Titanium ( Ti )

Material Information

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General Description:  

Titanium was discovered by Rev. William Gregor in 1791 in Creed, Cornwall, England and, independently, by M.H. Klaproth in 1795 in Berlin, Germany.

Titanium is a hard, lustrous, silvery metal which is obtained by magnesium or calcium reduction of the tetrachloride. It is a relatively abundant element, there being 5600 ppm in the earth's crust. It forms a protective oxide coating and, hence, resists corrosion, although powdered metal burns in air. Titanium tends to be inert at low temperatures but will combine with a variety of reagents at elevated temperatures.

Titanium and its alloys are characterised by their lightness, strength and corrosion resistance and are used widely in aerospace applications. In addition, these properties also make the material suitable for medical applications (e.g. replacement hip joints). Titanium dioxide, TiO2 is used as a white pigment in paints and plastics as it provides great opacity. The same material is also used in the manufacture of heat resisting and durable glass, the TiO2 replacing certain proportions of the soda. Titanium carbide is used to manufacture cemented carbides.

   

Atomic Properties
     
Atomic number 22
Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.147
Atomic weight ( amu ) 47.88
Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
Electronic structure Ar 3d2 4s2
Ionisation potential No. eV
1 6.82
2 13.6
3 27.5
4 43.3
5 99.2
6 119
Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
46 8.0
47 7.5
48 73.7
49 5.5
50 5.3
Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.1
Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 6.1
Valences shown 2, 3, 4

Electrical Properties
     
Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 54
Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0038
Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 0.40

Mechanical Properties
     
Material condition Annealed Polycrystalline
Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 108.4
Hardness - Vickers 60
Izod toughness ( J m-1 ) 61
Poisson's ratio 0.361
Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 120.2
Tensile strength ( MPa ) 230-460
Yield strength ( MPa ) 140-250

Physical Properties
     
Boiling point ( C ) 3287
Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 4.5
Melting point ( C ) 1660

Thermal Properties
     
Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 8.9
Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 8893
Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 365
Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 523
Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 21.9


All information and technical data are given as a guide only. Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information is correct, no warranty is given as to its completeness or accuracy.

Standard products are available in these forms
Bar Foil Lump Mesh Microfoil Powder Rod Sheet Sphere Sputtering Target Tube Wire

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