Canada, all HAM Radio operators are licensed with the Industry Canada.
Their license numbers (or what they refer to as a "call-sign" or "handle")
always start with V since all British Colonies were assigned call signs
beginning with that letter after the War. The 18 call sign prefixes
in use at this time are assigned to the various provinces originally Canada
was assigned prefixes VE1 thru VE0 and Newfoundland, VO1 & VO2.
Newfoundland was different since it wasn't part of Canada when the call
signs were being allocated world-wide, just after the 2nd World War.
Newfoundland didn't join Canada until 1949. VO6 was also issued to
Labrador, but it was retired in the 50s, before plates were issued in that
part of the country. When Canada ran out of VE allocations, it expanded
using VY and VA as shown in the above table.
The call sign prefix is followed
by two or three letters to form the operator's call sign. In the
less populated areas such as NWT, the Yukon and Labrador, two letter calls
are all that is needed, and three letter calls are available by choice.
In more populated areas, both two and three letter calls are needed.
In these cases, two letter calls are more desirable and, generally, require
seniority to acquire.