CHAC[History pages....]

A list of Web pages that cover:

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[Attention!] Rules....

[Topic index]

We had to do it – this thing's a monster.


  1. Hardware:machines:general
  2. Hardware:machines:mainframes
  3. Hardware:machines:supercomputers
  4. Hardware:machines:minis
  5. Hardware:machines:micros
  6. Hardware:machines:laptops [empty]
  7. Hardware:machines:sub-laptops [empty]
  8. Hardware:CPUs
  9. Hardware:storage [empty]
  10. Hardware:peripherals
  11. Emulators
  12. Software:general
  13. Software:OS
  14. Software:applications
  15. Software:languages
  16. Software:misc. [empty]
  17. Documentation
  18. Museums:virtual:survey history and chronology
  19. Museums:virtual:oral and video history, and image
  20. Museums:physical
  21. Folklore


  1. Hardware:pocket
  2. Hardware:desktop [empty]
  3. History/chronology/docs

Pre-electronic calculation

[Computer history]

Big computers, little computers....


[*] Classic Computers List Web Page by Bill Whitson, Bothell WA, USA [mailing list and FAQs]

[*] Comprehensive Computer Catalog by Hans B Pufal, UK
[*] History of Computers, Fachhochschule für Technik Esslingen, DE
[*] History of Computing Devices by Denis Beveridge, Springfield IL, USA
[*] Preservation of Old Computers by Iain A. F. Fleming, UK


[*] Back in the U.S.S.R. [Doron Swade on BESM-6]
[*] BESM-6 Nostalgia Page by Leonid A. Broukhis
[*] Burroughs Corporation Collection at Babbage Institute
[*] Electronic Computers Within The Ordnance Corps, Mike Muuss, U. S. Army
[*] [IBM] 1401s I Have Known by Tom Van Vleck, Cupertino CA, USA
[*] IBM System/360 by Ewan Sutherland, UK
[*] The IBM 360/67 and CP/CMS by Tom Van Vleck, Cupertino CA, USA
[*] IBM 7090-94 Architecture by Jack Harper, Evergreen CO, USA
[*] The IBM 7094 and CTSS by Tom Van Vleck, Cupertino CA, USA
[*] Manchester University MADAM [Ferranti Mark I] by Tommy Thomas, Bond University, AU
[*] Some pictures of interesting computers by Bernd Ulmann, University of Mainz, DE
[*] The Rice University Computer by Adam Justin Thornton, Princeton University, Princeton NJ, USA
[*] Unisys History Newsletter by Randy Carpenter, Georgia Tech, USA
[*] Univac 1105 Core Cards [for sale] by Dr. Foster W. Cline, ID, USA
[*] UNIVAC Memories by John Walker, Megalon SA, Lignières, CH
[*] Why Computers are Computers [SWAC] by David Rutland, OR, USA


[*] Cray Research by R. Bedinsky
[*] Into the Supercomputer Era [Cray] National Security Agency, Washington DC, USA
[*] The HARVEST Exhibit [IBM 7030] National Security Agency, Washington DC, USA
[*] The History of the Development of Parallel Computing, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA USA


[*] Blasts from the Past [PDP-10] by Dave Fetrow, University of Washington, USA
[*] Care and Feeding of Elderly Computers by Iain A. F. Fleming, Bristol, UK
[*] Cornell University Classic Computer Club, [DEC] Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA
[*] DEC PDP-1 by Gordon Greene [other PDP's here too]
[*] Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-8 by Douglas W. Jones, University of Iowa, USA
[*] The Freak's VAX 11-750 by Brian Murray, Kensington, AU
[*] HP 2100 Archives by Jeff Moffatt, USA
[*] HP3000 FAQ by Chris Bartram, USA [long][not surprisingly]
[*] Jim's Computer Garage by Jim Willing, Beaverton OR, USA
[*] PDP's et autres antiques [en français, English aussi] by Stéphane Tsacas, Paris FR
[*] PDP-8 ftp archive at SunSite, Univ. of North Carolina, USA
[*] PDP-10 ftp archive at SunSite, Univ. of North Carolina, USA
[*] PDP-10 Page by Joe Smith, Fremont CA, USA
[*] PDP-11 ftp archive at SunSite, Univ. of North Carolina, USA
[*] PDP-11 RT11 Games by Maxwell Froedge, Lexington KY, USA
[*] PERQ ftp archive [Three Rivers/ICL] by Robert D. Davis, MD, USA
[*] Project VAX by Mikael Öhrberg, Östersund, SE
[*] Sun Hardware Ref [ftp] by James Birdsall, ID, USA
[*] System Source Computer Museum, Hunt Valley MD, USA


