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Launch Complex: LC81/23.
Baikonur. Old Name: PU23. Latitude: 46.0740 deg. Longitude: 62.9785 deg. Used by: Proton. First Launch: 1965-07-16. Last Launch: 2004-03-27. Number Launches: 104.

LC81/23 Chronology

1965 July 16 - 11:16 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. UR-500 107207-01 (207) Proton 1 Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Spacecraft: N-4 . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Inclination: 63.40 deg. Period: 92.20 min. The first launch of the Proton launch vehicle was not without problems. A leak in the oxidiser pipeline resulted in nitrogen tetroxide spilling on electrical wires. The question was: proceed with the launch or abort? Chelomei decided to go ahead, and on 16 July 1965 the first UR-500 successfully launched the Proton 1 satellite. In the first hours after launch specialists from OKB-52 could only receive signals in the first hours that indicated the satellite was ‘alive’. However it later functioned normally and provided physics data on ultra-high-energy cosmic particles for 45 days.

At the first launch the rocket was called ‘Gerkules’ (other sources say ‘Atlantis’), as indicated by the large symbol on the second stage skin. This name was however was not taken up.

1965 November 2 - 12:28 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. UR-500 209 Proton 2 Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Spacecraft: N-4 . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Apogee: 608 km (377 mi). Inclination: 63.50 deg. Period: 92.50 min. High energy physics laboratory. Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles.

1966 March 24 - 21:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. UR-500 211 FAILURE: Second stage malfunction. N-4 s/n 3 Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Spacecraft: N-4. Agency: RVSN.

1966 July 6 - 12:57 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. UR-500 212 Proton 3 Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Spacecraft: N-4 . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Apogee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 63.50 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Space station 'Proton 3'. Investigation of ultra high energy cosmic particles

1967 March 10 - 11:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. LV Model: Proton-K/D . UR-500K/Blok D N10722701 Cosmos 146 Mass: 5,017 kg (11,060 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Inclination: 51.50 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1P launched by Proton into planned highly elliptical earth orbit. The first flight four-stage Proton rocket began assembly on 21 November 1966, with mechanical assembly completed by 29 November. Electrical connections and tests were completed by 4 December 1966. Due to New Year’s holidays work did not resume until 28 January 1967. By 28 February the fully assembled booster / spacecraft unit was completed in the MIK, including the 7K-L1P boilerplate spacecraft. The launch tower was added on 2 March 1967 and the system was declared ready for launch. A serious potential problem during preparations was the discovery that fuel gases could lead to pump cavitation at the turbine exits. Tests on the ground showed that the problem was not the fuel itself, but in the monitoring equipment. The launch vehicle and Block D stage functioned correctly and put the spacecraft into a translunar trajectory. The spacecraft was not aimed at the moon, did not have a heat shield for reentry, and no recovery was planned or attempted. A successful launch that created false confidence just before the string of failures that would follow.

1967 April 8 - 09:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 228-01 FAILURE: Block D ullage rocket failure; no restart. Cosmos 154 Mass: 5,020 kg (11,060 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Agency: RVSN. Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Apogee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.50 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1 manned circumlunar spacecraft. There are high winds for the L1 launch, 15-17 m/s. The official limit is 20 m/s, but Chelomei wants to scrub the launch if winds go over 15 m/s. Nevertheless the launch proceeds in 17-18 m/s winds and the L1 reached earth orbit. However the Block D translunar injection stage failed to fire (ullage rockets, which had to fire to settle propellants in tanks before main engine fired, were jettisoned prematurely). The failure is blamed on Mishin and has Tsybin seething in anger. Mishin is disorganised and has made many mistakes. Spacecraft burned up two days later when orbit decayed. Later in the day comes the news the RTS has to be replaced on one of the Soyuz 1/2 spacecraft. This will have a 3 to 4 day schedule impact, and push the launch back to 15-20 April. The crews arrive the same day for the upcoming Soyuz launch.

1967 September 27 - 22:11 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 229-01 FAILURE: First stage -1 RD-253 failed, resulting at T+67 sec in deviation from flight path. Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 4L Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Agency: RVSN. First attempted circumlunar flight. The UR-500K failed, crashing 50 to 60 km from the launch pad. The L1 radio beacon was detected 65 km north of the Baikonur aerodrome by an Il-14 search aircraft. An Mi-6 helicopter recovered the capsule and had it back to the cosmodrome by 13:30. Mishin's record: of seven launches of the Soyuz and L1, only one has been successful. Film of the launch shows that one engine of the first stage failed. Mishin still wants to launch the next L1 by 28 October. The other chief designers oppose the move. Barmin says at least five months are needed to diagnose the cause of the failures and makes fixes to ensure they don't happen again. Nevertheless the leadership sides with Mishin, and Barmin is ordered to prepare the left Proton pad for a launch within 30 to 40 days.

1968 March 2 - 18:29 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 231-01 Zond 4 Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 15,561.71 min. What at first seemed to be a success, very much needed by the L1 program, ended in failure. The Proton booster lifted off in 18 m/s winds, -3 deg C temperatures, and into very low clouds - it disappeared from view at only 150 m altitude. Aircraft at 9, 10, and 11 km altitude reported the cloud deck topped 8300 m, with 1.5 to 2.0 km visibility. The spacecraft was successfully launched into a 330,000 km apogee orbit 180 degrees away from the moon. On reentry, the guidance system failed, and the planned double skip maneuver to bring the descent module to a landing in the Soviet Union was not possible. Ustinov had ordered the self-destruct package to be armed and the capsule blew up 12 km above the Gulf of Guinea. Kamanin disagreed strongly with this decision; the spacecraft could have still been recovered in the secondary area by Soviet naval vessels after a 20 G reentry. The decsion was made to recover the spacecraft in the future whenever possible.
Officially: Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Study of remote regions of circumterrestrial space, development of new on-board systems and units of space stations.

1968 July 15 - Launch Vehicle: Proton. L1 pad explosion. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. During launch preparations with the fuelled Proton / L1, there was an explosion, killing three technicians. Their death alone indicates the area around the pad was unsafe at the time. The Block D oxidiser tank of the L1 exploded - the first such failure in 30 uses. The rocket and spacecraft were relatively undamaged. The third stage of the Proton had some external damage due to exposure to the Block D's fuel, but it can be cleaned. The real question is how to remove the L1 spacecraft on the pad. A helicopter could hoist the spacecraft away, but the available Mi-6 or V-10 helos can lift only 8 to 10 tonnes, and the L1 weighs 14 tonnes. A V-10 crew is sent to investigate the possibilities anyway. Some engineers suggest just firing the BPO abort tower and lifting the capsule away from the stack! Emergency political and military meetings are held at the cosmodrome to discuss the impending invasion of Czechoslovakia.

