some questions

some questions

Postby sivaram_sk on Sun Jul 22, 2007 6:43 am

Hey Vj,

That was amazing timeline, a real interesting one. If i may suggest,
you could try your hand at writing fiction, adding a BIT of fiction to this
time line would make it a pretty more interesting.

regards
siva.


On 7/21/07, Vijay Kumar .S wrote:
Contributions to the time line are very much needed -

for eg, what was AK age when he died ....we need to work back to
what was his age when he fought veera pandiya at chevur...since it
is mentioned that he was very young ( KN says AK though a boy,
fought like a lion's whelp sporting with a tusker) ---refer also
Gokul's comment
Similarly sundara chola was a great warrior - but think of him...
only
an old man who can hardly walk comes to our mind !!

Parantaka as per the leyden grant...caused rivers of blood at the
cevur battle - due to the deep cuts he inflicted on the elephants of
the enemy

back to time line...lets assume AK must be between 14 -18 at chevur
( at 14 would he be already worldywise - spurned of his love by
nandhini....anyway its fiction. but would you take a 14 year old to
battle - a la abhimanyu)

if we assume he is 14 at chevur - he died when he was 24, if he was
18 at chevur - he was 28 when he died. depending on that he was born
in 945 or 941.

based on this - leaving a gap of say a year of kundavai and probably
a little more 2 years for RRC ( could be more since kundavai almost
looks at him like her child) - you are looking at a 944-947 year of
birth for RRC.

so RRC would be between 21 - 25 on AK's assasination, between 37-40
when he took over the reign.

if RRC demise is fixed between 1014 - 1016 - you are looking at his
death at a ripe old age of around 70.

vj
--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, Nandakumar Selvaraj
wrote:

Thanks Vijay for a wonderful timeline. Looks like we should look
at extending the time line before and beyond the ones provided by
Vijay.

Regards
Nanda


----- Original Message ----

From: Vijay Kumar .S
To: ponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Friday, 20 July, 2007 3:07:26 AM
Subject: [ponniyinselvan] Re:some questions

how does this time line look...need to fill in more dates related
to
GKC

958 Sundara chola crowned
959 Chevur battle - against pandya/srilanka army
969 AK assasination
970 UC crowned
973 Sundara chola demise
985 RRC crowned,UC demise
993 RRC Srilanka campaign
994 RRC kerela /chera campaign
???? Maldives campaign
999 RRC conquest of Gangapadi and Nurambapadi ( karnataka) Gangas
999 RRC vengi conquest eastern chalukya
1001 Sembian Madevi Demise
1003 Rattapadi conquest - chalukya
1007 RJC northern battles ( chalukya ) - hottur inscription
1008 Udagai battle RJC, RRC - against cheras
1010 Big temple completed
1012 RJC appointed co regent
1014 RJC crowned, Demise of RRC??
1015 First chola ambassador reaches china
1018 Rajadiraja appointed co regent, RJC srilanka campaign, RJC
marches through pandya and chera country
1019 RJC Ganges Campaign
1021 RJC western chalukyan campaign
1025 srivijaya, kadaram, sumatra, malaysia naval campaign
1031-35 RJC western chalukyan campaign and battle of
vengi/Kalidandi
1033 Second ambassador reaches china
1041 RJC srilanka campaign
1044 RJC demise
1077 Third ambassador reaches china





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some questions

Postby vj_episteme on Mon Jul 23, 2007 6:02 am

Dear sir

Please refer below

http://whatisindia.com/inscriptions/sou ... ns/volume_
2/no_1_north_west_walls_upper_tier.html

18. On the two-hundred-and-seventy-fifth day of the twenty-fifth
year (of his reign), the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva gave one copper water-
pot (kuta), to be placed on the copper pinnacle (stupittari)[9] of
the sacred shrine (sri-vimana) of the lord of the Sri-Rajarajesvara
(temple), weighing three thousand and eighty-three pala.[10] The
various gold plates (tagadu), which were laid over it, weighed two
thousand nine hundred and twenty-six karanju and a half by the stone
called (after) Adavallan.


--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Vijay Kumar .S"
wrote:
The earliest reference of this temple occurs in the 19th regnal
year
of RRC ( 1004). The stupik-kudam was handed over to the temple
authorities on the 275th day of the 25th year of his
reign ( 1010), and hence assume the consecration of the temple
should have taken place about that
time. There are no references of RRC after his 29th regnal year (
1014) - so we presume his demise during that year...

vj


--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, Manuscript Section
wrote:

Dear Vijay
According to Sadashiva pandaratthar, Periya koil was started
on
1000 and finished on 1014.

With love
Dr.G.Sankaranarayanan


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some questions

Postby sps10142004 on Mon Jul 23, 2007 7:45 am

--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Vijay Kumar .S"
wrote:
Dear sir

Please refer below


http://whatisindia.com/inscriptions/sou ... ns/volume_
2/no_1_north_west_walls_upper_tier.html

18. On the two-hundred-and-seventy-fifth day of the twenty-fifth
year (of his reign), the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva gave one copper
water-
pot (kuta), to be placed on the copper pinnacle (stupittari)[9] of
the sacred shrine (sri-vimana) of the lord of the Sri-
Rajarajesvara
(temple), weighing three thousand and eighty-three pala.[10] The
various gold plates (tagadu), which were laid over it, weighed two
thousand nine hundred and twenty-six karanju and a half by the
stone
called (after) Adavallan.
--------------------------------

This is a very very important inscription NOT only because it
confirms the date of Kudamuzhuku (25th yr of RRC (985 + 25 = 1010
AD) 275th day, but also this talks of the GOLD PLATEs of the
Kalasa. The POSTULATE that the Vimanam was Gold plated IS NEGATIVED
citing this inscription.

Then so much of weight is mentioned even for the Kalasa, if the
entire Vimanam is golden-roofed there should have been more details.

Pls search for PON VIMANAM / GOLD ROOFING and see earlier mails.

But ABSENCE of such detail alone will not be useful in NEGATIVING.

That was an interesting thread discussed earlier..

best regards / sps
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some questions

Postby vj_episteme on Mon Jul 23, 2007 9:12 am

from below ...did PS marry before his elder brother...against the
norm. so was AK a bachelor or married when he was killed.



--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Vijay Kumar .S"
wrote:
some more

what was RJC age when he was crowned in 1014...heard he must be
around 50..so places his date of birth around 1964...ie 5 years
before AK's assasination - would'nt tie up with PS storyline though.
vj_episteme
 
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Joined: Mon Apr 30, 2007 7:00 am

some questions

Postby vj_episteme on Mon Jul 23, 2007 11:39 am

read tent dob of RJC as 964.

working the other way round, assume RRC married after AK death -
969 - say by 970 - so RJC dob between 970-972 --- giving him 42
years when he was crowned.. in 1014 and 35 when he went to battle (
huttur)1007

--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Vijay Kumar .S"
wrote:
from below ...did PS marry before his elder brother...against the
norm. so was AK a bachelor or married when he was killed.



--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Vijay Kumar .S"
wrote:

some more

what was RJC age when he was crowned in 1014...heard he must be
around 50..so places his date of birth around 964...ie 5 years
before AK's assasination - would'nt tie up with PS storyline
though.
vj_episteme
 
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Joined: Mon Apr 30, 2007 7:00 am

some questions

Postby vj_episteme on Mon Jul 23, 2007 11:41 am

Lovely sir... apart from whatinindia.com, can you refer any other
source for chola inscriptions..


This is a very very important inscription NOT only because it
confirms the date of Kudamuzhuku (25th yr of RRC (985 + 25 = 1010
AD) 275th day, but also this talks of the GOLD PLATEs of the
Kalasa. The POSTULATE that the Vimanam was Gold plated IS
NEGATIVED
citing this inscription.

Then so much of weight is mentioned even for the Kalasa, if the
entire Vimanam is golden-roofed there should have been more
details.

Pls search for PON VIMANAM / GOLD ROOFING and see earlier mails.

But ABSENCE of such detail alone will not be useful in NEGATIVING.

That was an interesting thread discussed earlier..

best regards / sps


--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Sivapathasekaran"
wrote:
--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Vijay Kumar .S"
wrote:

Dear sir

Please refer below



http://whatisindia.com/inscriptions/sou ... ns/volume_
2/no_1_north_west_walls_upper_tier.html

18. On the two-hundred-and-seventy-fifth day of the twenty-fifth
year (of his reign), the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva gave one copper
water-
pot (kuta), to be placed on the copper pinnacle (stupittari)[9]
of
the sacred shrine (sri-vimana) of the lord of the Sri-
Rajarajesvara
(temple), weighing three thousand and eighty-three pala.[10]
The
various gold plates (tagadu), which were laid over it, weighed
two
thousand nine hundred and twenty-six karanju and a half by the
stone
called (after) Adavallan.
--------------------------------
vj_episteme
 
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some questions

Postby devi_dass01 on Mon Jul 23, 2007 3:45 pm

--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Vijay Kumar .S"
wrote:
from below ...did PS marry before his elder brother...against the
norm. so was AK a bachelor or married when he was killed.
MARRIED.

WILL COME BACK WITH EVIDENCE.

SPS
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some questions

Postby devi_dass01 on Mon Jul 23, 2007 3:55 pm

--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Vijay Kumar .S"
wrote:
read tent dob of RJC as 964.

working the other way round, assume RRC married after AK death -
969 - say by 970 - so RJC dob between 970-972 --- giving him 42
years when he was crowned.. in 1014 and 35 when he went to battle
(
huttur)1007
=================
Quick run :

Ref: Thiruvalangadu Copper plate confirmed Raraja declined to accept
the throne and instead installed Uthama in (969 -970 AD . Assume he
is a matured and major at 18 - 19. Tentative D of B : 950 - 951.

Ref inscriptions related to Kaandalur chalai conquor. Incharge of
this Army was Rajendra in 988 - 989 AD. Assume he is also major.
Means he should have been born just around Uthama ascending to the
throne.

Means in 1012 AD, when he was co-regent with RRC, he should have
been about 42 and had another 30 year innings almost.

sps
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some questions

Postby devi_dass01 on Mon Jul 23, 2007 4:06 pm

--- Inponniyinselvan@yahoogroups.com, "Vijay Kumar .S"
wrote:

Dear Vijay,

1. Prinited Volumes of South Indian inscriptions (with original
Tamil text, which is missing in whatisindia.com). Whatisindia is
giving interpretations .. know what we are, we will not accept that
easily without seeing the original ourselves !

2. Epigraphia Indica - INSCRIPTIONS with write ups by Scholars -
including KAN Sastry - who wrote for Udayarkudi Ravidasan
inscriptions - from all over India - several volumes

3. Annual Ephigraphical Reports - ARE - Condensed reports : For
example : No: 2 collected in 1896 - Thanjai Big temple - north
wall - grants by all the queens of RRC - about 11 of them .. related
to gold ornaments / silver articles.

Like this there are subject-wise references : I will repost on
Pallipadai for your kind reference.

4. TN State Archeology Volumes

5. Their Monthly Issue KALVETTU

6. AAVANAM - Tamilnadu tholliyal Kazhagam - Monthly issue

7. Thirukkoil - HR& CE - deals atleast inscriptions of one temple

8. Varalaaru : Dr. Rasamanickanar Varalaaru issues :: Privately
found inscriptions are put in printed Volumes - about 14/15 have
been released in the past 6 / 7 years. Excellent work in private
Research Centre, Trichy.

To my knowledge these are the ones sourcing Tamil inscritpions.

regards/

sps
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some questions

Postby vj_episteme on Thu Jul 26, 2007 6:17 am

5) similarly why we never hear of the kalabhras who ruled for a
considerable period form the thid C to the late 6th century -
King
Achchutavikranta of the Kalabharakula ( buddist !!), as ruling
over
the Chola country from Kaveripatnam - who kept the Chera, Chola
and
Pandya king in captivity.
found below site with the most information on KALABHRAS

http://www.geocities.com/mudiraja/mudir ... bhras.html

HOME ( Muthuraja
Mudiraja Muthuraja
Mudirajas Mutharacha
Mutharacha = Mutharaya = Mutharaiyar
Mutharacha = Mutharasa = Mutharasu = Mutharasi
Mutharaiyar = Muttiriyar = Muttiris
Mutharaiyar = Muthariyar = Mudaliyar
The uplands of Karnataka constitute the entire region of Bellary
Districts. Bellary districts were once an integral part of undivided
Rayalaseema in ANDHRA STATE, which was formed immediately after the
first reorganization of states on the basis of languages in
independent India.

The Bellary districts were originally a Telugu speaking region since
unknown times and were an integral part of erstwhile Rayalaseema of
Andhra Pradesh. These Bellary districts were given to the then
Mysore State by Andhra State in exchange for some other districts
for some administrative reasons. The Rayalaseema Region of South
India gave birth to a host of great RAYA kings, who wiliingly laid
down their lives to protect the Hindus and Hinduism from the
onslaught of Muslim invaders and Rayalaseema was comparable to the
great Rajasthan of North India.

Racha = Raya = Raja = King
Mandalam = Seema = Sthan = Land (Region)
Rayalaseema = Rajathan = Land of kings or Land of kings community

Who were the kalabhras ?

Kalabhras were misterious warrior people of South India whose
origins are not known to historians. No body knows for certain, from
where they came into South Indian peninsula to upset and uproot the
Adhirajas of Chera, Chola and Pandya dynasties who were ruling the
lands of present day Tamilnadu and Kerala state. Every historian
tried their best to throw some light on these valiant and powerful
rulers with what ever little evidences they managed to gather from
known historical sources.

The only sources available to the historians are the jain and
buddhist literature. The kalabhras ruled South Indian peninsula for
about 300 years which is not a small time from the point of history
but the history of this kalabhra period was completely a dark
chapter. So the period of kalabhra rule in South Indian history was
termed by historians as "DARK AGE".
It is believed that the brahmins, who were treated very badly by the
kalbhra kings by snatching away the rights of brahmins over the
brahmadeya lands given to them and to their Hindu Gods, got
antagonised. It is said that the brahmin epigraphists either
distroyed the history of kalabhras or twisted it beyond normal
understanding of common people. Some historians said that they were
the kings who brought Jainism to Tamil country and some other
historians were of the view that they were buddhists during whose
rule buddhism flourished in South India. Though historians are found
to have various openions about these misterious warrior and ruling
class people, they all agreed on one common thing about the
kalabhras that they were verile, ferocious, terrible and ruthless
conquerors.

Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar asserts :

Many Pallava and Pandya writings describe that the Kalabhras
attacked the Tamil country and defeated the Cholas, Cheras and
Pandyas and established their kingdom. Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar
asserts that these valiant Kalabhra kings were the devoted followers
of Jainism. Basically, Kalchuri kings were supporters of Jainism. He
proved it on the basis of copper plate of Veluikudi and
Painyapuranam of Tamil language. Jainism flourished after their
reaching in Tamil country. Shri Ayangar presumes that these
Kalabhras were a branch of Kalchuri clan. The Kalchuri kings of M.P.
wore supporters of Jainism. The evidence on this is that they were
closely related to Rashtrakuta. The Rashtrakuta kings had their
faith in Jainism. The influence of Jainism during reign of Kalchuri
kings of Kalyani was perceptible. The prominent king Vijjala of this
clan and his several statesmen had adopted Jainism. Rechmayya, the
minister of Kalchuri State set up the image of Tirthankar Shantinath
at Shravanabelagola.

Dr. Aiyangar observes:

"The Andhra rulers...had an alternative capital in the basin of
lower Krishna at Amaravati wherefrom they stretched south wards,
and, perhaps at one time, made an effort to extend their authority
successfully even down to the southern Pennar..." The gradual
pressure from the Andhra Empire seems to have set up a popular
movement resulting in the migration of the somewhat less civilized
people who seem to have completely upset the Governments of South
India and introduced what may well be regarded as a period of
anarchy to which later inscriptions refer to in unmistakable terms.
This is the movement of the people called Kalvar or Kalavar, and
they must have moved down from the region round and about Vengadam,
if not from the whole of Tondamandalam. ..." Kalabhras fought
against Brahmin supremacy and were abused by Brahmin epigraphists
after their rule ended.

Shri K.A.N. Sastri has the following to say about them:

"A long historical night ensure after the close of the Sangam age.
We know little of the period of more than three centuries that
followed. When the curtain rises again towards the close of the
sixth century A.D., we find a mysterious and ubiquitous enemy of
civilization, the evil rulers called Kalabhras (Kalappalar), have
come and upset the established political order which was restored
only by their defeat at the hands of the Pandyas and Pallavas as
well as the Chalukyas of Badami.

Of the Kalabhras we have yet no definite knowledge; from some
Buddhist books we hear of a certain Acchutavikkanta of the
Kalabharakula during whose reign Buddhist monasteries and authors
enjoyed most patronage in the Chola country. Late literary tradition
in Tamil avers that he kept in confinement the three Tamil kings -
the Chera, Chola and Pandya. Some songs about him are quoted by
Amitasagara, a Jain grammarian of Tamil of the tenth century A.D.
Possibly Acchuta was himself a Buddhist, a political revolution
which the Kalabhras effected was provoked by religious antagonism.