[*] 8 Bit Universe [CDROMs — deutsch und englisch, meist deutsch]
[*] comp.sys.Acorn FAQ by Philip R. Banks, NZ
[*] Acorn Historical Info Page, University of Surrey, UK
[*] Acorn Machine List by Philip R. Banks, NZ
[*] Altair 8800 [no authoring info]
[*] Amiga Home Page by Michael Witbrocks
[*] Amiga Web Directory by Kevin Hisel, CUCUG, Champaign IL, USA
[*] Amigas at NVG by Steinar Knutsen, Nettverksgruppa, Trondheim, NO
[*] Annies Craft, Inc. [Lisa, Mac and NeXT] by Koji Annoura, Fukuoka, JP [Japanese only?]
[*] ANTIC — Atari Magazines digitized by Kevin Savetz, Eureka CA, USA
[*] Antique Personal Computer Collection by Scott Walde, Saskatoon SK, CA
[*] The Apple ][ and Cousins
[*] Apple ][ Forever by Peter Liethen
[*] Apple II History by Steven Weyhrich, USA
[*] Apple II FAQs by Nathan Mates, Cal Tech, Pasadena CA, USA
[*] Apple /// FAQ by David Ottalini, WA, USA
[*] Apple Lisa Web Page by Tom Stepleton, USA
[*] Apple Project Code Names by Owen Linzmayer, San Francisco CA, USA
[*] [Apple] Practical Mac by MacAddict
[*] Apple's Twiggy Disks by Eric Smith, Milpitas CA, USA
[*] Apple T-Shirts by Gordon Thygeson, Cupertino CA, USA [book promo]
[*] Atari 8-Bit FAQ by Michael Current, La Mesa, CA
[*] Atari 8-Bit Homepage by Ivo van Poorten, NL
[*] Bell & Howell Apple II+ by Justin Mayrand
[*] BRiTiSH Underground Atari 8bit by Craig Lisowski, London, UK
[*] Classic Commodore Pages by Larry Anderson, San Andreas CA, USA
[*] Classic Computer Haven by Jeff Hellige [Amiga, Atari and others]
[*] Dragon Data by David Linsley, York University, UK
[*] Eighties Hardware Archive by boothhj, Rensselaer Polytech. Inst., Troy NY, USA
[*] Francois's Computer Collection by Francois Auradon
[*] Historical Computer Collection by Geoff Kirkpatrick, Lansing MI, USA
[*] History of Apple Computers by Glen Sanford, London, UK
[*] History Of Computers During My Lifetime by Jason Patterson, Queensland, AU
[*] History of Homecomputers by Matthias Jaap, Hamburg, DE
[*] History of Microcomputers by Ken Polsson, BC, CA
[*] History of MITS by Linda Stranahan
[*] Home Computer Hall of Fame by Chris Stratford
[*] IBM PC Convertible by Erich W. Lantz, Broadway VA, USA
[*] Internet Dragon Software Archive by Ross Hamilton, University of Warwick, UK
[*] Kenback-1 by Clemens Weller [auf deutsch]
[*] Le Muséum d'Histoire Informatique by Philippe Dubois, FR [en français]
[*] MacAntiques by Terry Higgins, Milwaukee WI, USA
[*] The Machine Room by Alexios Chouchoulas, UK
[*] Macintosh Museum by MacintoshOS
[*] Mind Machine Museum by Hal Layer, SF State University, CA, USA
[*] MITS-Pertec Altair by W. Tom Sanderson, Lake Forest CA, USA
[*] Museum of Personal Computing Machinery by Doug Coward, Sunnyvale CA, USA
[*] NeXT-FAQ by Bernhard Scholz, Technical University of Munich, DE
[*] NEXTSTEP-OpenStep-Archive by Axel Siebert [auf deutsch und englisch]
[*] Obsolete Computer Museum by Tom Carlson, National Center for State Courts, USA
[*] Old Computer List by Dr. Mark Robinson, MSIL, UK
[*] Oric Page by Olivier Balet, ENSICA, FR [several languages]
[*] PC Museum by Daniel Lessard
[*] Planet Sinclair [replaces Archive] by Chris Owen, Nettverksgruppa, Trondheim, NO
[*] Rehabilitated Computer Collection by David Williams
[*] SAM Coupé Info Base by Simon Cooke, University of Manchester, UK
[*] Sinclair QL Home Page by Robert Klein, University of Mainz, DE
[*] Sinclair ZX81 Support Page by Steven McDonald, UK
[*] Sirius-1 by Clemens Weller [auf deutsch]
[*] Sun Remarketing, Logan UT, USA [parts and service for early Apple computers]
[*] [Tandy] The Dock! by Richard Hanson, Pleasant Hill CA, USA [portables]
[*] Terak Museum by John Foust
[*] TI 99/4A Home Page by Rich Polivka, Cleveland OH, USA [includes 99/8]
[*] TI-99/4A Shrine by John F. McDonnell
[*] TRS-80 Color Computer Homepage by Markus Blumrich, Saskatoon,
[*] TRS-80 Home Page by Pete Cervasio
[*] Vintage Atari by petebuilt, CT, USA [heavy graphics]
[*] We Love Our Apple Lisas by Richard T. Kilpatrick, Photon Publications, UK
[*] VZ200 Home Page by Brian Murray, Kensington, AU



