California Castration Law:
"California's new law mandating castration for certain sex
offenders was passed on Aug 30, 1996, and became part of the criminal
code on Jan. 1, 1997. According to this law (chapter 645 of the
penal code) offenders convicted for the second time of rape, oral
copulation, sodomy, or lewid or lavicious acts in cases in which
"the victim has not attained 13 years of age, shall, upon parole,
undergo medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment or its chemical equivalent,
in addition to any other punishment prescribed for that offense
or any other provision of law."
Canadian Bill of Rights (1960-Canada):
"the first federal legislative enactment to specifically set
out fundamental human rights for Canadians" (Department of
Justice Canada, 1993, p. 12).
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms:
"enacted in 1984 resulted in many regulations in the code contravening
the mandates contained in the Charter" (Arboleda et al, 1995,
Canadian Human Rights Act (1977-Canada):
"protects human rights particularly in the areas of employment,
the provision of accommodation and commercial premises. Unlike the
Canadian Bill of Rights the CHRA applies not only to the federal
government but also to the private sector"(Department of Justice
Canada, 1993, p. 12).
"Canadian law is generally founded on common law, which has
been carried over from Anglo-Saxon countries. The exception is
Quebec which has a Civil Code (Chalke et al, 1995, p. 120).
"tall rough annual herbs with erect stems, leaves with 3-7
elongate leaflets and pistillate flowers along the leafy stem".
"a very serious crime, for which the death penalty is imposed".
"the most severe of all sentences: that of death. Also known
as the death penalty, capital punishment has been banned in many
countries. In the United States an earlier move to eliminate capital
punishment has now been reversed and more and more states are resorting
to capital punishment for serious offenses such as murder"
(WWLIA's Legal on Line Dictionary, 1996).
"abolished in Canada in 1976; the same year was reenacted
in some states in the United States".
"the most severe of all sentences, that of death; also known
as the death penalty; capital punishment has been abolished in many
countries" (WWLIA's Legal on Line Dictionary).
"the word "capital" in "capital punishment"
refers to a person's head. In the past, people were often executed
by chopping off their head" (http://www.religioustolerance.org).
"the first definition of the concept of 'care' was offered
by Florence Nightingale in 1859 - "putting the patient in
the best possible conditions for nature to act upon him" (Mason
& Chandley, 1990, p. 669).
The term `caregiver' is used in place of family member, relative or
informal carer, with 'caregiver' being defined as the person providing
the most emotional, physical and social support to another person
on an informal basis (Lefley, 1996 , cited in MacInnes, 2000).
caring "cost of caring":
"the cost of caring is a practice that is essential in our
modern profit-and-loss-orientated society, but difficult to put
a price on" (Standing Bear, 1995, p. 60).
"caring and empathy are integral and significant parts of the
nursing profession that fulfills an important human need in death
investigation" (Standing Bear, 1995, p. 64).
"researchers have found that people who carve their skin are
frequently bearing significant psychological scars from childhood-they
feel anxious, guilty and angry" (Green, 1978; Simpson &
Porter 1981; cited in (Rayner, 1994; p. 21).
Some Provincial Correctional Departments still use the title of
case worker for employees involve in case preparation for offender
release. In Correctional Service Canada this role is very complex
and the title is IPO, Institutional Parole Officer (Dan Wilkinson,
personal communication, October 6, 2003).
Well the C.O.'s maintains custody and security of offenders usually
with the confines of a goal. This may be In a Provincial Institution
or a Federal Institution. Classification Officer can also be known
as a Placement Officer or Intake Officer. This role usually involves
the collection of facts or history on the offender. This aids in
the classification of offender security and sometimes is the beginning
of the Parole or release process (Dan Wilkinson, personal communication,
October 6, 2003).
"the concept of causality is based on the idea that one event
is the result of another event. The stories about the cause of
disease, for example, have evolved over time" (Clark, 1996,
cause of death:
the injury, disease, or combination of the two responsible for initiating
the train of physiological disturbances, brief or prolonged which
produced the fatal termination (Besant-Matthews, 1989, cited in
Hoyt & Spangler, 1996. p. 25).
divine, heavenly legal, pure laws (chastity, purity, virginity).(on-line
chain of custody:
"at trial the authenticity of an item as evidence is crucial,
whether it be a physical object like a bullet, a medical record
or a photograph. The item cannot be offered in court without a testimonial
sponsor who can vouch for its unaltered authenticity to the court
and the jury. To validate an items unaltered authenticity. A record
must be kept of each and every time the item changes hands"
(Hoyt, 1991, p. 22)
chain of custody:
"establishes each person having custody of the evidence, thereby
establishing continuity of possession, and proof of integrity of
the evidence collected (Osterburg & Ward, 1992, p. 178).
chain of custody:
"the travelogue of the evidence, the continuity of possession.
All individuals involved in the collection, transportation and examination
of the piece of evidence must add to the written record of the item's
acquisition and disposition" (Carla Noziglia, 1998).
chain of custody:
"the principle of chain of custody is the establishment that
evidence as found in situ is witnessed at time of discovery and
that there is a continuous chain of custody up to presentation in
a court of law" (Melbye & Jiminez, in Haglund & Sorg
(ed) Forensic Taphonomy).
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982-Canada):
"the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms became a fundamental
part of the Canadian Constitution in 1982. Section 7 provides for
"life, liberty and security of person", while Section
12 ensures no "cruel and unusual punishment" (Canada's
Justice System, 1993, p. 12).
"an "arbitrary" chronological age varying from jurisdiction
to jurisdiction and from country to country. In some countries it
is a person under the age of 14, in other countries it is someone
under the age of 18".
"defined as a person who is or, in the absence of evidence
to the contrary, appears to be under the age of 12 years (Consolidated
Statutes of Canada, 1985).
"general term used to describe behavior on the part of a parent
or guardian that results in significant negative emotional or physical
consequences for a child. However, there is no consensus in Canadian
society about what constitutes abusive behavior or significant negative
consequences. Abuse of children can take several different forms:
physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse or neglect" (Office
for the Prevention of Family Violence, Alberta Social Services,
"the Ontario- Child and Family Services Act RSO 1990, Section
37, has a legal definition of child abuse: to suffer abuse, when
used in reference to a child, means to be in need of protection
within the meaning of the Child and Family Service Act (Children's
Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto, 1995).
child abuse (physical):
"in New York State the legal definition of a physically abused
child is: a child who is less than 18 years of age whose parent(s)
or other person(s) legally responsible for his/her care either:
inflicts or allows to be inflicted upon such child physical injury
by other than accidental means which causes or creates a substantial
risk of death or serious or protracted disfigurement, or protracted
impairment or the child's physical health, or protracted loss or
impairment of the function of any bodily organ - or - creates or
allows to be created a substantial risk of physical injury to such
child by other than accidental means which would be likely to cause
death or serious or protracted impairment of the child's physical
health, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any
bodily organ. http://www.pasa.org/resources/ica_physical.html
child abuse (physical):
"physical child abuse is defined as substantial and observable
injury to any part of the child's body that is evidenced by a laceration,
a contusion, an abrasion, a scar, a fracture or other bone injury..."
(Canada-Alberta Family & Social Services, 1993, p. 3).
child abuse & neglect:
"the Child Abuse and Treatment Act (Public Law 100-294)
includes a broad definition of child abuse and neglect. It is defined
as "the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation,
negligent treatment, or maltreatment of a child by a person who
is responsible for the child's welfare, under circumstances which
indicate that the child's health or welfare is harmed or threatened
thereby (Flowers, 2000)." The Child Abuse Amendments of 1984
(Public Law 98-457) expanded the definition to include "the
withholding of medical treatment to an infant with a life threatening
health condition or complication."
'failure to provide the necessities of life such as adequate living
conditions, adequate nutrition, adequate education, and adequate
medical care, failure to provide adequate affection, adequate emotional
support and adequate stimulation and failure to adequately supervise,
protect or control the child" (Ministry of Community and Social
Services, 1998, p. 19).
treatment or maltreatment of a child by a parent or caretaker under
circumstances indicating harm or threatened harm to the child's
health or welfare." The important point is that it is an act
of omission on part of the parent or caretaker whereas abuse is
an act of commission. The dilemma that sometimes accompanies neglect
is that it is difficult to determine where acceptable parenting
stops and neglect begins (Wallace, 1999).
"The Child Abuse and Treatment Act further defines child sexual
abuse as (a) the employment, use, persuasion, inducement, enticement,
or coercion of any child to engage in, or assist any other person
to engage in, any sexually explicit conduct or simulation of such
conduct for the purpose of producing any visual depiction of such
conduct, or (b) the rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form
of sexual exploitation of children, or incest with children."
"a violation of a child's body, mind, and spirit" (Bagley
& King, 1990, p55).
Commission on Human Rights Thematic Report defined child prostitution
as "the act of engaging or offering the services of a child
to perform sexual acts for money or other consideration with that
person or any other person". Under this definition, child prostitution
is not "committed" by the child itself, but by the person
"engaging or offering the services of a child"; this definition
intends to lessen confusion concerning other forms of child exploitation
all prostitution related offenses against youth are those involving
persons under the age of 18 years (Children involved in Prostitution,
font face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="2">
"the exchange of sexual favours for money or other material
goods without any emotional involvement involving a person under
the age of 18 years.
the basic analytic technique that may extend from a simple "thin-layer"
technique to use of the elaborate gas chromatographic/mass spectrophotometer,
an instrument commonly recognized in "dope testing of athletes
(Alberta Justice, 1993, p. 14).
chronic mentally ill:
"those who suffer severe and persistent emotional disorders
that interfere with functional capabilities in relation to such
primary aspects of life as self care and interpersonal relationships"
(Goldman, Gatozzi & Taube, 1981).
chronic mentally ill:
"these individuals tend to commit lesser level crimes such
as obtaining food by fraud, disturbing the peace, resisting arrest,
and shoplifting, etc." (Arboleda-Florez & Chato, 1985).
chronic mentally ill offender:
individuals broadly defined as those who suffer severe and persistent
emotional disorders, that interfere with functional capabilities
in relation to such primary aspects of life as self care and interpersonal
relationships. These individuals tend to commit lesser level crimes
such as obtaining food by fraud, disturbing the peace, resisting
arrest and/or shoplifting (Goldman, Gatozzi & Taube, 1981;
Arboleda-Florez & Chato, 1985).
"marked by long duration or frequent recurrence; not acute;
suffering from a chronic disease" (WWWebster on-line).
"indirect; concerning matters surrounding an event, rather
than the event itself; as guilt inferred from circumstantial evidence.
Latin circum (around) and stare (to stand)'.
"the indefinite incarceration of the sex offender who has been
deemed untreatable; presently in Canada they are incarcerated under
the High Risk Offenders Bill" (Bill C-55) (John Howard Society
of Alberta, 1997).
"a group of persons of common ancestry" (WWWebster Dictionary,
"abuse that is kept secret for a purpose, concealed, or underhanded"
(Webster's dictionary, 1987).
classical school of criminology
"founded by Beccaria in 1764 - the powerful conception that
man could determine his own destiny and political future by the
controlled use of reason and the accumulation of knowledge based
on rational discourse" (Schell-King & Finneran, 1982, p.
clinical forensic medicine:
"the medical specialty which applies the principles and practices
of medicine to the elucidation of questions in judicial proceedings
for the protection of the individual's legal rights prior to death"
(Eckert et. al, 1986, p. 182).
clinical forensic medicine:
"the application of clinical medicine to victims of trauma,
involving the scientific investigation of trauma and proper processing
of forensic evidence" (McNamara, 1987, cited in Lynch, 1991,
clinical forensic nurse:
"provides care for the survivors of crime related injury and
deaths that occur within the health care institution. The specialist
has a duty to defend patient's legal rights through the proper
documentation and collection of evidence that represents access
to social justice" (Lynch, 1999).
clinical forensic nursing:
"the application of the forensic aspects of health care in
the scientific investigation and treatment of trauma and or death
or related medicolegal issues to living patients or those whose
death is pronounced upon arrival or during trauma treatment"
clinical forensic nursing:
"the application of clinical nursing practice to trauma survivors
or to those whose death is pronounced in the clinical environs,
involving the identification of the unrecognized, unidentified injuries,
and the proper processing of forensic evidence" (Lynch, 1995,
clinical forensic practice:
"the application of clinical and scientific knowledge to questions
of law and the criminal and civil investigation of survivors of
traumatic injury and/or patient treatment involving court related
issues" (Lynch, 1993, p. 8).
"clinical psychology: arose from general psychology, which
developed (out of philosophy) with a mission to better understand
human behavior or the range of 'normal' behavior" (Grisso,
coca cola (1886):
"in the height of the cocaine craze a drug chemist, John Pepperton
began selling cocaine in a potent liquid form. He called it Coca
Cola, named after its two primary substances - the cola nut from
Africa and the coca leaf from South America. Originally it was sold
as a medicinal product" (Nimoy, 1996).
cocaine abuse theory:
"the theory that paranoid thinking leads to suspiciousness
and misinterpretation of reality and contributes to aggressive and
neglectful behavior. Addiction and the consequent compulsive preoccupation
with acquiring the drugs contribute to neglectful and exploitive
behavior" (Davidovich, 1990).
birth can happen when a body is decomposing and natural gases, which
occur doing decomposition, build up to a point that the pressure
from these gases push out the fetus. This theory is thought to be
the most reasonable one for Laci Peterson case" (USA Today,
collection or stash:
"most pedophiles have a large quantity of child pornography
known to experts as a "collection: or "stash" (Gooderman
& Laghi, Globe and Mail, December 14, 1996).
"conspire; act together secretly, 'The two suspects had colluded
over their statements to the police'. Latin com (together), and
ludere (to play)".
"a binocular microscope to which a 35 mm camera can be attached.
This instrument allows the nurse conducting the evidential examination
to magnify the vaginal area and better identify any tears in the
mucosa" (Ledray & Ardnt, 1994, p. 9).
Commissions of Corrections Report (1971-Canada):
"recommended female registered nurses be introduced and a registered
nurse required to be in charge of every shift" (Smale, 1983,
Communications Decency Act (1996- USA):
"censorship of indecent language and pornography. The Appeals
Court in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, judged the Communications
Decency Act as unconstitutional. In July 1996, the United States
government appealed to the Supreme Court".
"an ill defined concept which is difficult to delineate but
has a popularist interpretation of being 'anywhere/everywhere outside
of a hospital'," (Bachrach & Lamb 1989; Beale, Davies,
Nixon & Smith, 1993; cited in Mason & Mercer, 1996, p. 157).
community based intermediate sanctions:
"penalties for criminal offenses that do not involve incarceration.
A commonly applied intermediate sanction is probation: conditional
release to the community with monitoring by court -appointed officers"
(Thorburn, 1995, p. 561).
community mental health center:
"agency providing psychiatric services to clients in a particular
catchment area" (Dunn, Selzer & Tomcho, 1996. p. 372).
"the distribution of information regarding released sex offenders
to citizens and community organizations; in general, community notification
only applies to potentially dangerous sex offenders" (Matson
& Lieb, 1996, p. 1).
"community notification laws were thought of as a resolution
to all of the issues of punishment, control and release, but a solution
to child sex abuse by released sex offenders has not been found.
Community notification can at its' best be thought of as a form
of community policing with the community forming an active partnership
with the police (Lieb, 1996).
"an alternative to community notification is community reintegration;
programs emphasize that the community is also responsible for the
reintegration of offenders; it involves volunteers who form support
groups with released sexual offenders" (John Howard Society,
Treatment Order (CTO):
Treatment Order is a legal tool or mechanism, a form, issued by
a medical practitioner, which defines the treatment (medical or
otherwise) and conditions under which a person with a mental illness
may live in the community. The consequence to the individual for
failing to follow the order is return to a psychiatric facility
for assessment, but not hospitalization. The duration of a CTO is
six months; it may be renewed at any point during the six months
or one month after expiry. Other terms commonly used in place of
CTO are: coercive community treatment; compulsory community treatment;
involuntary outpatient commitment and community committal"
(Centre Addictions & Mental Health -CAMH, 2000, p.2).
Treatment Order (CTO):
Bill 68, an act to amend the Mental Health Act and the Health Care
Consent Act, 1996, states: The purpose of a community treatment
order is to provide a person who suffers from a serious mental disorder
with a comprehensive plan of community-based treatment or care and
supervision that is less restrictive than being detained in a psychiatric
facility. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, a purpose
is a provide such a plan for a person who, as a result of his or
her serious mental disorder, experiences this pattern: the person
is admitted to a psychiatric facility where his or her condition
is usually stabilized; after being released from the facility, the
person often stops the treatment or care and supervision; the person's
condition changes and, as a result, the person must be re-admitted
to a psychiatric facility" (Bill 68, Chapter 9, Statutes of
competency to stand trial:
"the issue of 'competency to stand trial' in the United States
is equivalent to 'fitness to stand trial' in Canada" (Kent-Wilkinson,
competency to stand trial:
"the question of competency to stand trial is may arise if
a person is charged with a felony or a misdemeanor and has a behavioral
problem. This issue must be resolved before proceeding with the
charges, especially if the crime is a felony (Laben & Blum,
1997, p. 371). The query concerns the person's current mental condition,
plus the following questions: Does the defendant understand the
charges? Can the defendant appropriately advise council? Does the
defendant understand the consequences of those charges? An evaluation
is conducted by a mental health professional trained to perform
these assessment at an inpatient facility, the jail, or an outpatient
facility of private mental health practice (Laben & MacLean,
" if a person is considered 'compis mentis' (of sound mind)
they are responsible for their actions (McCall-Smith, 1987, in Mason
& Mercer, 1998).
"persons considered 'compis mentis' (of sound mind) are those
responsible for their actions (McCall-Smith, 1987, in Mason &
"the application of computer investigation and analysis in
techniques in the interest of determining potential legal evidence.
Evidence might be sought in a wide range of computer crime or misuse,
including but not limited to theft of trade secrets, theft of or
destruction of intellectual; property, and fraud. Computers specialist
can draw on an array of methods for discovering data that resides
in a computer system, or recovering deleted, encrypted, or damaged
file information. Any or all of this information may help during
discovery, depositions, or actual litigation" (Judd Robbins,
"made up of ideas and interrelationships. The main ideas in
any nursing framework are health, environment, person, nurse and
nursing. How the interrelationships are described form the distinctive
features of specific nursing frameworks" (A.A.R.N. Nursing
Practice Standards, 1991).
"composed of abstract and general concepts and propositions.
These global ideas and statements are expressed in a distinctive
manner in each model. Conceptual model is a term synonymous with
conceptual framework, conceptual system, paradigm and disciplinary
matrix" (Fawcett, 1989).
conceptual model & theory- distinction:
"a conceptual model is highly abstract....a theory in contrast
contains more concrete concepts (Fawcett, 1980).
"protection of participants in a study such that their individual
identities will not be linked to the information they provided,
and publicly divulged" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
"includes any situation where an individual is prevented from
leaving a particular place; this would include a hospital or its
grounds, a room, a vehicle, specific area or even a chair"
(Paterson, Tringham, McCormish, & Waters, 1997, p. 128).
"a written agreement signed by a subject and researcher concerning
the terms and conditions of the subject's voluntary participation
in a study" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
constitutional rights violation (1980-USA):
"US courts have declared that failure to provide adequate health
care to individuals confined in Correctional Institutions is a
violation under the Eighth and the Fourteenth Amendments (Duber,
1981; Isele, 1979; cited in Droes, 1994, p. 201).
"no expectation to testify; consults with the attorney-client
behind the scenes; can analyze a variety of different cases and
all aspects of the case; the work product is generally not discoverable".
"tend to commit their crimes with relative frequency with few
victims reporting the crime; offender is known to the victim, through
either business, personal or casual relationship" (Merrill,
"smuggled goods; 'Custom officers seized contraband at the
border'. Italian contra (against) and bando (proclamation)".
"once the trial has taken place the accused is either found
not guilty, in which case he will be released, or guilty in which
case he may be sentences to a term of imprisonment" (Manning,
"a public official who is primarily charged with the duty of
determining how and why people under the coroner's jurisdiction
die (these jurisdictions vary from state to state, but typically
include sudden, unexpected, unexplained, or traumatic deaths"
(Cumming, 1995, p. 29).
"the coroner is generally a popularly elected county official
who need not be medically trained" (Chien, 1996, Available:
"in 1192, the title of "Coroner" in England was given
to each knight who took custody of a deceased felon's property,
thereby enriching the royal treasury. The title derives from the
Latin "Custom placitorum coronae" or" Supervisor
of the Crown's pleas" (Chien, 1996, Available: http://126.96.36.199/~chungho/history.htm).
"original name for the coroner was "Crowner" who
investigated the death to see if the death allowed crown property
as taxes were to be paid to the crown" (Dr. Butt, 1995). [In
England and Wales - Coroners; Scotland - Proctutor fiscal].
"in contrast to most medical examiners, coroners possess more
legal power and they have the power to subpoena witnesses"
(Kowalski, 1990, cited in Schramm, 1991, p.673).
"is headed by an elected official. In some jurisdictions this
system is run much like a medical examiner system, with only properly
qualified candidates nominated for election. Some states, including
Pennsylvania and Kentucky, require candidates running for election
to have basic training. But in other locals, coroners aren't required
to have any training whatsoever in science, medicine or the law"
(Descheneaux, 1991, p. 55).
"the two types of systems available in Canada in the investigation
of sudden death are the coroner system and the medical examiner
system; the medical examiner and the coroner both collect medical
and other evidence in order to determine the medical cause and manner
of death; the medical examiner system is physician -based where
the coroner system is not; the coroner system involves medical,
administrative and judicial elements; the coroner is also in a
position to conduct a public inquest with a courtroom procedure"
(Alberta-Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1988, p. 1).
"a punishment for some violation of conduct which involves
the infliction of pain on, or harm to the body. A fine or imprisonment
is not considered to be corporal punishment. The death penalty is
the most drastic form of corporal punishment and is also called
capital punishment. Some schools still use a strap to punish students.
Some countries still punish habitual thieves by cutting off a hand.
These are forms of corporal punishment, as is any form of spanking,
whipping or bodily mutilation inflicted as punishment" (WWLIA
Legal Dictionary (on-line), 1996).
"corporal punishment is a discipline method that uses physical
force or, the threat thereof, as a behavior modifier" (Helfer,
Kempe & Krugman, 1997).
corporal punishment (1972-Canada):
"corporal punishment (whipping) as a punishment for disciplinary
offences in federal Canadian penitentiaries is abolished"(Eksted
& Griffiths, 1994).
"a federal, state, or local institution providing confinement
for those convicted of a crime or those awaiting trial. Jails are
generally used for those awaiting trials and prisons for those serving
sentences" (Dunn, Selzer & Tomcho, 1996. p. 372).
correctional health care:
"a specialty in which nurses, technicians, and doctors provide
health care to individuals incarcerated in juvenile detention facilities,
municipal and county jails, state and federal prisons, and other
detention type centers. A wide variety of health care needs is encountered
from AIDS to Zits" (Folsom, 1992, p. 6).
"secure or controlled settings, commonly jails, prisons, correctional
settings, or penitentiaries, including those for women, juveniles
and the mentally ill" (Peternelj-Taylor, 1998).
correctional nurses "forensic":
"specializes in the care and treatment of large institutionalized
populations in jail, prisons and other correctional facilities,
may be cognizant of the legal and custody requirements of their
patients, document and report problems, common to large institutionalized
groups confined in close quarters" (Lynch, 1999).
correctional nurses (forensic):
"the provision of biopsychosocial nursing care to individuals
who have been charged or convicted of a crime" (Kent-Wilkinson,
"the provision of nursing care (not necessarily psychiatric)
to all individuals who have been detained by the courts. The health
care of patients who have been charged or convicted of a crime
is provided by correctional nurses at remand centres, correctional
institutions, penitentiaries or half-way houses" (Kent-Wilkinson,
"a global term referring to the nursing care provided
to all individuals detained by the courts" (Day, 1983, p.
"charged with overseeing individuals who have been arrested,
are awaiting trial or other hearing, or who have been convicted
of a crime and sentenced to serve time in a jail, reformatory, or
penitentiary. They maintain security and observe inmate conduct
and behavior to prevent disturbances and escapes. Regardless of
the setting, correctional officers maintain order within the institution,
enforce rules and regulations, and may supplement whatever counseling
inmates receive from psychologists, social workers, or other mental
health professionals" (Available: <http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ocosl56.htm>
"viewed as a subculture of the larger culture with its own
rules, regulations language and formal and informal procedures"
(Bernier, 1990, p. 696).
"is comprised of prisons, jails, juvenile detention centers,
or training schools, and the probation and parole process. Corrections
is a structured system with the main goal of maintaining order in
a basically chaotic system"(Bernier, 1986, p. 20).
Corrections Service Canada (CSC):
"CSC is divided into five regions- Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario,
Prairie and Pacific. Each federal institution provides comprehensive
health care including medical-surgical, psychiatric, dental and
optical care, and nursing services" (Correctional Service Canada,
Corrections Service Canada (CSC):
"administers 41 federal penitentiaries, 16 community based
correctional facilities, 65 parole offices and 14 district offices.
Responsibility for corrections in Canada is shared by federal, provincial
and territorial governments" (Correctional Service Canada,
Corrections Service Canada:
"Mission - Correctional Service Canada, as part of the criminal
justice system, contributes to the protection of society by actively
encouraging and assisting offenders to become law abiding citizens,
while exercising reasonable, safe, secure and humane control"
(Correctional Service Canada, 1994).
"confirm; provide supporting evidence; 'His story was corroborated
by witnessed'. Latin com and roborare (to strengthen)".
"means a person who has jurisdiction in the territorial division
where the subject matter of the proceedings is alleged to have arisen.
(p. CC 1013).
court diversion liaison scheme:
"a system which gives professionals who may come into contact
with potential MDOs (mentally disordered offenders), the opportunity
of referring such people to health care professionals with psychiatric
assessment/diagnostic skills. The aim of this referral is to provide
the court with a mental health assessment that suggest alternatives
to custody via treatment or support in the least secure environment
possible" (Kitchiner, 1996, p. 66).
diversion project :
"specific programs that screen defined groups or detainees for
the presence of a medical disorder, use mental health professionals
to those detainees identified in screening; negotiate with prosecutors,
defense attorneys, community based mental health providers, and the
courts to provide a mental health disposition as a condition of bond,
in lieu of prosecution, or as a condition of a reduction in charges
whether or not a formal conviction occurs): and link the detainee
directly to community based services" (Steadman, Morris &
Dennis, 1995, p. 1630).
court liaison officer (mental health court support
"a health care professional i.e. nurse who acts as a
consultant to the courts and conducts on-site assessments and makes
recommendations to the courts when called upon".
court liaison officer (mental health court support worker):
"a health care professional i.e. nurse who is an on site consultant
to the family courts. In this role they evaluate children and families
and make recommendations to the judge regarding disposition, treatment
needs, etc. The cases may involve neglect, abuse, custody, juvenile
delinquency, orders of protection, and persons in need of supervision.
Also they may interpret psychiatric records and suggest questions
regarding mental health testimony. They usually are not employed
by the court, but rather are employed by a state children's mental
health facility and spend 2 days per week in court by interagency
agreement. Their salary as a Community Mental Health Nurse is determined
by civil service" (Merle Bercow, New York, MRC forensic listserv
posting, Jan 6, 2000).
court reporter (1894-UK):
"a stenographer who records and transcribes a verbatim report
of all proceedings in a court of law" (Merriam Webster Dictionary).
"the emotional and cognitive components of aggression such
as anger and hostility" (Lange et al, 1995, cited in Collins
& Robinson, 1997, p. 67).
"the observation and recording of actions and bevaiours on
video camera without the knowledge or consent of the participant"
"under Anglo-Canadian law, a crime is an illegal act committed
by a person who has criminal intent (Caswell, 1997).
"that form of behavior defined as illegal by criminal law.
At various times in history, acts judged as criminal have been redefined
or even removed from the statute book (for example homosexuality
and suicide" (Prins, 1973; Prins, 1981, p, 421).
"definitions of crime and the behaviour of criminals are offered
by legal and social institutions (Anderson, 1997, p. 244).
Law (1996 - Alberta law):
"to prevent criminals from profiting by writing books. Legislation
would be able to seize the money made from writing books, articles
and screen plays to the list of crime forfeited to the crown. This
law copies the so-called Son of Sam Law in the US. Ontario had already
passed a law giving book and movie profits to victims" (Chase,
"1) law - relating to crime or pertaining to the administration
of penal as opposed to civil law; 2) implying crime or heinous wickedness;
3) guilty of crime, one who has been committed an offense punishable
by law" (Webster Dictionary, 1996 on-line).
Criminal Code of Canada - (1892-Canada):
"Canada's criminal law is rooted in the common law of England.
The 1892 Canadian
Criminal Code which copied much of the English 1878 Bill, has since
been revised many times. The codification sets out the procedure
to be followed in criminal cases. Available: <http://www.islandnet.com/~wwlia/cacarhist.htm>.
criminal harassment ("stalking") legislation
"criminal harassment ("stalking") legislation was
first enacted in Canada, in 1993 to respond to cases of women stalked
by men, particularly by former partners" (Juristat, 1996- Statistics
Canada-Catalogue no. 85-002-XPE Vol. 16 no. 12).
criminal justice system:
"pertaining to the criminal justice system; this system consists
of law enforcement operatives the courts and corrections" (Wood,
1991, cited in Day, 1983, p. 36).
criminal justice system:
"this system consists of law enforcement, the courts and corrections.
The criminal justice system "has one overriding goal: to maintain
order and security in such a way as to ensure that the rights and
privileges of citizens are maintained to the greatest possible degree"
(Wood, 1991, cited in Day, 1983, p. 36)
criminal lawyer (1869-UK):
"a lawyer who specializes in criminal law; a lawyer who represents
defendants in criminal cases" (Merriam Webster Dictionary).
Criminal Procedure Code (1985-Singapore):
"prescribes procedures to be complied with when a person accused
of committing an offense is suspected to be of unsound mind".
"a field that draws upon all other fields of Forensic Science.
It is only one investigative tool-whether or not a conviction is
made is dependent on the availability of physical evidence and investigative
ability. Profiling will only help to narrow down possible suspects
and lead to an understanding of the physical evidence" (Turvey,
"in 1891, Hans Gross, Examining Magistrate and Professor of
criminal law at the University of Graz, Austria, published Criminal
Investigation, the first comprehensive description of uses of physical
evidence in solving crime. Gross is also sometimes credited with
coining the word criminalistics (Rudin, 1999, http://www.forensicdna.com/Forensictimeline.htm).
"Teplin (1983) suggested that the increase in arrest rates
for the mentally ill may be part of what Abramson (1972) called
the "criminalization hypothesis", which postulates that
mentally ill are not necessarily more dangerous, but are more likely
to be arrested" (Richman, Convit & Martell, 1992, p. 933).
"those whose criminal acts were attributed to their insanity
- once recovered they would again be respectable members of the
community" (Quen, 1989; Quen, 1994, p. 1010).
"dynamic risk factors that contribute to criminal behavior,
for example: a past history of violating the law while under the
influence of drugs and/or alcohol; criminal associations or acquaintances;
past criminal behavior; and antisocial behavior and attitudes"
"characteristics that, when influenced, are associated with
changes in the chance of recidivism" (Andrews, 1996, p. 42).
"the scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon, of criminals,
and of penal treatment; word originating in 1890" (Merriam
"includes standardized police and medical responses, advance
directives, pursuit of anatomical gifts, and death notification
and patient protection and confidentiality safeguards" (Goll-McGee,
1999, p. 13).
"facilitates recovery by providing emotional support in a non judgmental
manner while allowing the victim to tell their story. The necessary
components of effective crisis intervention are assessment/evaluation,
treatment, planning (including referral) and implementation. By
providing validation of the experience sends a message that a health
care provider along with the police takes the incident seriously.
The responses of the service providers may pay a significant role
in either aliemiorating or compounding the problems"(Roberts, 1996,
crisis intervention theory:
"the theory that is a useful framework for providing health
care to victims of abuse and their families is the crisis intervention
theory" (Baughcum, 1990).
crisis intervention theory:
"the theory that explains violence or defines crisis as an
upset in a steady states that results in disequalibrium and disorganization.
Crisis Intervention Theory is a useful framework for providing health
care to victims of abuse and their families. The disclosure of identification
of abuse usually results in a crisis for the victim and the victim's
family. Therefore knowledge of crisis theory and intervention strategies
is essential as the health care professional is called on to provide
the initial assessment and treatment for the victim regardless
of setting" (Baughcum, 1990).
"the customary beliefs, social norms, and material traits of
a racial, religious or social group" (Webster's Dictionary,
"in its broadest sense culture "is everything, material
and nonmaterial, learned and shared by people as they come to terms
with their environment. It includes the totality of a group's shared
procedures, belief systems, worldview, values, attitudes, and perceptions
of life"(Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1986,
"the central and enduring program of inmate security and control"
"to confine or hold. Custody, without qualification usually
refers to a combination of physical custody and legal custody"
(WWLIA Legal Dictionary, 1996).
"minimum care given, such as food, clothing and shelter, as
opposed to therapeutic treatment or psychiatric care".
"wound caused by a sharp edge which is straight with clean
wound edges such as a knife or scalpel" (Hoyt, 1991, p. 20).
cut "incised wound":
"the incised wound is wider than it is deep, the wound is referred
to as a cut or incised wound, but when the wound is deeper than
it is wide, it is referred to as a stab wound" (Hoyt, 1991,
cut "stab wound":
"the wound is deeper than it is wide, it is referred to as
a stab wound" (Hoyt, 1991, p. 20).
"police who patrol the electronic highway for criminals, working
undercover to track the invisible transfer of billions of bits of
unspeakable information" (Gooderman & Laghi, Globe and
Mail, December 14, 1996).
"the cycle of violence was developed by Lenore Walker in the
1970s. The Cycle of Violence, (URL: http://www.health.wa.gov.au/publications/dvtk_cycle.html).