1968 September 14 - 21:42 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 234-01 Zond 5 Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Apogee: 385,000 km (239,000 mi). Inclination: 51.50 deg. Period: 14,722.06 min. First successful circumlunar flight with recovery. Test flight of manned spacecraft; launched from an earth parking orbit to make a lunar flyby and return to earth. On September 18, 1968, the spacecraft flew around the moon at an altitude of 1950 km. High quality photographs of the earth were taken at a distance of 90,000 km. A biological payload of turtles, wine flies, meal worms, plants, seeds, bacteria, and other living matter was included in the flight. Before re-entry the gyroscopic platform went off line due to ground operator failure. However this time the self destruct command was not given. After a ballistic 20G re-entry the capsule splashed down in the Indian Ocean at 32:63 S, 65:55 E on September 21, 1968 16:08 GMT. Soviet naval vessels were 100 km from the landing location and recovered the spacecraft the next day, shipping it via Bombay back to Soviet Union. Additional Details: Zond 5(908).

1968 November 10 - 19:11 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 235-01 Zond 6 Mass: 5,375 kg (11,849 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Inclination: 51.50 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Test flight of manned circumlunar spacecraft. Successfully launched towards the moon with a scientific payload including cosmic-ray and micrometeoroid detectors, photography equipment, and a biological specimens. A midcourse correction on 12 November resulted in a loop around the moon at an altitude of 2,420 km on 14 November. Zond 6 took spectacular photos of the moon’s limb with the earth in the background. Photographs were also taken of the lunar near and far side with panchromatic film from distances of approximately 11,000 km and 3300 km. Each photo was 12.70 by 17.78 cm. Some of the views allowed for stereo pictures. On the return leg a gasket failed, leading to cabin depressurisation, which would have been fatal to a human crew. The 7K-L1 then made the first successful double skip trajectory, dipping into the earth's atmosphere over Antarctica, slowing from 11 km/sec to suborbital velocity, then skipping back out into space before making a final re-entry onto Soviet territory. The landing point was only 16 km from the pad from which it had been launched toward the moon. After the re-entry the main parachute ejected prematurely, ripping the main canopy, leading to the capsule being destroyed on impact with the ground. One negative was recovered from the camera container and a small victory obtained over the Americans. But the criteria for a manned flight had obviously not been met and Mishin's only hope to beet the Americans was a failure or delay in the Apollo 8 flight set for December. The next Zond test was set for January. Additional Details: Zond 6(810).

1969 January 20 - 04:14 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 237-01 FAILURE: Second stage - One RD-0210 engine fails at T+510 sec, resulting in flight path deviation, automatic shutoff of launch vehicle. Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 13L Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Agency: RVSN. Launch failure - but the abort system again functioned perfectly, taking the capsule to a safe landing (in Mongolia!). At 501 seconds into the flight one of the four engines of the second stage shut down, and remained shut down for 25 seconds. The ever-reliable SAS abort system detected the failure, and separated the capsule from the failed booster. Yet again a successful capsule recovery after a booster failure. Additional Details: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 13L(4975).

1969 March 27 - 10:40 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 240-01 FAILURE: T+51s payload shroud failed. Second stage continued but third stage failed to ignite. M-69 s/n 521 Spacecraft: Mars M-69. Agency: RVSN. Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars, together with a landing probe.

1969 August 7 - 23:48 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 243-01 Zond 7 Mass: 5,379 kg (11,858 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Inclination: 51.50 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Circumlunar flight; successfully recovered in USSR August 13, 1969. Only completely successful L1 flight that could have returned cosmonauts alive or uninjured to earth. Official mission was further studies of the moon and circumlunar space, to obtain colour photography of the earth and the moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems. Earth photos were obtained on August 9, 1969. On August 11, 1969, the spacecraft flew past the moon at a distance of 1984.6 km and conducted two picture taking sessions. Successfully accomplished double-dip re-entry and landed 50 km from aim point near Kustani in the USSR.

1969 November 28 - 09:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 245-01 FAILURE: First stage malfunction. Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1 - first stage malfunction Mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1E. Agency: RVSN. Attempted test flight of Block D upper stage in N1 lunar crasher configuration. Payload was a modified Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions. Mission flown successfully over a year later as Cosmos 382.

1970 February 6 - 04:16 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 247-01 FAILURE: Failure of vehicle on launch. Ye-8-5 s/n 405 - failure of vehicle on launch Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Agency: RVSN. Robotic lunar soil return mission.

1970 August 18 - 03:45 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 246-01 82-EV test Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Heavily instrumented suborbital flight to provide data to root out causes of continuing launch vehicle failures. Heavy mass model of an unspecified spacecraft used to simulate payload..

1970 September 12 - 13:25 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 248-01 Luna 16 Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 110 km (60 mi). Apogee: 110 km (60 mi). Inclination: 70.00 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Lunar Sample Return. Landed on Moon 20 September 1970 at 05:18:00 GMT, Latitude 0.68 S, Longitude 56.30 E - Mare Fecunditatis. Luna 16 was launched toward the Moon from a preliminary earth orbit and entered a lunar orbit on September 17, 1970. On September 20, the spacecraft soft landed on the lunar surface as planned. The spacecraft was equipped with an extendable arm with a drilling rig for the collection of a lunar soil sample. After 26 hours and 25 minutes on the lunar surface, the ascent stage, with a hermetically sealed soil sample container, left the lunar surface carrying 100 grams of collected material. It landed in the Soviet Union on September 24, 1970. The lower stage of Luna 16 remained on the lunar surface and continued transmission of lunar temperature and radiation data. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1970 October 20 - 19:55 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 250-01 Zond 8 Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Final circumlunar flight; successfully recovered October 26, 1970. The announced objectives were investigations of the moon and circumlunar space and testing of onboard systems. The spacecraft obtained photographs of the earth on October 21 from a distance of 64,480 km. The spacecraft transmitted flight images of the earth for three days. Zond 8 flew past the moon on October 24, 1970, at a distance of 1,110.4 km and obtained both black and white and colour photographs of the lunar surface. Scientific measurements were also obtained during the flight. The spacecraft used a new variant of the double-dip re-entry, coming in over the north pole, bouncing off the atmosphere, being tracked by Soviet radar stations as it soared south over the Soviet Union, then making a final precision re-entry followed by splashdown at the recovery point in the Indian Ocean.

1970 November 10 - 14:44 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 251-01 Luna 17 Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 85 km (52 mi). Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Inclination: 141.00 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Luna 17 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards the Moon and entered lunar orbit on November 15, 1970. Luna 17 landed on Moon 17 November 1970 at 03:47:00 GMT, Latitude 38.28 N, Longitude 325.00 E - Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains). The payload, the Lunokhod 1 unmanned rover, rolled down a ramp from the landing stage and began exploring the surface. Lunokhod was intended to operate through three lunar days but actually operated for eleven lunar days (earth months). The operations of Lunokhod officially ceased on October 4, 1971, the anniversary of Sputnik 1. By then it had traveled 10,540 m and had transmitted more than 20,000 TV pictures and more than 200 TV panoramas. It had also conducted more than 500 lunar soil tests. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1970 December 2 - 17:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 252-01 Cosmos 382 Mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1E. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 2,384 km (1,481 mi). Apogee: 5,269 km (3,273 mi). Inclination: 55.90 deg. Period: 171.00 min. Test of Block D upper stage in its N1 lunar crasher configuration in earth orbit. The three maneuvers simulated the lunar orbit insertion burn; the lunar orbit circularization burn; and the descent burn to bring the LK lunar lander just over the surface. Payload was a modified Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions.
Maneuver Summary:
190km X 300km orbit to 303km X 5038km orbit. Delta V: 982 m/s
318km X 5040km orbit to 1616km X 5071km orbit. Delta V: 285 m/s
1616km X 5071km orbit to 2577km X 5082km orbit. Delta V: 1311 m/s
Total Delta V: 2578 m/s.

1971 May 10 - 16:58 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 253-01 FAILURE: No Block D ignition due wrong timer setting. Cosmos 419 Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Spacecraft: Mars M-71. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.50 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars. Rocket block failed to reignite in Earth Orbit. It is widely believed this spacecraft was launched with the primary purpose of overtaking Mariner 8, which had been launched (unsuccessfully, as it turned out) two days earlier, and becoming the first Mars orbiter. The Proton booster successfully put the spacecraft into low (174 km x 159 km) Earth parking orbit with an inclination of 51.4 degrees, but the Block D stage 4 failed to function due to a bad ignition timer setting (the timer, which was supposed to start ignition 1.5 hours after orbit was erroneously set for 1.5 years.) The orbit decayed and the spacecraft re-entered Earth's atmosphere 2 days later on 12 May 1971. The mission was designated Cosmos 419.

1971 May 28 - 15:26 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 249-01 Mars 3 Mass: 4,643 kg (10,236 lb). Spacecraft: Mars M-71. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 1,528 km (949 mi). Apogee: 214,500 km (133,200 mi). Inclination: 60.00 deg. Period: 18,243.00 min. Mars probe intended to conduct of a series of scientific investigations of the planet Mars and the space around it. Parameters are for Mars orbit. The Mars 3 orbiter also carried a French-built experiment which was not carried on Mars 2. Called Spectrum 1, the instrument measured solar radiation at metric wavelengths in conjunction with Earth-based receivers to study the cause of solar outbursts. The Spectrum 1 antenna was mounted on one of the solar panels. A mid-course correction was made on 8 June. The descent module (COSPAR 1971-049F) was released at 09:14 GMT on 2 December 1971 about 4.5 hours before reaching Mars. Through aerodynamic braking, parachutes, and retro-rockets, the lander achieved a soft landing at 45 S, 158 W and began operations. However, after 20 sec the instruments stopped working for unknown reasons. Meanwhile, the orbiter engine performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a long 11-day period orbit about Mars with an inclination thought to be similar to that of Mars 2 (48.9 degrees). Data was sent back for many months. It was announced that Mars 2 and 3 had completed their missions by 22 August 1972.

1972 July 29 - 03:20 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 260-01 FAILURE: Second stage malfunction at T+ 162 sec. Zarya s/n 122 Mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Agency: RVSN. Second Salyut space station (DOS 2), failed to reach orbit.

1973 January 8 - 06:55 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 259-01 Luna 21 Mass: 5,567 kg (12,273 lb). Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 90 km (55 mi). Apogee: 110 km (60 mi). Inclination: 60.00 deg. Period: 118.00 min. The Proton / Block D launcher put the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit followed by translunar injection. On 12 January 1973, Luna 21 braked into a 90 x 100 km orbit about the Moon. On 13 and 14 January, the perilune was lowered to 16 km altitude. On 15 January after 40 orbits, the braking rocket was fired at 16 km altitude, and the craft went into free fall. At an altitude of 750 meters the main thrusters began firing, slowing the fall until a height of 22 meters was reached. At this point the main thrusters shut down and the secondary thrusters ignited, slowing the fall until the lander was 1.5 meters above the surface, where the engine was cut off. Landing occurred at 23:35 GMT in LeMonnier crater at 25.85 degrees N, 30.45 degrees E. The lander carried a bas relief of Lenin and the Soviet coat-of-arms. After landing, Lunokhod 2 took TV images of the surrounding area, then rolled down a ramp to the surface at 01:14 GMT on 16 January and took pictures of the Luna 21 lander and landing site. It stopped and charged batteries until 18 January, took more images of the lander and landing site, and then set out over the Moon. The rover would run during the lunar day, stopping occasionally to recharge its batteries via the solar panels. At night the rover would hibernate until the next sunrise, heated by the radioactive source. Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4 months, covered 37 km of terrain including hilly upland areas and rilles, and sent back 86 panoramic images and over 80,000 TV pictures. Many mechanical tests of the surface, laser ranging measurements, and other experiments were completed during this time. On June 4 it was announced that the program was completed, leading to speculation that the vehicle probably failed in mid-May or could not be revived after the lunar night of May-June. The Lunokhod was not left in a position such that the laser retroreflector could be used, indicating that the failure may have happened suddenly.

1973 April 3 - 09:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 283-01 Salyut 2 Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 89.10 min. The first flight of the Almaz manned military space station. In January 1973 the first Almaz OPS was delivered to Baikonur. Launch and initial orbital checkout went according to plan. But before a crew could be launched the station depressurized. It was concluded that a short in electrical equipment started a fire in pressure vessel, leading to rupture of hull and depressurization. An alternate theory was that debris from an explosion of the third stage of Proton penetrated the hull. Control was lost on April 25, 1973, and the OPS cased operations on 29 April. Decayed May 28, 1973. Initial crew was to have been Popovich and Artyukhin.
Officially: Testing of improved design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments. Additional Details: Salyut 2(1518).

1973 May 11 - 00:20 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 284-01 Cosmos 557 Mass: 19,400 kg (42,700 lb). Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Salyut failure. Unsuccessful mission. Salyut out of control. Decayed May 22, 1973. Was to have been manned by initial crew of Leonov and Kubasov. Last chance to upstage Skylab, launched three days later.

1973 July 21 - 19:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 261-01 Mars 4 Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Spacecraft: Mars M-73. Agency: MOM. Failed; did not enter Martian orbit as planned; intended to be a Mars orbiter mission. Mars 4 reached Mars on 10 February 1974. Due to use of helium in preflight tests of the computer chips, which resulted in degradation of the chips during the voyage to Mars, the retro-rockets never fired to slow the craft into Mars orbit. Mars 4 flew by the planet at a range of 2,200 km. It returned one swath of pictures and some radio occultation data. Final heliocentric orbit 1.02 x 1.63 AU, 2.2 degree inclination, 556 day period.

1973 August 5 - 17:45 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 281-01 Mars 6 Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Spacecraft: Mars M-73. Agency: MOM. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. Total fueled launch mass of the lander and orbital bus was 3260 kg. It reached Mars on 12 March 1974, separated from the bus, and entered the atmosphere, where a parachute opened, slowing the descent. As the probe descended through the atmosphere it transmitted data for 150 seconds, representing the first data returned from the atmosphere of Mars. Unfortunately, the data were largely unreadable due to a flaw in a computer chip which led to degradation of the system during its journey to Mars. When the retro-rockets fired for landing, contact was lost with the craft. Mars 6 landed at about 24 degrees south, 25 degrees west in the Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Bus ended up in a final heliocentric orbit 1.01 x 1.67 AU, 2.2 degree inclination, 567 day period.

1974 March 26 - 13:35 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 282-01 Cosmos 637 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,493 km (22,054 mi). Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 14.30 deg. Period: 1,428.80 min. Test of Block D stage in geosynchronous satellite delivery role. Placed dummy Raduga satellite in geosynchronous orbit. As of 4 September 2001 located at 44.61 deg E drifting at 1.835 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 119.66E drifting at 1.819E degrees per day.

1974 June 24 - 22:38 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 283-02 Salyut 3 Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 89.10 min. First successful Almaz military manned space station flight. Tested a wide array of reconnaissance sensors. Following the successful Soyuz 14 and unsuccessful Soyuz 15 missions, on 23 September 1974 the station ejected a film return capsule. The KSI capsule suffered damage during re-entry but all the film was recoverable. On 24 January 1975 trials of the on-board 23 mm Nudelmann aircraft cannon (other sources say it was a Nudelmann NR-30 30 mm gun) were conducted. The next day the station was commanded to retrofire to a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean. Although only one of three planned crews managed to board the station, that crew did complete the first completely successful Soviet space station flight. Additional Details: Salyut 3(1678).

1975 October 8 - 00:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM 286-02 Cosmos 775 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,749 km (22,213 mi). Apogee: 35,853 km (22,277 mi). Inclination: 14.90 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. First launch of a prototype for a new geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Exploded in orbit. The next launch did not come until nine years later, so this may have been a version of the Oko elliptical orbit early warning satellite. As of 29 August 2001 located at 113.71 deg E drifting at 0.044 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 54.82E drifting at 0.255W degrees per day.

1975 October 16 - 04:04 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D 287-02 FAILURE: Block D stage failed. Ye-8-5M s/n 412 - Block D stage failed. Mass: 5,300 kg (11,600 lb). Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Agency: RVSN. Attempted robotic lunar soil return mission. Block D stage failed.

1976 June 22 - 18:04 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 290-02 Salyut 5 Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Second successful flight of the Almaz manned military space station. It had taken only 60 days and 1450 man-hours to prepare Almaz 0101-2 for flight, using the services of 368 officers and 337 non-commissioned officers. The tracking ships Academician Sergei Korolev and Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin were stationed in the Atlantic and Caribean to provide communications when out of tracking range of the USSR. Salyut 5 operated for 409 days, during which the crews of Soyuz 22 and 24 visited the station. Soyuz 23 was to have docked but its long-distance rendezvous system failed. Soyuz 25 was planned, but the mission would have been incomplete due to low orientation fuel on Salyut 5, so it was cancelled.

During the flight of Salyut 5 a 'parallel crew' was aboard a duplicate station on the ground. They conducted the same operations in support of over 300 astrophysical, geophysical, technological, and medical/biological experiments. Astrophysics studies included an infrared telescope-spectrometer in the 2-15 micrometer range which also obtained solar spectra. Earth resources studies were conducted as well as Kristall, Potok, Diffuziya, Sfera, and Reatsiya technology experiments. Presumably Salyut 5 was equipped with a SAR side-looking radar for reconnaissance of land and sea targets even through cloud cover.

The film capsule was ejected 22 February 1977 (and sold at Sotheby's, New York, on December 11, 1993!). The station was deorbited on 8 August 1977. In addition to the human crew two Russian tortoises (Testudo horsfieldi) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were flown.

The results of the Salyut 3 and 5 flights showed that manned reconnaissance was not worth the expense. There was minimal time to operate the equipment after the crew took the necessary time for maintenance of station housekeeping and environmental control systems. The experiments themselves showed good results and especially the value of reconnaissance of the same location in many different spectral bands and parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Additional Details: Salyut 5(2008).

1976 August 9 - 15:04 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D-1 288-02 Luna 24 Mass: 5,306 kg (11,697 lb). Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 115 km (71 mi). Apogee: 115 km (71 mi). Inclination: 120.00 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Lunar Sample Return. Landed on Moon 18 Aug 1976 at 02:00:00 GMT, Latitude 12.25 N, Longitude 62.20 E - Mare Crisium (Sea of Crisis). The last of the Luna series of spacecraft, Luna 24 was the third Soviet mission to retrieve lunar ground samples (the first two were returned by Luna 16 and 20). The mission successfully returned 170 grams of lunar samples to the Earth on 22 August 1976.

1978 September 9 - 03:25 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/D-1 296-01 Venera 11 Mass: 4,715 kg (10,394 lb). Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. Agency: MOM. Venera 11 was part of a two-spacecraft mission to study Venus and the interplanetary medium. Each of the two spacecraft, Venera 11 and Venera 12, consisted of a flight platform and a lander probe. Identical instruments were carried on both spacecraft. Venera 11 was launched into a 177 x 205 km, 51.5 degree inclination earth orbit from which it was propelled into a 3.5 month Venus transfer orbit. After ejection of the lander probe, the flight platform continued on past Venus in a heliocentric orbit. Near encounter with Venus occurred on December 25, 1978, at approximately 34,000 km altitude. The flight platform acted as a data relay for the descent craft for 95 minutes until it flew out of range and returned its own measurements on interplanetary space. The Venera 11 descent craft separated from its flight platform on December 23, 1978 and entered the Venus atmosphere two days later at 11.2 km/sec. During the descent, it employed aerodynamic braking followed by parachute braking and ending with atmospheric braking. It made a soft landing on the surface at 06:24 Moscow time on 25 December after a descent time of approximately 1 hour. The touchdown speed was 7-8 m/s.

Both Venera 11 and 12 landers failed to return colour television views of the surface and perform soil analysis experiments. All of the camera protective covers failed to eject after landing (the cause was not established) The soil drilling experiment was apparently damaged by a leak in the soil collection device, the interior of which was exposed to the high Venusian atmospheric pressure. The leak had probably formed during the descent phase because the lander was less aerodynamically stable than had been thought.

Two further experiments on the lander failed as well. Results reported included evidence of lightning and thunder, a high Ar36/Ar40 ratio, and the discovery of carbon monoxide at low altitudes.

1989 December 15 - 11:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 344-01 Raduga 24 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Apogee: 35,813 km (22,253 mi). Inclination: 7.90 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min. Stationed at 45 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1990-1994. Replaced by Raduga 31. As of 3 September 2001 located at 103.47 deg E drifting at 0.067 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 47.08E drifting at 0.104W degrees per day.

