responses, advance directives, pursuit of anatomical gifts, and death notification and patient protection and confidentiality safeguards" (Goll-McGee, 1999, p. 13). 

crisis intervention:
"facilitates recovery by providing emotional support in a non judgmental manner while allowing the victim to tell their story. The necessary components of effective crisis intervention are assessment/evaluation, treatment, planning (including referral) and implementation. By providing validation of the experience sends a message that a health care provider along with the police takes the incident seriously. The responses of the service providers may pay a significant role in either aliemiorating� or compounding the problems"(Roberts, 1996, p. 76). 

crisis intervention theory:
"the� theory that is a useful framework for providing health care to victims of abuse and their families is the crisis intervention theory" (Baughcum, 1990).�  

crisis intervention theory:
"the theory that explains violence or defines crisis as an upset in a steady states that results in disequalibrium and disorganization. Crisis Intervention Theory is a useful framework for providing health care to victims of abuse and their families. The disclosure of identification of abuse usually results in a crisis for the victim and the victim's family. Therefore knowledge of crisis theory and intervention strategies is essential as the health care professional is called on to provide the initial assessment and treatment for the victim� regardless of setting" (Baughcum, 1990). 

"the customary beliefs, social norms, and material traits of a racial, religious or social group" (Webster's Dictionary, on-line).  

"in its broadest sense culture "is everything, material and nonmaterial, learned and shared by people as they come to terms with their environment. It includes the totality of a group's shared procedures, belief systems, worldview, values, attitudes, and perceptions of life"(Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1986, p. 156).

"the central and enduring program of inmate security and control" (Smale, 1983). 

"to confine or hold. Custody, without qualification usually refers to a combination of physical custody and legal custody" (WWLIA Legal Dictionary, 1996). 

custodial care:
"minimum care given, such as food, clothing and shelter, as opposed to therapeutic treatment or psychiatric care".  

"wound caused by a sharp edge which is straight with clean wound edges such as a knife or scalpel" (Hoyt, 1991, p. 20). 

cut "incised wound":
"the incised wound is wider than it is deep, the wound is referred to as a cut or incised wound, but when the wound is deeper than it is wide, it is referred to as a stab wound" (Hoyt, 1991, p. 20). 

cut "stab wound":
"the wound is deeper than it is wide, it is referred to as a stab wound" (Hoyt, 1991, p. 20). 

"police who patrol the electronic highway for criminals, working undercover to track the invisible transfer of billions of bits of unspeakable information" (Gooderman & Laghi, Globe and Mail, December 14, 1996). 

cycle of violence:
"the cycle of violence was developed by Lenore Walker in the 1970s. The Cycle of Violence, (URL: