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Israeli Archaeologists Find Ancient Text

By MATTI FRIEDMAN
,
AP
posted: 3 DAYS 5 HOURS AGO
comments: 660
filed under: Science News, World News
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HIRBET QEIYAFA, Israel (Oct. 30) - An Israeli archaeologist digging at a hilltop south of Jerusalem believes a ceramic shard found in the ruins of an ancient town bears the oldest Hebrew inscription ever discovered, a find that could provide an important glimpse into the culture and language of the Holy Land at the time of the Bible.
The five lines of faded characters written 3,000 years ago, and the ruins of the fortified settlement where they were found, are indications that a powerful Israelite kingdom existed at the time of the Old Testament's King David, says Yossi Garfinkel, the Hebrew University archaeologist in charge of the new dig at Hirbet Qeiyafa.
Other scholars are hesitant to embrace Garfinkel's interpretation of the finds, made public on Thursday. The discoveries are already being wielded in a vigorous and ongoing argument over whether the Bible's account of events and geography is meant to be taken literally.
Hirbet Qeiyafa sits near the modern Israeli city of Beit Shemesh in the Judean foothills, an area that was once the frontier between the hill-dwelling Israelites and their enemies, the coastal Philistines. The site overlooks the Elah Valley, said to be the scene of the slingshot showdown between David and the Philistine giant Goliath, and lies near the ruins of Goliath's hometown in the Philistine metropolis of Gath.
A teenage volunteer found the curved pottery shard, 6 inches by 6 inches, in July near the stairs and stone washtub of an excavated home. It was later discovered to bear five lines of characters known as proto-Canaanite, a precursor of the Hebrew alphabet.
Carbon-14 analysis of burnt olive pits found in the same layer of the site dated them to between 1000 and 975 B.C., the same time as the Biblical golden age of David's rule in Jerusalem.
Scholars have identified other, smaller Hebrew fragments from the 10th century B.C., but the script, which Garfinkel suggests might be part of a letter, predates the next significant Hebrew inscription by between 100 and 200 years. History's best-known Hebrew texts, the Dead Sea scrolls, were penned on parchment beginning 850 years later.
The shard is now kept in a university safe while philologists translate it, a task expected to take months. But several words have already been tentatively identified, including ones meaning "judge," "slave" and "king."
The Israelites were not the only ones using proto-Canaanite characters, and other scholars suggest it is difficult — perhaps impossible — to conclude the text is Hebrew and not a related tongue spoken in the area at the time. Garfinkel bases his identification on a three-letter verb from the inscription meaning "to do," a word he said existed only in Hebrew.
"That leads us to believe that this is Hebrew, and that this is the oldest Hebrew inscription that has been found," he said.
Other prominent Biblical archaeologists warned against jumping to conclusions.
Hebrew University archaeologist Amihai Mazar said the inscription was "very important," as it is the longest proto-Canaanite text ever found. But he suggested that calling the text Hebrew might be going too far.
"It's proto-Canaanite," he said. "The differentiation between the scripts, and between the languages themselves in that period, remains unclear."
Some scholars and archeologists argue that the Bible's account of David's time inflates his importance and that of his kingdom, and is essentially myth, perhaps rooted in a shred of fact.
But if Garfinkel's claim is borne out, it would bolster the case for the Bible's accuracy by indicating the Israelites could record events as they happened, transmitting the history that was later written down in the Old Testament several hundred years later.
It also would mean that the settlement — a fortified town with a 30-foot-wide (10-meter-wide) monumental gate, a central fortress and a wall running 770 yards (700 meters) in circumference — was probably inhabited by Israelites.
The finds have not yet established who the residents were, says Aren Maier, a Bar Ilan University archaeologist who is digging at nearby Gath. It will become more clear if, for example, evidence of the local diet is found, he said: Excavations have shown that Philistines ate dogs and pigs, while Israelites did not.
The nature of the ceramic shards found at the site suggest residents might have been neither Israelites nor Philistines but members of a third, forgotten people, he said.
If the inscription is Hebrew, it would indicate a connection to the Israelites and make the text "one of the most important texts, without a doubt, in the corpus of Hebrew inscriptions," Maier said. But it has great importance whatever the language turns out to be, he added.
Saar Ganor, an Israel Antiquities Authority ranger, noticed the unusual scale of the walls while patrolling the area in 2003. Three years later he interested Garfinkel, and after a preliminary dig they began work in earnest this summer. They have excavated only 4 percent of the six-acre settlement so far.
Archaeology has turned up only scant finds from David's time in the early 10th century B.C., leading some scholars to suggest his kingdom may have been little more than a small chiefdom or that he might not have existed at all.
Garfinkel believes building fortifications like those at Hirbet Qeiyafa could not have been a local initiative: The walls would have required moving 200,000 tons of stone, a task too big for the 500 or so people who lived there. Instead, it would have required an organized kingdom like the one the Bible says David ruled.
Modern Zionism has traditionally seen archaeology as a way of strengthening the Jewish claim to Israel and regarded David's kingdom as the glorious ancestor of the new Jewish state. So finding evidence of his rule has importance beyond its interest to scholars.
The dig is partially funded by Foundation Stone, a Jewish educational organization, which hopes to bring volunteers to work there as a way of teaching them a national and historical lesson.
"When I stand here, I understand that I'm on the front lines of the battle between the Israelites and the Philistines," said Rabbi Barnea Levi Selavan, the group's director. "I open my Bible and read about David and Goliath, and I understand that I'm in the Biblical context."
While the site could be useful to scholars, archaeologist Israel Finkelstein of Tel Aviv University urged adhering to the strict boundaries of science.
Finkelstein, who has not visited the dig but attended a presentation of the findings, warned against what he said was a "revival in the belief that what's written in the Bible is accurate like a newspaper." That style of archaeology was favored by 19th century European diggers who trolled the Holy Land for physical traces of Biblical stories, their motivation and methods more romantic than scientific.
"This can be seen as part of this phenomenon," Finkelstein said.
Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. The information contained in the AP news report may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or otherwise distributed without the prior written authority of The Associated Press. Active hyperlinks have been inserted by AOL.
2008-10-30 15:28:04
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Claerity

08:47 PMNov 02 2008

As with most things, there are two questions:- how is this of historical interest?- and what does it contribute in transcending a human frame - ie: where notions of god are (emotionally) unnecessary.

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JBJG24M

06:38 PMNov 01 2008

think thst sweetpunkie sure had a lot to say!!

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Briangodservant

05:05 PMNov 01 2008

The noun,Christians, came into use when The Holy Spirit came upon the Apostles and the disciples of Jesus, during Pentecost. They were all jews at that time.They were giving the great commission to take the Word of God throughout the whole world. That is when the gentiles(me) was placed on equal ground as the jews, in regard to God`s grace-blessings you and I today share. And yes the bible has been tanslated from seaval diffent languges to the english version today. I`m glad because I don`t know Hebrew...

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Sweetpunkiebee

09:31 AMNov 01 2008

Jeff, thanks for reading what I wrote...and thank you for agreeing....lol, I said exactly that....just in responding to the other person I said Jews ARE Christians, not Christians came from Judaism....it was just for clarification.....I wonder if you are amazed as I always am that people are so quick to judge and not look at history or the 'why' in things before they spout off, especially in these forums?

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Jeff1214

09:11 AMNov 01 2008

sweetpunkiebee actually Christians belong to a branch of Judaism. When Christianity began most Christians were called Jews and indistinguishable from the mainline Jewish faith. It only occured later that the two branches separated into what they are today. Jews still believe in the Messiah only it wasn't Christ but someone destined for a later entrance.

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Sweetpunkiebee

06:31 AMNov 01 2008

Leezahir hit on something else....try telling one of your Catholic friends that the 'church' had meetings (can you IMAGINE the 'discussions'...ie arguements!) when it was first decided WHICH books would be IN the Bible and which ones wouldn't. It was a king who decided that christianity would be THE religion and wanted the Bible put together. The scriptures we have are NOT the only scriptures. That is why I said earlier...we have to study the Bible, understand that although scripted by God, it was written and rewritten by men. THAT is where our FAITH comes in. If there is something we are uncertain of or do not understand, the 'filling in of the gaps' comes from God. I also agree with an earlier poster that so many christians turn so many people AWAY from God because they do not educate themselves and resort to sarcasm and damnation of someone who doesn't believe what they do! TRUE christianity has gotten muddled and soured because of those types of behaviors, but then God did say in ...

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Sweetpunkiebee

06:15 AMNov 01 2008

. Oh, and to one other poster.....reading the Bible is great, but it's never the same as spending the time STUDYING it....and that takes all types of corraborative information...including archaeology, history, etc. And last point....to the poster who mentioned Jews.....the jews ARE Christians...the difference is they KNOW from their own history/texts/scriptures that Jesus was an actual, living, breathing person....the difference is they do not believe he was the Messiah...they are still waiting for the messiah. Again......yet, another perspective from another 'christian' faction.

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Sweetpunkiebee

06:14 AMNov 01 2008

. Two more quick points, LOVE in the foofy sense is not Agape Love, sometimes LOVE has to be corrective (think of your dog on a leash, you do that to protect him because you love him)...and sometimes 'christians' are their own worst enemies, trying to cram what their particular church believes down someone's throat because they believe it so strongly they begin to judge others by their own faith and their own experience. There is quite a bit of time devoted to this in Romans...and God even says "I am not the same to any two men." How could He be? He made every man individual...it's an amazing thing when you think about it. Your relationship with God is YOURS and for no one to judge BUT God. But the human need to control always intervenes.

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Sweetpunkiebee

06:13 AMNov 01 2008

. I had that discussion with a dear friend of mine who is a staunch southern Baptist and about having a fit because I do not attend church...I asked how many 'branches' and 'factions' of the (Baptist) 'church' there are and she was proud to begin naming them, thinking that I was looking for volume to prove validity. After about 20 or so I stopped her and I said...."I'm saying this to you in love....if the Baptists cannot agree amongst themselves who is 'right', how do you know that your particular branch is 'right'?" (You can insert any organized religion into this...she just happens to be Baptist.) Man's laws change because they are not God's, they are not and cannot be completely love-filled and free of agenda, habit, viewpoint, etc.

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Sweetpunkiebee

06:11 AMNov 01 2008

. I had that discussion with a dear friend of mine who is a staunch southern Baptist and about having a fit because I do not attend church...I asked how many 'branches' and 'factions' of the (Baptist) 'church' there are and she was proud to begin naming them, thinking that I was looking for volume to prove validity. After about 20 or so I stopped her and I said...."I'm saying this to you in love....if the Baptists cannot agree amongst themselves who is 'right', how do you know that your particular branch is 'right'?" (You can insert any organized religion into this...she just happens to be Baptist.) Man's laws change because they are not God's, they are not and cannot be completely love-filled and free of agenda, habit, viewpoint, etc.

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