[*] Cambridge Computer Z88 by Dennis Groning, SE
[*] Eternal Cambridge Z88 Homepage by Paul Camphorst, NL
[*] Z88 Forever! by Garry Lancaster, UK


[*] The 8080 and Octal Notation by Matthew Harbowy, USA
[*] Chip Directory by Jaap van Ganswijk, NL
[*] Chip List by Aad Offerman, Vlaardingen, NL
[*] Computer Architects by Mark Smotherman [processor history]
[*] CPU Info Center by Tom Burd, UC Berkeley, USA
[*] Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present by John Bayko, University of Regina, CA
[*] Intro to the 65816 by Brett Tabke, WDC, Mesa AZ, USA
[*] Microprocessor 25th Anniversary at
[*] Microprocessor instruction set cards by Jonathan Bowen
[*] Motorola 68000 Resources by Paul R. Santa-Maria, MI, USA



[*] Video Terminal Information by Richard S. Shuford, University of Tennessee, USA
[*] Virtual Mousepad Museum by Adriaan van der Hek, Utrecht, NL


[*] 68K Macintosh Emulators by Erich Boleyn, Portland OR, USA
[*] [Apple II] A2 Home Page for Apple II Emulators
[*] Atari ST/STE/130XE by Emulators Online [was Branch Always Software], USA
[*] Beboputer Virtual Computer Emulator by Maxfield & Montrose Interactive, Madison AL, USA
[*] Computer History and Emulation by Marat Fayzullin, University of Maryland, USA
[*] Dragon & CoCo Resources by Paul Burgin, Logica plc, Surrey, UK
[*] EmulationNet by John Stiles, Berkeley CA, USA
[*] Emulation Software R&D by Erich Boleyn
[*] Emulators! by Matthias Jaap, Hamburg, DE
[*] OAK Software Repository [replaces SimTel sites] by Jeff Marraccini, Oakland University, MI, USA
[*] Turing Machine by Gordon Greene


[*] Computer History Institute for the Preservation of Software (CHIPS)
by Margaret Cabrinety, Columbia, MD, USA
[*] Microsoft Timeline [will install Shockwave Flash]
[*] Software History Center, Tarrytown, NY, USA


[*] CP/M Archive by Jeff Marraccini, Oakland University, MI, USA
[*] MacCrypt, USA
[*] Multics by Tom Van Vleck, Cupertino CA, USA
[*] Multics Home Page by Stan Zanarotti, MIT, USA
[*] UNIX 25th Anniversary, Amdahl Corporation, USA
[*] Unofficial CP/M Web Page [but apparently authorized by Caldera]


