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Famous Historical Pirates
Name Nationality Active
Hawkins, Sir Richard British - English 1582-1622
Parker, William British - English 1587-1617
Newport, Christopher British - English 1588-1617
Dudley, Sir Robert British - English 1595-1603
Middleton, David British - English 1601-15
Elfrith, Daniel British - English 1614-37
Ruyters, Dierick Dutch 1618-1630
Butler, Nathaniel British - English 1619-39
Le Grand, Pierre French 1620
Schouten, Pirter Dutch 1624-25
Jol, Cornelis Corneliszoon Dutch 1626-41
Lucifer, Hendrick Jacobszoon Dutch 1627
Loncq, Hendrick Corneliszoon Dutch 1628-30
Camock, Sussex British - English 1628-35
Hoorn, Jan Janszoon van Dutch 1629-33
Axe, Samuel British - English 1629-45
Neckere, Jonathan de Dutch 1631
Rous, William British - English 1631-43
Blauvelt (Blewfield), Abraham Dutch 1631-63
Bull, Dixey British - English 1632
Jackson, William British - English 1637-45
Le Vasseur, Jean French 1642-52
Cromwell, Thomas British - English 1643-45
L'Olonnais, François (Jean David Nau) French 1650-1668
Brasiliano, Roche Dutch 1654-69
Portugues, Bartholomew Portuguese 1655
De L'Isle, Captain French 1659-61
François, Pierre French 1660
Whetstone, Sir Thomas British - English 1661-67
Lucas, John Dutch 1663
Freeman, Captain British - English 1663-65
Jackman, Captain British - English 1663-65
Marteen, David Dutch 1663-65
Mansfield (Mansvelt), Edward Dutch 1663-66
Speirdyke, Bernard Claesen Dutch 1663-70
Morris, John (1) British - English 1663-72
Morgan, Sir Henry British - Welsh 1663-88
Morgan, Edward British - Welsh 1664-65
Williams, Maurice British - English 1664-66
Bamfield, John British - English 1665
Davis, John British - English 1665
Hatsell, Captain British - English 1665
Bradley, Joseph British - English 1665-71
Stedman, Captain British - English 1666
Le Basque, Michel French 1667
Wijn (Klijn), Moise van Dutch 1668
Doglar, Jean French 1668
La Veven (La Vivion), Captain French 1668
Le Picard, Pierre French 1668
Dobson, Richard British - English 1668-1671
Bran (Brand), Captain British - English 1668-69
Brewster, Adam British - English 1668-69
Dempster, Edward British - English 1668-69
Pennant, Jeffery British - English 1668-69
Morris, John (2) British - English 1668-70
Collier, Edward British - English 1668-72
Aylett, Captain British - English 1669
Salter, Thomas British - English 1669
Rivero Pardal, Manoel Portuguese 1669-70
Prince, Lawrence Dutch 1670
Delander, Robert British - English 1670-71
Norman, Richard British - English 1670-71
Grillo, Diego ("El Mulato") African-Spanish 1671-73
Harris, Peter British - English 1671-81
Swan, Charles British - English 1671-87
Lessone, Captain French 1675-1680
Deane, John British - English 1675-76
Wright, Captain British - English 1675-82
Coxon, John British - English 1676-1684
Dampier, William British - English 1676-1715
Barnes, Captain British - English 1677
Browne, James British - Scottish 1677
Lagarde, Captain French 1677
Bournano, Captain French 1678-80
Grammont, Michel De French 1678-86
Allison, Robert British - English 1679-80
Essex, Cornelius British - English 1679-80
Sawkins, Richard British - English 1679-80
Cook (Cooke), Edmund British - English 1679-81?
Ringrose, Basil British - English 1679-86
Mackett (Maggot), Thomas British - English 1680
Kelly, James British - English 1680-1696
Wafer, Lionel British - English 1680-1705
Watling, John British - English 1680-81
Pain, Thomas British - English 1680-83
Rose, Jean French 1680-85
Davis, Edward British - English 1680-88
Sharp, Bartholomew British - English 1680-88
Cook, John British - English 1680-94
Archembeau (Archembo), Captain French 1681
Everson, Jacob Dutch 1681-?
Tristian, Captain French 1681-82
van Horn, Nicholas Dutch 1681-83
Yanky, Captain Dutch 1681-87
Le Pain, Peter French 1682
Hamlin, Jean French 1682-84
Graff, Laurens De Dutch 1682-95
Duchesne, Captain French 1683
La Sage, Captain French 1684-87
Desmarais, Captain French 1685
Lescuyer, Captain French 1685
Le Picard, Captain French 1685-88
Kidd, William British - Scottish 1688-1701
Ansell, John British - English 1689
Clarke, Thomas British - English 1689
May (Mues, Mace, Maze, Mason), William British - English 1689-99
Misson, Captain British - English 1690-1700
Burgess, Samuel British - English 1690-1716?
McCarthy, Dennis British - Irish 1690-1718
Culliford, Robert British - English 1690-98
Every, Henry ('Long Ben') British - English 1692-95
Tew, Thomas British - English 1692-95
Blanc, Captain French 1697
Blout, Captain French 1697
Cottuy, Captain French 1697
Macary, Captain French 1697
Pays, Captain French 1697
Pierre, Captain French 1697
Sales, Captain French 1697
Lewis, Captain British - English 1697-170?
Howard, Thomas British - English 1698-1703
Daniel, Captain French 1700-05
Martel, John British - English 1702-1716
Quelch, John American 1703
Rogers, Woodes British - English 1705-32
Rounsivil, George British - English 1708-18
Jennings, Henry British - English 1715-17
Hornigold, Benjamin British - English 1716-17
Williams, Paul British - English 1716-17
Winter, Christopher British - English 1716-17
Cunningham, William British - English 1716-18
Teach, Edward ('Blackbeard') British - English 1716-18
Vane, Charles British - English 1716-19
La Bouche, Olivier French 1716-21
Bellamy, Samuel British - English 1717
England, Edward British - English 1717-1720
Bonnet, Stede British - English 1717-18
Cocklyn, Thomas British - English 1717-19
Bellamy, Charles British - English 1717-20
Bunce, Phineas British - English 1718
Hands, Israel British - English 1718
Herriot, David British - English 1718
Lewis, William British - English 1718
Pell, Ignatius British - English 1718
Yeats, Captain British - English 1718
Auger, John British - English 1718
Kennedy, Walter British - English 1718-1721
Davis, Howell British - English 1718-19
Bonney, Anne British - English 1718-20
Condent (Congdon, Conden), Edmund British - English 1718-20
Rackham, John ('Calico Jack') British - English 1718-20
Reade, Mary British - English 1718-20
Anstis, Thomas British - English 1718-23
Archer, John Rose British - English 1718-24
Roberts, Bartholomew British - English 1719-22
Skyrme, James British - English 1720-22
Walden, John British - English 1720-23
Fenn, John British - English 1721-23
Lowther, George British - English 1721-23
Low, Edward British - English 1721-24
Phillips, John British - English 1721-24
Spriggs, Francis British - English 1721-25
Evans, John British - English 1722
Harris, Charles British - English 1722-23
Phillips, William British - English 1723-24
Gow, John (John Smith) British - English 1724-25
Fly, William British - English 1726

