Copper ( Cu )

Material Information

Index   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 

Buy Copper online

Buy small quantities online of Copper for research and/or development

Standard products are available in these forms
Bar Foil Insulated Wire Lump Mesh Microfoil Powder Rod Single Crystal Sphere Sputtering Target Tube Wire

Choose a form to search our on-line catalogue
General Description:  

Known to ancient civilisations.

Copper is a reddish coloured metal which is malleable and ductile. It has excellent thermal and electrical conductivities and good corrosion resistance. It is found in sulphide ores and as carbonate, arsenide and chloride (abundance in the Earth's crust is 50 ppm). Extraction of the metal involves roasting the ore to produce the oxide, followed by reduction and purification by electrolysis. The element is inert to non-oxidising acids but reacts with oxidising agents. In air, it will weather to produce the characteristic green patina of the carbonate. Copper will combine with oxygen on heating to produce CuO at red heat, and Cu2O at elevated temperatures.

Pure copper has an electrical conductivity second only to that of silver and hence its main application is in the electrical industry. Copper is also the basis of many important alloys (e.g. brass, bronze and aluminium bronze) and has been traditionally considered to be one of the coinage metals, along with silver and gold, but being more common, is the least valued. It is one of the first metals ever to have been worked by man and is thought to have been mined for more than 5000 years.

   

Atomic Properties
     
Atomic number 29
Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.128
Atomic weight ( amu ) 63.546
Crystal structure Face centred cubic
Electronic structure Ar 3d1O 4s1
Ionisation potential No. eV
1 7.73
2 20.29
3 36.8
4 55.2
5 79.9
6 103
Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
63 69.2
65 30.8
Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.5
Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 3.8
Valences shown 1, 2

Electrical Properties
     
Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 1.69
Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0043
Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +0.76

Mechanical Properties
     
Material condition Soft Hard Polycrystalline
Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 137.8
Hardness - Vickers 49 87
Izod toughness ( J m-1 ) 58 68
Poisson's ratio 0.343
Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 129.8
Tensile strength ( MPa ) 224 314
Yield strength ( MPa ) 54 270

Physical Properties
     
Boiling point ( C ) 2567
Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 8.96
Melting point ( C ) 1083

Thermal Properties
     
Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 17.0
Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 4796
Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 205
Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 385
Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 401


All information and technical data are given as a guide only. Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information is correct, no warranty is given as to its completeness or accuracy.

Standard products are available in these forms
Bar Foil Insulated Wire Lump Mesh Microfoil Powder Rod Single Crystal Sphere Sputtering Target Tube Wire

Choose a form to search our on-line catalogue

Index   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z