1990 February 15 - 07:52 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 363-02 Raduga 25 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 1.70 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 70 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1990-1995; 170 deg W in 1995-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 171.03 deg W drifting at 0.038 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 31.27W drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.

1990 November 3 - 14:40 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 370-01 Gorizont 21 Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 1.30 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 90 deg E. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1990-1993. Gorizont 28 replaced Gorizont 21 at 90 degrees E in 1993. This allowed Gorizont 21 to be repositioned from mid-November to late-December for the inauguration of a new station at 145 degrees E. 145 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 4.18 deg E drifting at 0.139 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 5.59E drifting at 0.135E degrees per day.

1990 December 20 - 11:35 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 361-01 Raduga 26 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,823 km (22,259 mi). Inclination: 7.00 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. Stationed at 85 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1991-1993. Raduga 26 then began a series of small maneuvers coincident with the launch of Raduga 30, and was placed in a graveyard orbit. As of 1 September 2001 located at 93.34 deg E drifting at 0.101 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 52.76E drifting at 0.024W degrees per day.

1991 February 28 - 05:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 360-02 Raduga 27 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,809 km (22,250 mi). Inclination: 7.30 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg E in 1991-1998 As of 29 August 2001 located at 109.47 deg E drifting at 0.276 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 119.06E drifting at 0.198W degrees per day.

1991 September 13 - 17:51 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 353-01 Cosmos 2155 Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Apogee: 35,825 km (22,260 mi). Inclination: 0.40 deg. Period: 1,437.00 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Declared purpose: 'Relaying of telegraph and telephone information'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1991-1992 As of 3 September 2001 located at 160.51 deg W drifting at 0.257 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 94.69E drifting at 0.424W degrees per day.

1991 November 22 - 13:27 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 353-02 Cosmos 2172 Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Spacecraft: Potok. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Inclination: 0.30 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 13 deg W. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1991-1995 As of 1 September 2001 located at 7.91 deg W drifting at 0.026 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 39.91W drifting at 0.204W degrees per day.

1991 December 19 - 11:41 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 355-01 Raduga 28 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Inclination: 6.40 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1992-1999; 45 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 61.74 deg E drifting at 0.302 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 115.81E drifting at 0.085E degrees per day.

1992 January 29 - 22:19 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 372-02 Cosmos 2177 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,112 km (11,875 mi). Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Inclination: 64.80 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet.

1992 April 2 - 01:50 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 369-01 Gorizont 25 Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.20 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 103 deg E. Transmission of Russian radio and television programmes in Siberia and the solution of communications problems in Russia's eastern regions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 140.44 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 44.59W drifting at 1.512W degrees per day.

1992 July 14 - 22:02 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 371-02 Gorizont 26 Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Inclination: 0.50 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 349 deg E. Development of the communications and television broadcasting system. Launched in the interests of the Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 11 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 13.53 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg E per day. As of 2007 Feb 21 located at 16.60E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.

1992 July 30 - 01:59 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 376-01 Cosmos 2204 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Inclination: 64.90 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 3. Put into service on 30 July 1992 and taken out of service on 4 August 1997.

1992 September 10 - 18:01 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 363-01 Cosmos 2209 Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.40 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Stationed at 24 deg W. Declared purpose:'Investigation of outer space and of processes occurring in the Earth's atmosphere'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1992-1996 As of 5 September 2001 located at 68.52 deg W drifting at 0.336 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 171.17W drifting at 0.109E degrees per day.

1992 October 30 - 14:59 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 372-01 Ekran 20 Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Inclination: 0.70 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Transmission of television programmes to a network of multiple user receiving stations. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 79.69 deg E drifting at 0.201 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 78.67E drifting at 0.192E degrees per day.

1992 November 27 - 13:10 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 364-01 Gorizont 27 Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 0.60 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 53 deg E. Development of the communications and television broadcasting system. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1992-1996; 96 deg E in 1996-1998; 50 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 26.46 deg E drifting at 0.193 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 26.21E drifting at 0.345W degrees per day.

1993 February 17 - 20:09 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 362-01 Cosmos 2234 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,106 km (11,871 mi). Apogee: 19,152 km (11,900 mi). Inclination: 64.90 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet.

1993 March 25 - 02:28 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 358-01 Raduga 29 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Inclination: 1.00 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Raduga 29 joined Raduga 22. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 12 deg E in 1993-1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 11.13 deg E drifting at 0.020 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 61.26E drifting at 0.381E degrees per day.

1993 May 27 - 01:22 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 364-02 FAILURE: Second stage did not reach planned velocity. Cause determined to be propellant contamination. Gorizont s/n 39L Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont. Agency: VKS.

1993 September 30 - 17:05 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 359-01 Raduga 30 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,762 km (22,221 mi). Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Inclination: 5.10 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 83 deg E, replacing Raduga-26. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 86.23 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. Raduga 30 followed on 30 September 1993 and was transferred to 85 degrees E. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.18E drifting at 0.046E degrees per day.

1993 October 28 - 15:17 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 368-01 Gorizont 28 Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Inclination: 5.10 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Gorizont 28 replaced Gorizont 21 at 90 degrees E. This allowed Gorizont 21 to be repositioned from mid-November to late-December for the inauguration of a new station at 145 degrees E. As of 6 September 2001 located at 96.68 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 116.96E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.

1993 November 18 - 13:54 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 367-01 Gorizont 29 Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Apogee: 35,835 km (22,266 mi). Inclination: 5.00 deg. Period: 1,437.70 min. Gorizont 29 (18 November 1993) and 30 (20 May 1994) were launched for Rimsat, Ltd., to provide communications services in the Pacific region under an agreement signed in 1992 between Rimsat and the Applied Mechanics NPO. Gorizont 29 was located at 130 degrees E in accordance with a lease arrangement with Rimsat Corporation (using slots allocated to Tonga by the International Telecommunications Union). Intended for use under commercial conditions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 130 deg E in 1993-1997; 161 deg E in 1997-1998; 130 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 130.39 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 168.05E drifting at 0.374W degrees per day.

1994 January 20 - 09:49 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M 358-02 Gals Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Spacecraft: Gals . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 36,121 km (22,444 mi). Apogee: 36,121 km (22,444 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. Period: 1,453.00 min. Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. Also tested SPT-100 plasma engine. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 71 deg E in 1994-1996; 36 deg E in 1996-1999; 42 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 37.30 deg E drifting at 0.121 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 67.44E drifting at 0.298E degrees per day.

1994 February 5 - 08:46 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 375-02 Raduga 1-3 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Apogee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Inclination: 1.40 deg. Period: 1,473.00 min. Joined Raduga 1-2 at 48 deg E; third launch of alternate Raduga design. Extension of the telephone and telegraph radio communications system on the territory of the Russian Federation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 49.75 deg E drifting at 0.057 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 100.54E drifting at 0.021W degrees per day.