At any rate the Kalabhras are roundly denounced as evil king (kali-
arasar) who uprooted many adhirajas and abrogated brahmdeya rights;
there was no love lost between these interlopers and the people of
the lands they overran. The Cholas disappeared from the Tamil land
almost completely in this debacle, though a branch of them can be
tranced towards the close of the period in Rayalaseema, the Telugu
Cholas, whose kingdom is mentioned by Yuan Chwang in the seventh
century A.D.".

" The upset of the existing order due to the Kalabhras must have
affected the Chera country as well, though there is little evidence
on this country in this period apart from the late legend of the
Keralotpatti and Keralamahatyam. According to these, the rulers of
the land had to be imported from neighbouring countries, and they
assumed the title of Perumal. Possibly the Vaishnava saint
Kulasekhara Alvar was one of these Perumals; in his poems he claims
sovereignty over Chera, Chola and Pandya, besides the Kongu country
and Kolli mountain. His age cannot be determined with any certainty,
though a date as early as the sixth century has been suggested for
him, on the ground that at no later period could this claim to rule
over Pandya and Chola be plausible. It seems more likely, however,
that this claim was merely rhetorical, and that he belonged to a
much later time, say ninth century A.D.".

"This dark period marked by the ascendancy of Buddhism, and probably
also Jainism, was characterized also by great literary activity in
Tamil. Most of the works grouped under the head, 'The Eighteen Minor
works' were written during this period as also the Silappadhikaran,
Manimekhalai and other works. Many of the authors were the votaries
of the `heretical' (meaning Buddhists and Jains) sects."

Kalabhras were Buddhists:

About these so called `wicked' Kalabhras, R. Sathinathaier observes;

"We have already made a few references to the Kalabhras, and to
their king Achchutavikranta. The Velvikudi plates of the third
regnal year of Ndunjadaiyan Pandya (c.765 - c.815) say that
Palyagamudukudumi - Peruvaludi Pandyadhiraja gave the village of
Velvikudi as brahmadeya (gift to a brahmana). It was enjoyed for
long. Then a Kali king named Kalabhran took possession of the
extensive earth, driving away numberless great kings (adiraja), and
resumed the (village mentioned) above.

After that...the Pandyadhiraja Kodungon recovered the territory
under the Kalabhra occupation. It would appear from the brief
account that the Pandya country was seized by the Kalabhras long
after Mudukudumi. They overthrew many adhirajas and resumed even
brahmdeya lands. Thus they were terrible and ruthless conquerors.
Their sway was put an end to by Kodungon, who may be assigned
conjecturally to c.590 - 620. There are other references to the
Kalabhras in Pallava and Chalukya inscriptions; they are said to
have been conquered by Simhavishnu and Narasimha Varman-I and by
Vikramaditya-I and II."

"The identification of the Kalabhras is very difficult problem of
South Indian History. (i) They have been identified with the line of
Muttaraiyar of Kondubalur (8 A.D to 11 A.D). (ii) Others regard them
as Karnatas on the strength of a reference in Tamil literature to
the rule of a Karnata king over Madura. (iii) A third view is that
the Kalabhras were Kalappalar, belonging to Vellala community and
referred to in Tamil literature and inscriptions.

But the most satisfactory theory identifies the Kalabhras with the
Kalavar, and the chieftains of this tribe mentioned in Sangam
literature are Tiraiyan of Pavattiri and Pulli of Vengadam or
Tirupati. The latter is described as the cattle lifting robber chief
of the frontier. The Kalavar must have been dislodged from their
habitat near Tirupati by political events of the 3 A.D., viz. the
fall of the Satvahanas and the rise of Pallavas, as well as by the
invasion of Dakshinapatha by Samudragupta in the following century,
resulting in political confusion in Tondamandalam. The Kalabhra
invasion must have overwhelmed the Pallavas, the Cholas and the
Pandyas."

Kalabhras = kalabars = Kalavar = kalvar
kalavar kalappalar = kalappirar

"Despite the various explanations given above, the Kalabhras cannot
but be regarded as mysterious people who convulsed the affairs of
the Tamil country for a few centuries. Achchutavikranta caused the
dispersal of the Cholas. In the Pandya country even brahmdeya gifts
were not treated as sacrosanct by the predatory Kalabhras.
Ultimately their power was broken by Kodungon Pandya and Simhavishnu
Pallava, and Chalukya campaigns against them in the 7 A.D and 8 A.D"

" The Muttaraiyar and Kodunabnalar chiefs of Kalabhra origin,
according to one view, were feudatory to the Pallavas and the
Pandyas respectively, and in the contest between two powers, they
fought on opposite sides. The Muttaraiyar ruled over Tanjore and
Pudukkotai as the feudatories of the Pallavas from the 8 A.D to 11
A.D. There is a reference to Perumbidugu - Muttaraiyan- II who
attended the coronation of Nandivarman Pallavamlla. One of the
titles of the Muttaraiyar was Lord of Tanjore. Vijayalaya Chola, who
conquered Tanjore from a Muttaraiyan in the 9 A.D., was a Pallava
feudatory. A vindication of the law of nemesis is discernible in the
victory of a Chola chief over a descendant of the Kalabhras who had
overthrown the earlier Chola kingdom."

" The history of Cholas of Uraiyur (near Trichinoply) is exceedingly
obscure from 4 A.D to 9 A.D., chiefly owing to the occupation of
their country by the Kalabhras. Buddhadatta, the great writer in
Pali, belonged to Uraiyur. He mentions his contemporary, King
Achchutavikranta of the Kalabharakula, as ruling over the Chola
country from Kaveripatnam. He was a Buddhist, Tamil literary
tradition refers to an Achchuta who kept the Chera, Chola and Pandya
king in captivity. On the basis of the contemporaneity of Buddhdatta
with Buddhaghosha, Achchuta may be assigned to the 5 A.D. Thus after
the Sangam age, the descendants of karikala Chola were forced into
obscurity by the Kalabhras, who disturbed the placid political
conditions of the Tamil country."

Woraiyur , a part of present day Tiruchirappalli, was the capital
city of Cholas from 300 B.C. onwards. This is supported by
archaeological evidences and ancient literatures. There are also
literary sources which tell that Woraiyur continued to be under the
control of Cholas even during the days of Kalabhra interregnum (A.D.
300 - 575).

According to 'Chulavamsa', Buddhadatta and Budhaghosa are certainly
represented as contamporaries. The formar belongs to Uragapura
[Uraiyur] near modern Trichinopoly in South India. He himself speaks
patriotically of the kingdom of Cola and associates his literary
activity with the reign of Accutavikkanata or Accutavikkama of the
Kalabbha or Kalamba [kadamba] dynasty. The vinaya - vinicchaya at
its end describes that Buddhadatta of Uragapura wrote it. The
Abhidhammavatara at its end also refers to it.

kalabhra = kalabbha = kalamba = kadamba

He is said to have flourished when king Accutavikkanta of the
Kalamba (Kadamba) dynasty was one the throne. It is difficult to
identify King Accuta or Accutavikkanta (Acyta Vikrama) of Kalabhra
or the Kadamba dynasty. But the Kalabhras once made a great
influence over the Chola territory and Simhavishnu, the Pallava
king, defeated them in late sixth century. Colian king Acytavikranta
or Acytavikrama who is described as 'Kalambakulnandana'
or 'Kalabbhakulanandana' (also Vaddhana).

Alvara's views :

Raghavacharya, who assigns date prior to that of Sankaracharya, to
all Alvars, mentions that according to Poygai Alvar, the Vengadam
hill was the habitat of elephants, which the "Kuravars" or "Kurbas"
who inhabited or frequented the hill used to capture and tame and
also scare away huge pythons. He observes that, the Tamil term
Kuravar used by the early Alvars is corruption of "Kuraba", who were
residents of this area and also of Kurnool, Mysore, Salem, Koimbtore
and the Nilgiris. He mentions the names of Kurubalakota,
Kurubalpatti, Kuruba Nagalapuram, Kurumba Palayam, Kurumbapatti,
Kurumbharhalli etc. in various areas. He says Kurabas or Kuravar
were a verile people, who were in possession of Tirumalai Hills and
surrounding area before Pallavas conquerred it.

kalabhras = karabhras = kurabhras = kurabas
kurabars kuravars
kurubas kuruvas

kalabhras were from Tondamandalam :

Thus it is clear that the people around Tondamandalam were Nagas,
though the name Naga is now a days restricted to a few groups of
people and not applicable to the whole race unlike in pre-Aryan
times, but the fact remains that those Naga tribes who are mentioned
above were Buddhists, as that was the original area of Kalabhras.
Thus we find that this area was under the influence of Buddhists
before the coming up of the Brahmin culture and was free from the
caste rivalries. It was forming the part of Asokan empire, and
consequently had the advantages of all the religious reforms brought
in by Asoka. In later times it came under the Satvahanas who were
also having friendly relations towards Buddhism. Nagarjuna's
relations with Satvahana king are well known.

The local people were the Pullis and Tiraiyan of Pavattiri and these
so called less civilized Kalavar people later migrated from the land
of Tondamandalam to southward areas and caused so called anarchy and
got designated as wicked by the Brahmin epigraphists. And these
Kalabars were the same as Kalabhras, and were Buddhists. The whole
situation boils down to one thing that during the period from
Satvahanas to the ascendancy of Imperial Pallavas and even in later
times the area of Tondamandalam was inhabited by the Buddhist people
and ruled by the Buddhist kings, initially under the Satvahanas and
later independently, and not only that but they ruled whole of South
India for about three centuries. And these Kalabhras were termed
as 'uncivilized', 'wicked' and by all sorts of abuses, and their
history suppressed, only evidences remaining extant in Buddhist
books, i.e. whatever was left of these books. The real bone of
contention seems to be that they cancelled the rights of the
Brahmins from the brahmdeya villages, i.e. the villages gifted to
Brahmins.

The Dark age or the Kalabhra Interegnum (A.D. 150 - 500) :

The rule of Kalabhras was termed as Dark Age. Rulers of Vengadam
were Kalabhras who were Buddhists. These Kalavars are the same as
Kalabhras. When Satvahanas put pressure on them, these anti-
Brahmanic Buddhist people who were ruling around Tirupati migrated
to whole of South India and ruled most of it for centuries, and
these centuries are now termed by Brahmin historians as `dark age',
not only because scanty information is available from Brahmanic
sources but also because it was anti-Brahmanic age. They were abused
by the Brahmins and their history was wiped out. But the Buddhist
books still preserve their history.

It is clear that the Kalvar chieftains Pullis and Tiraiyans of
Pavattiri are people of one and the same stock, i.e. of
Kalabharakula, as already seen. They were all Buddhists and they
migrated south wards and uprooted various kings. There was religious
animosity with Brahmins, villages gifted to whom were cancelled by
them and consequently they were abused by Brahmin epigraphists. In
spite of all this it seems Brahmins could not get rid of the name of
Tondaman who finds a place in the Puranas as founder of Tirupati. We
have to remember that Pullis, Tiraiyans, Tondamans represent people
rather than individuals, and that all these people being the same,
one could see how Tondaman is designated as 'Chakravarthi' when in
story itself he was described as no more than a small chieftain. At
the same time, the Kalabhras who were the same people, when they
uprooted various kings and convulsed the great Emperors for
centuries, are designated as 'wicked', 'kali-asar' etc. simply
because they had to depict these people in the first place as
devotees of Brahmanism and in the second place as enemies of
Brahmanism. Such is the mentality and scholarship of our elites.

kali = kala = black
asar = asur = demon
kali asar = black demon

After the Sangam Age, Kerala passed through a dark period that
lasted four centuries. This era is known as the 'Kalabhra
Interregnum'. At the end of the 8 A.D., South Indian kingdoms such
as the Pallavas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas and the Pandyas
succeeded in overthrowing the Kalabhras.

Kalabhra interregnum is called as 'dark period' because it is so
called by earliest Pallava and Medieval Pandya sources. While the
sangam period shows many religions entering from the North into
Tamilakam (Kerala+TN), no religion was that dominant and varnashrama
system was not at all fully entrenched. Jains did yeoman service to
foster Tamil grammar. 95% of the earliest Tamil inscrptions called
Tamil Brahmi are for the sake of Jain ascetics. These inscriptions
are very short, one or two lines only.

Kalabhra interregnum is called as 'dark period' because it is so
called by earliest Pallava and Medieval Pandya sources. While the
sangam period shows many religions entering from the North into
Tamilakam (Kerala + TN), no religion was that dominant and
varnashrama system was not at all fully entrenched. Jains did yeoman
service to foster Tamil grammar. 95% of the earliest Tamil
inscrptions called Tamil Brahmi are for the sake of Jain ascetics.
These inscriptions are very short, one or two lines only. Kalappirar
are Jains, and appear to have come from Karnataka, a Jain strong
hold. During the Kalabhra period, heterodoxy, opposed to Brahmanical
orthodoxy, reigned supreme. Pallavas and Medieval Pandyas, who
accepted the varnashrama and Brahmanical orthodoxy, completely
routed out the "heterodox" religions. Both Buddhism and Jainism were
practically extinguished. Hence, these "orthodox" sources portray
Kalabhra period as "dark period".

But the Kalabhra period is very important: It represents a break
from ancient Tamil society of Sangam period. Sangam poetry marks a
period where writing and literacy were introduced into Tamil.
Probably by Jains. Sangam poetry is great because it is the first
flowering of Tamil ideas and Tamil literature never could match
sangam period's freshness and free thoughts after contact with
Northern religions. Sangam poetry is the only poetry among *all*
Indian writings that is mostly independent of the Vedic / Sanskrit
tradition. Though progressively sanskritized in later stages. Hence,
sangam letters' importance to understand ancient India is on par
with the oldest sanskrit texts. Kalabhras, the flag-bearers of
heteredoxy, sponsored such works as TirukkuRaL, NaalaDiyAr,
CilappatikAram, Manimekalai, ... How could it be "dark period"? But
the sources from Brahmanical orthodoxy of the Bhakti era (eg.,
PeriyapurANam in 12th century) says definitely say Kalabhras were
cruel. Bhakti era represents a synthesis and homogenization by
nonbrahmin elites and incoming brahmins. It is called as priest-
peasant collaboration. Saiva Vellalas are called "sad-shUdras" (good
shUdras). This brahmin-vellala alliance is seen clearly in Pallava-
Chola inscriptions. This theory was first propounded by Burton
Stein. He called it the "segmentary state" theory. He showed that
Neelakanta Sastri and other Indians concentrated so much on
individual kings, their dates, their ruling period, but really these
South Indian (and Southeast Asian to a large extent) states
are "segmentary" in nature. The strategy of the Kings was to place
the Brahmin settlements to bring homogenization to an extent
possible.

More about kalabhras :

Kalabhras attacked and defeated Tamil Kings who were persecuting
Jains. During the rule of Kalabhra kings, Jainism attained supermacy
in Tamil Nadu. As followers of Jainism they prohibited animal
sacrifices in rituals. We find that most of the invasions on the
Tamil country were from Karnataka. It began with the Kalabhra
invasions around 250 A. D., and their pillage over the Tamil country
for over three centuries. Then came the Chlaukya, Hoysala, and
Vijayanagara Nayakka invasions on the Tamil land. The Telugu
Pallavas ruled over theTamils after the Kalabhras.

While the march of the mighty oceans have destroyed the early Tamils
and their way of life, the Kalabhra invasion during 250 A.D.
decidely altered the shape of Tamil leterature and Tamil way of
life. Kalabharas, having been the sons of the Kannada soil did not
have the necessary love of Tamil to ensure its growth. Instead the
pronounced Jainest fanatism of these rulers have more or less
destroyed the acts and literature of the Tamil people to the point
of extinction. However various treatises on Poetics began to be
written along with some of the ethical works which are grouped in
Pathinenkil Kanakku. The most illustrious flower of the Dark Ages is
probably the 'Muthollayiram' 900 songs each on the Chera, Chola and
the Pandya Kings.

Kalabhras (Kalavars) captured power from the three traditional
crowned monarchs and ruled the whole or considerable parts of Tamil
Nadu for about three hundred years, roughly from 250 to 550 AD. This
Kalabhra interregnum paved the way to put an end to the primacy of
Tamil culture and language under the regimes that fofllowed - the
Pallavas in the northern and the Pandyas in southern parts of Tamil
country. Dominance of Sanskritic - Brahminical -Hindu religio-
cultural way of life and social organisation prevailed for more than
1500 years. Not only under Pallavas and later Pandyas, but also
under later Cholas, Vijayanar Emperors, Nayak rulers, Maratha kings,
and Rajas of southern principalities, the same condition continued
with greater sway. Even the regimes under the Nizams of Hyderabad
and Nawabs of Carnatic (Karai Naadu) could not get rid of the socio-
religious scheme of Varna Dharma and the consequent domination of
the Brahmins and Brahminical upper castes.

Under Kalabhra patronage, Tamil Jains produced literature in
Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit, and Tamil. The notion of an academy of
poets (cankam, Indo-Aryan sangha), later collectively applied to the
authors of the early Tamil anthologies, appears to have been modeled
on the Jain academy established in Madurai. Jains were among the
most important authors of Tamil literature between the first and
sixth centuries. In this period, Jains introduced didactic genres
into Tamil literature, producing the most important ethical texts in
Tamil, including several works among the eighteen shorter classics.
In this group is included Tiruvalluvar's Kural (or Tirukkural), the
best known ethical text in Tamil.

Kalappirar are Jains, and appear to have come from Karnataka, a Jain
strong hold. During the Kalabhra period, heterodoxy, opposed to
Brahmanical orthodoxy, reigned supreme. Pallavas and Medieval
Pandyas, who accepted the varnashrama and Brahmanical orthodoxy,
completely routed out the "heterodox" religions. Both Buddhism and
Jainism were practically extinguished. Hence, these "orthodox"
sources portray Kalabhra period as "dark period".

But the Kalabhra period is very important: It represents a break
from ancient Tamil society of Sangam period. Sangam poetry marks a
period where writing and literacy were introduced into Tamil.
Probably by Jains. Sangam poetry is great because it is the first
flowering of Tamil ideas and Tamil literature never could match
sangam period's freshness and free thoughts after contact with
Northern religions. Sangam poetry is the only poetry among *all*
Indian writings that is mostly independent of the Vedic / Sanskrit
tradition. Though progressively sanskritized in later stages. Hence,
sangam letters' importance to understand ancient India is on par
with the oldest sanskrit texts.

Kalabhras, the flag-bearers of heteredoxy, sponsored such works as
TirukkuRaL, NaalaDiyAr, CilappatikAram, Manimekalai, ... How could
it be "dark period"? But the sources from Brahmanical orthodoxy of
the Bhakti era (eg., PeriyapurANam in 12th century) says definitely
say Kalabhras were cruel.

The Pallavas became dominant in the 6th century after a successful
attack against the Kalabhras, which extended their territory as far
south as the Kaveri River.


Important Information about Kalabhras :

Identification of the Kalabhras is very difficult problem of South
Indian History.
Some identify Kalabhras with the line of Muttaraiyar of Kondubalur.
Some regard kalabhras as kalappalars of Vellala community.
Some identify kalabhras with kalvar chieftains of Tiraiyan tribe
from Tirupati.
Some regard kalabhras as Karnatas on the strength of a reference in
Tamil literature.
A Karnata king ruled over Madura.
Muttaraiyars of Kondubalur were the rulers between 800 A.D to 1100
A.D)
Shri Ayangar presumes that the Kalabhras were a branch of Kalchuri
clan.
Shri K.A.N Sastri says that the Kalabhras ruled South India till
about the end of 600 A.D
Sangam Tamil Classics refer to kalabhras as semi-barbarian &
ferocious stock of people
Kalabhras were referred to roam around and beyond the Venkadam
(Thirupathi) hills.
Kalabhras served as mercenaries to many of the ancient States such
as Mauryas.
Kalabhras migrated from tirupati to further South and ruled it for
300 years.
Buddhist books say that Acchutavikkanta of the Kalabharakula was a
great king
Acchutavikkanta kept in confinement three Tamil kings- Chera, Chola
and Pandya.
Achchutavikranta caused the dispersal of the Cholas
The Cholas disappeared from the Tamil land almost completely.
Acchutavikkanta ruled over Chola country.
Buddhadatta mentions that Achchutavikranta ruled from Kaveripatnam
Acchutavikkanta patronised Buddhist monasteries and & authors.
Possibly Acchuta was himself a Buddhist.
Achchuta may be assigned to the 500 A.D.
A Kali king named Kalabhran took possession of the extensive earth
after 815 A.D.
Kalabhran had driven away numberless great kings (adiraja)
King Kalabhran resumed Velvikudi, a brahmadeya village.
Kalabhras uprooted many adhirajas.
Kalbhras abrogated brahmdeya rights.
In Pandya country brahmdeya gifts were not treated as sacrosanct by
the Kalabhras.
Kalabhras effected a political revolution, which was due to
religious antagonism.
Kalabhras sponsored great works such as TirukkuraL, Naaladiyar,
Cilappatikaram, Manimekalai, etc.
Kalabhras attacked and defeated Tamil Kings who were persecuting
Jains.
During the rule of Kalabhra kings, Jainism attained supermacy in
Tamil Nadu.
As followers of Jainism they prohibited animal sacrifices in
rituals.
Kalabhras convulsed the affairs of the Tamil country for a few
centuries.
Kalabhra period of 300 years was termed by historians as "Dark age".
The " Dark Age " was marked by the ascendancy of Buddhism, and also
Jainism.
The " Dark Age " was also characterized by great literary activity
in Tamil.
Kalabhras opposed to Brahmanical orthodoxy during their rule.
Under Kalabhra rule, heterodoxy, opposed to Brahmanical orthodoxy,
reigned supreme.
Kalabhras were the flag-bearers of heteredoxy.
The period : 300 A.D - 575 A.D was known as Dark Age / Kalabhra
interregnum.
Kalabhras were anti-Brahmanic Buddhist people.
Kalabhras were roundly denounced as evil kings (kali-asar)
Brahman epigraphists denounced kalabhras as kala-asar (Black Demons)
Kalabhra power broken by Kodungon Pandya and Simhavishnu Pallava in
late 600 A.D.
Chalukya campaigned against them in the 700 A.D and 800 A.D.
Mutharaiyars of kondunabalur were feudatory to the Pallavas and the
Pandyas.
Muttaraiyar ruled over Tanjore and Pudukkotai from the 800 A.D to
1100 A.D
Mutharaiyars, in the contest between pallavas and pandyas, fought on
opposite sides.
Perumbidugu - Muttaraiyan- II attended the coronation of Nandivarman
Pallavamlla.
One of the titles of the Muttaraiyar was Lord of Tanjore.
Vijayalaya Chola conquered Tanjore from a Muttaraiyan in the 9 A.D.
Kalabhras and vadugars were one and the same people :

We find in the Sangam Tamil Classics frequent references to a semi-
barbarian and ferocious stock of people who roamed around beyond the
Venkadam (Thirupathi) hills. They served as mercenaries to many of
the ancient States, particularly the Mauryas. They were called
Vadugar in Tamil classics. These Vadugar got split into Eastern
Vadugar and Western Vadugar. The Eastern Vadugar gradually became
Telugus. The Western Vadugar, who were called as K󳡲 in the Sangam
literature, became the Kannadigas. The northern fraction of these K󳡲
were called as Mⲡttar; and they became the Marathis later. The
northern segment of the Telugu Vadugar in Kalinga broke into Oddars
or Oriyas. The first ever territory that the K󳡲 or the Kannada
Vadugar occupied in the former Chera country was the Tulun⤵, as the
Tamil literary evidences tell.