[*] A History of Search Engines by Wes Sonnenreich, MIT, USA
[*] System R by Paul McJones, DEC, USA
[*] WordStar Users' Group, GA, USA


[*] Assembly Language Programming by Brian Brown, Central Institute of Technology, NZ
[*] History of Hypertext, SUN Microsystems, USA
[*] History-of-Hypertext Timeline by Jorn Barger, Ottawa ON, CA
[*] INTERCAL Resources by Gorlak, Muppetlabs
[*] The International Obfuscated C Code Contest
[*] Language List at Washington Univ. of St. Louis [long]
[*] LISP History by H. Stoyan, Univ. of Erlangen, DE
[*] MCS-51 Tiny BASIC by John Wharton, Palo Alto CA, USA
[*] PDP-10 Machine Language by Henry Baker, Fremont CA, USA
[*] Retrocomputing Museum by Eric Raymond, USA



[*] BABEL Acronyms Glossary by Irving Kind, Baltimore MD, USA
[*] Computers and Media – Contents [en français]
[*] Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing (FOLDOC) at [long]
[*] Homebrew Hardware by Gyro Gearloose
[*] IBM Patent Server from 1971 to date
[*] PC Webopaedia by Sandy Bay Software, Rockport MA, USA
[*] SIPB Documents by Student Information Processing Board, MIT, USA
[*] Writing About Microcomputers by Paul Dempsey, PA, USA

survey history and chronology

[*] 50 Years of the Transistor by Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill NJ, USA
[*] '80s Textfile Archive by Michael Stutz, Berea OH, USA
[*] A Brief History of the Internet by Barry Leiner, MCC, Austin TX, USA
[*] A Short History of the Computer by Jeremy Meyers
[*] Apple History and Cool Sites, Apple Computer, Inc., USA
[*] As We May Think by Vannevar Bush, HTML by Denys Duchier, Simon Fraser Univ., ON, CA [do not miss this]
[*] Bobbi's Place by Bobbi Kerlin [computer history timeline]
[*] CS-100: The History of Computing by Michelle A. Hoyle, University of Regina, CA
[*] Cybercinema by Matthew Hurt and Melanie Creel, UIUC, USA [computers and AI in film]
[*] Digital Moments by Doug Menuez et al., San Francisco CA, USA [photo gallery]
[*] The ENIAC Virtual Museum by Nam-June Joe, Univ. of Pennsylvania, USA
[*] Graphical User Interface History by Anthony Siegman, Stanford University, USA
[*] Habitat by Douglas Crockford [history of avatars]
[*] Historical Computer Society by David Greelish, Jacksonville FL, USA
[*] History of Computing by J. A. N. Lee, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA
[*] History of the Computer Center, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, CH
[*] Hobbes' Internet Timeline by Robert H. Zakon, MITRE, McLean VA, USA
[*] HP 1963-1976 by Wirt Atmar
[*] Internet 25th Anniversary, Amdahl Corporation, USA
[*] Mauchly and the Development of ENIAC, Goldschmidt and Akera, Univ. of Pennsylvania, USA
[*] Raw Bytes Micro History [radio transcripts]
[*] The Revolutionaries [interviews] by The Tech Museum/Mercury Center, San Jose CA, USA
[*] Silicon Valley History by Jim McCormick, CA, USA
[*] The Software Museum by Ruud H. T. van Tol, Amsterdam, NL
[*] Triumph of the Nerds [page for the PBS-TV series]
[*] Update Computer Society, Uppsala University, SE
[*] The Virtual Museum of Computing by Jonathan Bowen, University of Reading, UK
[many links to corporate histories]
[*] Web Computer Museum by Clemens Weller, Schwäbisch Gmünd, DE [auf deutsch und englisch]
[*] Where Wizards Stay Up Late by Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon

oral and video history, and image

[*] American Computer Museum, Bozeman MT, USA
[*] BCS Computer Conservation Society by Chris P. Burton and Iain A. F. Fleming, UK
[*] Bob's Computer Museum by Robert Manners, Oxford University, UK
[*] Charles Babbage Institute, Minneapolis MN, USA
[*] Historic Computer Images [U. S. Army] by Mike Muuss
[*] History of Computing at Los Alamos by Harold Rogers, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA
[*] The Machine that Changed the World [from BBC TV series] by J. A. N. Lee, USA
[*] Museo de los 8 bits [en español]
[*] Smithsonian Computer History, [interviews] Washington DC, USA
[*] SunSite ftp picture archive, Univ. of North Carolina, USA
[*] Techno's Virtual Computer Museum by Techno
[*] Timeline of Museum Pieces, UC Davis Computer Science Club, Davis CA, USA
[*] TCS Collectible Comps [legacy micros, commercial]
[*] Virtual Computer History Museum, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA


[*] Ars Electronica Center, Linz, AT [auf deutsch]
[*] Welcome to The Computer Museum!, Boston MA, USA
[*] Collecting Old Computers by Jay Jaeger
[*] COMMPUTERSEUM by Kevin Stumpf, Waterloo ON, CA
[*] Computer Collection by John Derbyshire, West London, UK
[*] Computer Collection by Carl Friend [DG and DEC]
[*] Computer Collection by Donovan Marshall, NZ [Commodore, Atari]
[*] Computer Collection Main Page by Paul Pierce, Portland OR, USA
[*] ESPAÇODATA, National Museum of Information Technologies, Brasilia, BR
[*] Ever-Expanding Collection List by Bill von Hagen, Pittsburgh PA, USA
[*] The Intel Museum, Intel Corporation, Santa Clara CA, USA
[*] Kevan's Computer Bits by Kevan Heydon, UK
[*] National Archive for the History of Computing, University of Manchester, UK
[*] Univ. of Virginia CS-EE Museum by Gabriel Robins and the Web Team [heavy graphics]


[*] Computer History and Folklore by Michael Stillwell, Monash University, AU
[*] HAKMEM File in HTML by Henry Baker, Fremont CA, USA
[*] Jargon File Resources by Eric S. Raymond
[*] The Loginataka by Eric S. Raymond

Calculator History

Desktop chunkers since the Millionaire,
and pocket pals from the HP 35 on.


[*] Design Classics — Calculators from EE Times
[*] Hewlett-Packard Calculators by Eric Smith, Milpitas CA, USA
[*] HP-35 Battery Pack Construction by Douglas W. Jones, University of Iowa, USA
[*] HP 35 Pocket Calculator, Hewlett-Packard Corporation
[*] HP95LX FAQ by Gene Dorr and Anthony Stieber, Milwaukee WI, USA
[*] HP Calculator Restoration Services by Peter Johnson, NH, USA
[*] HPDATAbase by Craig A. Finseth
[*] International Association of Calculator Collectors
[*] Jay Cee HP48 Page by Jay Coates, SDCI Technologies, CH
[*] Jeff's HP Calculator Resource by Jeff Thieleke, University of Iowa, USA
[*] Keith's HP48 Page [FAQ] by Keith Maddock, Flint MI, USA
[*] Museum of HP Calculators by Dave Hicks, Portland OR, USA
[*] My Calculators by Maarten Deen, NL
[*] Old HP and TI Calculators by Gene Wright
[*] The Calculator Reference by Rick Furr [HP, TI and Curta]
[*] TI-85 Info by Ola Stelzer, Råå, SE
[*] TICALC.ORG; TI Graphing Calculators by Chris Dornfeld et al.
[*] Vintage Calculator Forum by James Redin



[*] X-Number World of Calculators by James Redin


Metal, wood and ivory.

[*] Calculating Machines by Erez Kaplan, Scitex Corporation, IL
[*] Chronology of Digital Computing Machinery to 1952 by Mark Brader
[*] Historical Reference to Computing 1830-1950 by Brian Randell,
University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK
[*] The Slide Rule Home Page by Gordon P. Smith, Georgia Tech, USA
[*] Slide Rule Trading Post by Andrew Davie, AU
[*] Totalisator History by Brian Conlon, AU [will download 200K .wav]
[*] Vintage News by Enrico Tedeschi, Brighton, UK

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