1994 February 18 - 07:56 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 376-02 Raduga 31 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 36,483 km (22,669 mi). Apogee: 36,483 km (22,669 mi). Inclination: 1.50 deg. Period: 1,472.00 min. Stationed at 44 deg E; replaced Raduga 24. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1994-1995 As of 29 August 2001 located at 65.21 deg E drifting at 0.236 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 81.01E drifting at 0.234E degrees per day.

1994 April 11 - 07:49 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 377-01 Cosmos 2275 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Apogee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Inclination: 63.70 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite.

1994 May 20 - 02:01 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 357-01 Gorizont 30 Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Spacecraft: Gorizont . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Apogee: 35,833 km (22,265 mi). Inclination: 4.80 deg. Period: 1,437.60 min. Stationed at 142.5 deg E as 'Rimsat-2' - leased to Rimsat Corporation, using an orbital slot allocated to Tonga. Communications satellite intended for use under commercial conditions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 142 deg E in 1994-1997; 122 deg E in 1997-1999; 142 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 142.86 deg E drifting at 0.016 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 173.22W drifting at 0.132W degrees per day.

1994 July 6 - 23:58 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 365-02 Cosmos 2282 Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,754 km (22,216 mi). Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Inclination: 1.86 deg. Period: 1,436.06 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1994-1995 As of 5 September 2001 located at 170.85 deg W drifting at 0.127 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 58.90W drifting at 0.281E degrees per day.

1994 August 11 - 15:27 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 367-02 Cosmos 2287 Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 19,118 km (11,879 mi). Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Inclination: 64.90 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite.

1994 October 31 - 14:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 361-02 Elektro 1 Mass: 2,850 kg (6,280 lb). Spacecraft: Elektro . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Inclination: 4.70 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Stationed at 76.61 deg E. Elektro 1 was finally launched on 31 October 1994, 15 years after its original public schedule. Malfunction of the local vertical sensor and the attitude control system delayed the positioning of the spacecraft at its intended location of 76 degrees E, but by early December Elektro 1 was on station. However problems with the local vertical sensor continued to plague the spacecraft, and useful images were not available. Stayed in geosynchronous orbit at 76 deg E in 1995-1998 before being shut down. As of 4 September 2001 located at 71.89 deg E drifting at 0.069 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 67.89E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.

1994 December 16 - 12:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 373-02 Luch Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Spacecraft: Luch . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Apogee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 2.48 deg. Period: 1,436.09 min. Stationed at 95 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Improved Altair/SR geosynchronous satellite for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 95 deg E in 1994-1997; 16 deg W in 1997-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 143.35 deg W drifting at 0.319 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 64.95W drifting at 0.320E degrees per day.

1994 December 28 - 11:31 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 366-01 Raduga 32 Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga . Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 1.41 deg. Period: 1,436.22 min. Raduga 32 joined Raduga 25 and Raduga 1-1 at 70 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1995-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 80.00 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 73.08E drifting at 0.033E degrees per day.

1995 May 20 - 03:33 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 378-02 Spektr Mass: 19,640 kg (43,290 lb). Spacecraft: Spektr. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.68 deg. Period: 89.78 min. Flight: Mir EO-18. MIR experiment module. Docked to Mir Jun 1
Officially: Docked to Mir Jun 1

1995 October 11 - 16:26 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 386-01 Luch 1 Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Spacecraft: Luch. Agency: MOM. Perigee: 35,754 km (22,216 mi). Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Inclination: 2.60 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 77 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Improved Altair/SR geosynchronous satellite for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 77 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 75.63 deg E drifting at 0.029 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 77.39E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.

1996 April 8 - 23:09 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 390-01 Astra 1F Mass: 3,010 kg (6,630 lb). Spacecraft: HS 601. Agency: SES. Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 19.3E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.16 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.18E drifting at 0.016W degrees per day.

1996 April 23 - 11:48 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 385-01 Priroda Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Spacecraft: Priroda. Agency: RKA. Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Inclination: 51.67 deg. Period: 89.89 min. Flight: Mir NASA-1, Mir EO-21. LEO. Remote sensing module for Mir space station Docked with Mir Apr 26.

1996 September 6 - 17:37 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 (DM1) 375-01 Inmarsat 3 F2 Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Spacecraft: AS 4000. Agency: INMARSAT. Perigee: 35,766 km (22,223 mi). Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Inclination: 2.50 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 15.5W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 15 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 15.48 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 15.47W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.

1997 May 24 - 17:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM4) 380-02 Telstar 5 Spacecraft: FS-1300. Agency: Loral Sk. Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geosynchronous. Stationed over 97.0W Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 97 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 96.99 deg W drifting at 0.006 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 97.04W drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.

1997 June 18 - 14:02 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/17S40 (DM2) 390-02 Iridium 14 Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Spacecraft: LM 700. Agency: Iridium. Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Inclination: 86.39 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 294.2 degrees. Not in service.

1997 August 28 - 00:33 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 387-02 Panamsat 5 Spacecraft: HS 601. Agency: Panamsat. Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geosynchronous. Stationed over 58.0W. Used HS-601 XIPS ion engine for station keeping. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 58 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 156.02 deg W drifting at 1.125 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 26.11E drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.

1997 September 14 - 01:36 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/17S40 (DM2) 391-01 Iridium 29 Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Spacecraft: LM 700. Agency: Iridium. Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Inclination: 86.40 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 3. Ascending node 230.9 degrees.

1997 December 2 - 23:10 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 382-02 Astra 1G Spacecraft: HS 601. Agency: SES. Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geosynchronous. Stationed over 23.9E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.18 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.17E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

1997 December 24 - 23:19 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 394-01 FAILURE: DM-3 Stage failed, leaving spacecraft in geosynchronous transfer orbit. Asiasat 3 Spacecraft: HS 601. Agency: Asiasat. Perigee: 35,612 km (22,128 mi). Apogee: 35,964 km (22,346 mi). Inclination: 5.50 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. The spacecraft was left in a high inclination useless orbit by a failure of the DM-3 stage and became an insurance writeoff. Two trips around the Moon to remove the inclination under its new owner (Hughes) saw it back into very limited service (as HGS-1) by August 1998 over the Indian Ocean and available for sale at bargain rates. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 150-154 deg W in 1998; 60 deg W in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 59.68 deg W drifting at 0.024 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 169.58W drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.

1998 April 7 - 02:13 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/17S40 (DM2) 391-02 Iridium 62 Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Spacecraft: LM 700. Agency: Iridium. Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Inclination: 86.40 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.9 degrees.

1998 May 7 - 23:45 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 393-02 Echostar 4 Spacecraft: AS 2100. Agency: Echostar. Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 148.0 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg W in 1998; 148 deg W in 1998-1999; 110 deg W in 1999; 119 deg W in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 118.91 deg W drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 77.02W drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.