Then they came down to the present Mysore, then called as
Erumainadu. It was thus called as it was conquered by a Vadugan
called Erumai. He participated in the Thalaiyalankanam battle
against Pandyan Nedunchezhiyan of the Sangam Age. The successive
invasions of these Vadugar barbarians and their overrunning the
Chera, Chola and Pandya empires of the antiquity was the cause for
the fall of the Tamils and their subjugation and classification into
low class aborigines. Brahmanism, as an apartheid way of life, in
fact, had its origin only in the Chera country (Kerala) through the
legendary person in Parasurama. Whereas the Aryan concept had its
root in the north. The British colonial intellect confused
Brahmanism with Aryanism, and had imposed a false historiography by
branding Brahmanism as an import from the north. Though born down
the extreme south in the Chera country, Brahmanism was carried into
the Chola and Pandya countries only through the Kannada and Telugu
(or the Vadugar) Brahmans. Manu Smruti, which was written in
Karnataka, was adopted as the social code by the court of Pulikesi
II, the Chalukya monarch. The Chalukyan epigraphical eulogies of
manavakula or Manava Dharma would show it. It was the Vadugar
colonisers who imposed birth-based caste discriminations and
untouchability on the Tamils in the Chola and Pandya States.

Kalabhras were anti-Brahmin :

Buddhists and Jains had flourished amicably along with Hindu Sects
even during the Ca?kam age. But when Buddhism got catapulted into
ascendency, under the Kalabhras, "a rather mysterious and ubiquitous
enemy of civilization" who swept over the Tamil Country and ruled it
for over the two hundred years following the close of the Ca?kam age
in 3 century A.D., a hectic fury of religious hatred and rivalry was
unleashed.

(1). The active propagation of Buddhism by the ruling Kalabhras, who
are denounced in the Veluikudi grants of the Pandyas (9 century
A.D ) as evil kings (kali-asar) who uprooted many Adhirajas and
confiscated the properties gifted to Gods (temples) and Brahmins.

(2), provoked the adherents of Siva and Vishnu to make organized
attempts to stall the rising tide of heresy. Hatred of Buddhists and
Jains was openly declared. "Challenges to public debate,
competitions in the performance of miracles, tests of truth of
doctrines by means of ordeals became the order of the day".

(3). The overthrow of the Kalabhras in the late 6 A.d dealt the
final blow to the decline of Buddhism in India. The rise of the
Pallavas and Pandyas once again in the Tamil Country accelerated the
Hindu revivalist movement. The Saiva saint poets of this period
among whom were the four founder saints of Saiva Siddhanta of the
Tamil Country all actively sought to reconvert the rulers from the
heretical faiths. The great Pallava king Mahendravarman I. (580-630
A.D.) is reported to have been reclaimed for Saivism by Appar, who
had himself been reclaimed from Jainism earlier by his sister.

Kalabhras antagonised brahmins by snatching away the brahmadeya
lands :

The tradition about the Kalabhra inroads seems to convey some sense
in the context of the disappearance of the ruling lineages: Cera,
Cola and Pandya. Kalabhras were a predatory people belonging to the
uplands of Karnataka. It appears that the predatory marches
continuing from earlier times culminated in the Kalabhra inroads and
brought about a major change, the memory of which reminded the
brahmans of the evils of Kaliyuga, as evidenced by some of later
copper plates. The Kilkanakku texts probably belonging to the 4th-
5th centuries A.D. stress the significance of peace, obedience,
loyalty and morality. This presupposes the existence of a situation
that badly needed such aspects of social morality and good conduct.

Whatever the nature of the chaos, the end of the period of chaos was
marked by the steady growth of wet-land agriculture through the
emergence of brahman settlements which meant the growth and
crystallisation of a new system of social relations. A brahmadeya is
never referred to in the actual text of the poems, but their
colophons which are relatively later, do refer to it. The existence
of brahman settlements is attested by allusions to them seen in some
of the Pattupattu songs like Perumpanarruppatai.

The Pulankurichchi rock inscription, probably of late 4th century
A.D. is the first known record that refers to a brahmadeya village
in Tamilakam. The brahman village represented by the inscription is
a fully evolved agrarian unit with structured land relations and
service bound settlers. The process of this evolution is not known.
Some of the early copper plates while referring to the history of
the gift villages mention that they were originally ekabhoga-
brahmadeyas and lost in the wake of the Kalabhra raids. Subsequently
when the lost villages were restored to the heirs of the original
donees, they were converted into corporate brahmadeyas. This would
suggest that a crucial phase in the process was the transformation
of individual brahman households into corporate settlements. Kerala
which has no records of brahmadeya villages seems to suggest that
these brahman settlements grew up on their own without any royal
patronage. However, land gifts to brahman poets by the Ceras are
mentioned in the Colophons of Patirrupattu. The later inscriptions
referring to brahman villages of Kerala clearly show that there was
also the subsequent development of brahman households into corporate
settlements.

The proliferation of brahman settlements signified the institutional
and organisational growth and expansion of wet-land agriculture in
Tamilakam. It appears that the corporate managerial organs, the
institution of caste and the ideology of bhakti were the major means
that enabled the brahmans to build up a well structured peasant
society. Tolkapiam (Porul) the grammatical treatise probably of
early 6th century A.D. represents the initial phase of such society.
In Kerala the genesis of a similar society seems to have become
complete before 9th century A.D. as evidenced by the inscriptions
there.
vj_episteme
 
Posts: 1441
Joined: Mon Apr 30, 2007 7:00 am

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