1998 August 30 - 00:31 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 383-01 Astra 2A Spacecraft: HS 601. Agency: SES. Perigee: 35,766 km (22,223 mi). Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The first burn of the Proton's Block DM3 put the spacecraft into a 220 x 36,007 km x 51.6 deg transfer orbit. Astra 2A satellite was a Hughes HS-601, owned by Societe Europeene de Satellites, based in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has not registered any of the Astra satellites with the United Nations, in violation of treaty requirements. Geostationary at 28.3 degrees E. Used HS-601 XIPS ion engine for station keeping. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 28.21 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.20E drifting at 0.028W degrees per day.

1998 November 4 - 05:12 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 395-02 Panamsat 8 Spacecraft: FS-1300. Agency: Panamsat. Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Apogee: 35,810 km (22,250 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The Proton launch vehicles Block DM3 fourth stage put the Panamsat PAS 8 into a 6784 km x 35941 km x 17.3 degree transfer orbit. PAS 8 had 24 C-band and 24 Ku-band transponders and was to be located over the Pacific after its R-4D apogee engine manoeuvred the orbit to geostationary altitude and inclination. Geostationary at 166.1 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 166 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 166.05 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 165.96E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.

1998 November 20 - 06:40 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 395-01 Zarya Spacecraft: ISS Zarya. Agency: NASA. Perigee: 397 km (246 mi). Apogee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. This was the first launch in the assembly of the International Space Station. The Zarya FGB was funded by NASA and built by Khrunichev in Moscow under subcontract from Boeing for NASA. Its design from the TKS military station resupply spacecraft of the 1970’s and the later 77KS Mir modules. Zarya included a multiple docking adapter, a pressurised cabin section, and a propulsion/instrument section with a rear docking port. Initial orbit was 176 lm x 343 km x 51.6 degrees. By November 25 it had manoeuvred to a 383 km x 396 km x 51.7 degree orbit, awaiting the launch of Shuttle mission STS-88 which docked the Unity node to it.

1999 February 15 - 05:12 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 396-01 Telstar 6 Mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Spacecraft: FS-1300. Agency: Loral Sk. Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Loral Skynet's Telstar 6 had a mixed C and Ku band communications payload. The Block DM3 upper stage released Telstar 6 in a 6638 km x 35,756 km x 17.4 degree geosynchronous transfer orbit. After the first burn of its on-board R-4D engine on February 18, Telstar 6 was in a 15,037 km x 35,800 km x 7.9 deg transfer orbit heading for its final geosynchronous slot at 93 deg W Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg W in 1999. As of 2 September 2001 located at 93.01 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 93.03W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.

1999 February 28 - 04:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 387-01 Raduga-1 Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Agency: MO RF. Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 1.20 deg. Geosynchronous communications satellite, stationed at 35 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 34.80 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 107.14E drifting at 0.165W degrees per day.

1999 March 21 - 00:09 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 388-01 Asiasat 3S Mass: 3,463 kg (7,634 lb). Spacecraft: HS 601. Agency: Asiasat. Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. A replacement for Asiasat 3, placed in the wrong orbit by a Proton launch in 1997, Asiasat 3S carried C and Ku band transponders. The Blok DM3 upper stage placed it a 9,677 km x 35,967 km x 13.1 deg geosynchronous transfer orbit. Asiasat's on-board R4D apogee engine was to be used to raise perigee to geostationary altitude. Mass in transfer orbit was 3,463 kg, down to 2,500 kg after insertion in geostationary orbit. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E from 1999. As of 4 September 2001 located at 105.52 deg E drifting at 0.008 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 105.46E drifting at 0.017W degrees per day.

1999 May 20 - 22:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 396-02 Nimiq 1 Spacecraft: AS 2100. Agency: Telesat. Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Telesat Canada's Nimiq television broadcasting satellite was placed into a 7050 km x 35790 km x 15.9 degree transfer orbit. The Nimiq was to use its liquid apogee engine (Royal Ordnance Leros 1) to reach geosynchronous orbit. Telesat Canada also operated the Anik Canadian domestic communications satellites, the first of which was launched in 1972. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 91 deg W in 1999. As of 4 September 2001 located at 91.11 deg W drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 91.18W drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

1999 June 18 - 01:49 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 397-02 Astra 1H Spacecraft: HS 601. Agency: SES. Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 19 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.12 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.23E drifting at 0.019W degrees per day.

1999 September 6 - 16:36 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M 388-02 Yamal 101 Spacecraft: Yamal. Agency: AO Gazco. Perigee: 35,503 km (22,060 mi). Apogee: 36,298 km (22,554 mi). Inclination: 2.40 deg. Period: 1,441.90 min. The first two Yamal communications satellites were placed into a 197 km x 36,311 km x 49.3 degree transfer orbit The DM-2M fourth stage made two successful burns, placing the satellites in circular 36,000 km geosynchronous orbits. Yamal 101 reportedly ran into problems after it was deployed. RKK Energia built the new Yamal satellites for AO Gazcom of Moscow, a joint venture of RKKE and RAO Gazprom, the Russian natural gas monopoly. The two satellites will support internal communications for RAO Gazprom. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 89 deg E in 1999. As of 30 August 2001 located at 112.86 deg E drifting at 1.484 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 42.96E drifting at 1.484W degrees per day.

1999 September 26 - 22:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 398-02 LMI-1 Spacecraft: LMI. Agency: LMI. Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. Geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 75 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 75 deg E in 1999. As of 2 September 2001 located at 74.98 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 75.00E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

2000 February 12 - 09:10 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 399-02 Garuda 1 Mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Spacecraft: AS 2100. Agency: ACES. Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Inclination: 2.40 deg. Geosynchronous communications satellite for the ACES consortium (PSN of Indonesia, PLDT of the Phillipines, Lockheed Martin, and Jasmine of Thailand). The satellite had two large 12-m diameter L-band antennae for cellular telephone relay. Stationed at 123 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 123 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 122.97 deg E drifting at 0.023 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 123.10E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.

2000 July 12 - 04:56 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K 398-01 Zvezda Mass: 20,295 kg (44,742 lb). Spacecraft: ISS Zvezda. Agency: RAKA. Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Years behind schedule, the Zvezda living module of the International Space Station, built and financed by Russia, finally reached orbit. Zvezda's initial orbit was 179 x 332 km x 51.6 deg. On July 14 the orbit was raised to 288 x 357 km. ISS was then in a 365 x 372 km orbit. After matching orbits with the ISS, Zvezda then became the passive docking target for the Russian-built, US-financed Zarya module already attached to the station. The Zarya/Unity stack docked with the Zvezda module at 00:45 GMT on July 26, forming the basic core of the International Space Station. A flood of NASA missions would follow to bring the station into operation.

2000 September 5 - 09:43 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 400-02 Sirius 2 Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Spacecraft: FS-1300. Agency: Sirius R. Perigee: 24,521 km (15,236 mi). Apogee: 47,051 km (29,236 mi). Inclination: 63.40 deg. Sirius Radio's Sirius 2 was launched into a 144 x 168 km x 64.8 deg parking orbit. The Blok DM3 stage then made two burns to deliver Sirius 2 to an elliptical 6192 x 47057 km x 63.4 deg orbit. The was to provide digital radio broadcasts to mobile users in North America. Stationed at 64 deg W. As of 31 August 2001 located at 64.56 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 67.77W drifting at 0.049E degrees per day.

2000 October 1 - 22:00 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 401-01 GE-1A Mass: 3,593 kg (7,921 lb). Spacecraft: AS 2100. Agency: GE Americom. Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Ku-band communications satellite to provide broadcast services for eastern Asia. Stationed at 108 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 108 deg E in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 108.22 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 108.21E drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.

2000 October 21 - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 402-01 GE 6 Mass: 3,909 kg (8,617 lb). Spacecraft: AS 2100. Agency: GE Americom. Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite. Stationed at 72 deg W. The GE 6 was a Lockheed Martin A2100 series satellite with a mass of 3552 kg at launch and 1900 kg dry. It was to provide broadcast and data services in North America. The DM3 upper stage made two burns and placed the GE 6 in a 5850 x 35726 km x 18.7 deg intermediate transfer orbit at 0441 UTC on October 22. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 72 deg W in 2000. As of 3 September 2001 located at 72.01 deg W drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 72.00W drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.

2000 November 30 - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 402-02 Sirius CD Radio 3 Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Spacecraft: FS-1300. Agency: Sirius R. Perigee: 24,482 km (15,212 mi). Apogee: 47,083 km (29,255 mi). Inclination: 63.40 deg. Direct Radio Broadcasting satellite. Launch delayed from early October due to delays in delivery of engines. Stationed at 66 deg W. The third Sirius digital radio broadcast satellite was a Loral FS-1300 series vehicle and was placed in an initial elliptical 63 degree orbit by the Proton upper stage. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 66 deg W in 2000. As of 30 August 2001 located at 64.69 deg W drifting at 0.027 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 65.64W drifting at 0.010E degrees per day.

2001 May 15 - 01:11 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 403-01 PAS 10 Mass: 37,125 kg (81,846 lb). Spacecraft: HS 601. Agency: Panamsat. Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from April 4. PAS 10 (PanAmSat 10) was an American geosynchronous communications spacecraft. The 3.7 tonne (with fuel) satellite carried 48 transponders (24 in C-band and 24 in Ku-band) to provide direct-to-home video channels to Europe, Middle-East, and South Africa after parking over 68.5 deg-E longitude. PAS 10 replaced PAS 4. As of 5 September 2001 located at 68.50 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 68.45E drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.

2001 June 16 - 01:49 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 403-02 Astra 2C Mass: 3,728 kg (8,218 lb). Spacecraft: HS 601. Agency: SES. Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from June 11. Astra 2C was a European (SES - Societe Europeene des Satellites, Luxembourg) geosynchronous communications Boeing 601HP spacecraft. The 3.7 tonne (including 1.2 tonne of fuel), 8 kW satellite was the fifth in the Astra series. It carried 32 Ku-band transponders to provide voice, video, and data links to Western Europe through a pair of 3 m diameter dishes, after parking over 28.2 deg-E longitude. As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.13 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.23E drifting at 0.024W degrees per day.

2002 March 30 - 17:25 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 406-01 Intelsat 903 Mass: 4,726 kg (10,419 lb). Spacecraft: FS-1300. Agency: Intelsat. Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite. Moved from Proton M to Proton K booster. Launch delayed from November 26, 2001, and March 4, 2002. The three stage Proton booster put the DM3 upper stage and payload on a suborbital trajectory. The first DM3 burn reached a circular 160 km orbit at 1742 UTC. The second burn at 1838 UTC raised apogee to about 35800 km, and a third burn near apogee at 2339 UTC raised perigee to about 3500 km and lowered inclination to 25 deg. Blok DM3 separated from the Intelsat 903 payload at 0008 UTC on March 31. By April 5, Intelsat 903 was in a 31653 x 35817 km x 0.7 deg near-synchronous orbit. Intelsat 903 had a launch mass of 4726 kg and a dry mass around 2350 kg, and carried C and Ku band antennas. It was built by SS/Loral using a derivative of the FS-1300 platform. As of 2007 Mar 5 located at 34.50W drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.

2002 August 22 - 05:15 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 406-02 Echostar 8 Mass: 4,660 kg (10,270 lb). Spacecraft: FS-1300. Agency: Echostar. Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Inclination: 0.10 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from June 16 and 22, July 18, August 2 and 20 due to payload problems. Echostar 8 was an American geostationary communication spacecraft. The 4.7-ton satellite was to provide digital TV broadcast to North America through its 16 spot beams and 41 transponders in the Ku-band after parking over 110° W longitude. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 110.01W drifting at 0.003W degrees per day.

2002 November 25 - 23:04 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 408-02 FAILURE: The Block DM upper stage failed to ignite for its second burn, leaving the satellite in parking orbit. Astra 1K Mass: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb). Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. Agency: SES. Perigee: 244 km (151 mi). Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Delayed from December 2001 and July 15, August 16 and 25. Astra 1K was to be a European (Luxembourg-based) geostationary communications spacecraft. The 5.0-ton, 13-kW spacecraft was the most massive of civilian communications spacecraft ever launched. Its 52 Ku-band and two Ka-band transponders could cover 1,100 channels and were to replace three earlier Astra satellites. However the DM-3 upper stage, after operating successfully to place itself and the satellite in parking orbit, failed to ignite for transfer orbit injection, leaving the spacecraft stranded in parking orbit. In an effort to prevent imminent re-entry, the spacecraft was raised to a circular orbit at an altitude of 290 km. Three options were considered: force re-entry over the Pacific Ocean; retrieval by a US shuttle; or use of all the fuel aboard the satellite to attempt to move it to a geostationary orbit at 19.2° E longitude. The decision was taken in December to deorbit the spacecraft, resulting in a huge insurance loss and bringing into question both continued use of the Block D series of upper stages and the 'bigger is better' comsat philosophy.

2002 December 25 - 10:37 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M 409-02 Cosmos 2394 Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Spacecraft: Glonass. Agency: KNITs. Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Inclination: 64.80 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three navigation satellites of the GLONASS system were launched to replenish the constellation. This was the third end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000.

2003 November 24 - 06:22 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2M 407-02 Yamal-200 KA-1 Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Spacecraft: Yamal. Agency: Gazprom. Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Two geosynchronous communications satellites launched for Gazprom. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 49.00E drifting at 0.012E degrees per day.

2004 March 27 - 03:30 GMT - Launch Vehicle: Proton. Proton-K/DM-2 410-05 Raduga-1 Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Inclination: 1.30 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Military communications satellite. Parked in geostationary orbit at 85.0 deg E, after being placed in unusual subsynchronous drift orbit. Original name Cosmos 2406. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.19E drifting at 0.029W degrees per day.


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