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Robert Allison
1679-80. English.

John Ansell
1689. English. One of the Captains who raided Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezeula, with Sir Henry Morgan

Thomas Anstis
1718 to 1723. English. Ships: Good Fortune. Anstis and his crew deserted from Bartholomew Roberts in 1721. After killing Anstis in 1723, most of his crew surrendered to the Dutch authorities on Curacao.  In 1718, Anstis left the Bahamas with Howell Davis. After Davis' murder in June 1719, Anstis sailed with Bartholomew Roberts. When Roberts captured an 18 gun brigantine in the West Indies (renaming her the "Good Fortune") he made Anstis captain of her. As they approached Africa in April 1721, Anstis made off with the Good Fortune. Anstis went to the Caribbean where he plundered 3 or 4 small merchant ships. According to Daniel Defoe in his "General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates", the pirates were especially brutal to the passengers of an English ship taken off Martinique. The pirates beat and wounded one man who tried to save a woman from rape. They then forced the woman each in turn, afterwards breaking her back and flinging her into the sea.
Later, Anstis captured a large ship, giving her command to John Fenn. Fenn and Anstis could not get along so they decided to quit pirating. They petitioned the king
claiming that they were forced by Bartholomew Roberts. They camped on an uninhabited island off Cuba waiting for a response. For nine months they waited before
returning to piracy August 1722.

Captain Archembeau (Archembo)
1681. French.

John Rose Archer
1718-24. English.   Sailed under Edward Teach (Blackdeard) in 1718.  In 1723, Archer was on a merchantman captured by John Phillips.  He enlisted with Phillips' gang, became quartermaster, and was captured in April 1724.  He and William White were handed on June 12.  John Jameson wrote, In Privateers and Piracy in the Colonial Period, that the Boston theologian "Cotton Mather ministered to them in their last days, adding, one would think a new horror to death."

John Auger
1718. English. Auger was one of those pardoned by Governor Woodes Rogers, when Rogers arrived at New Providence Island in the Bahamas in July, 1718. Two days after leaving New Providence Island, Auger joined in a mutiny led by Phineas Bunce. The mutineers forced William Greenway (one of those pardoned) to join them. Henry White (also pardoned) as well as several others were stripped naked and marooned on Green Cay Island. Auger would anchor off Green Cay and at various times would retrieve the marooned and beat them. The marooned were rescued after seven weeks. Auger and crew leaving Green Cay would encounter Spanish coast guards off Long Island. The coast guard captured the pirates ships. Auger escaped to the island only to be captured in December by Benjamin Hornigold. Auger was taken to New Providence Island where he was hanged.

Samuel Axe
1629-45. English.  After serving with English forces in the Netherlands, Axe went to  Providence Island in 1629 and built the main fort.  Having quarreled with Daniel Elfrith, he moved to Honduras in 1633 (with Sussex Camock and Abraham Blauvelt) But returned in 1636 to repel a Spanish attack. When a second Spanish expedition reoccupied Providence in 1641, Axe escaped to Saint Kitts.  He was second-in-command form 1642 to 1645, during William Jackson's Caribbean plunder voyage.

Captain Aylett
1669. English. Among the captains killed when Sir Henry Morgan's flagship, the Oxford, caught fire and exploded during a drunken orgy.

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John Bamfield
1665. English. Ships: Mayflower. Commanding the Mayflower, a small ship with only one gun, Bamfield invaded Saint Eustatius and Saba with Edward Morgan

Captain Barnes
1677. English. Raided Santa Marta, Venezeula, with Captain Lagarde.

Charles Bellamy
1717-20. English.   Because both men marauded in the Atlantic about 1717, he often is confused with Samuel Bellany.  Charles Bellamy raided with three ships off New England and New Brusnwick during the summer of 1717.  He set up a fortified camp at the Bay of Fundy, probably at Saint Andrew's, and plundered fishing and raiding ships off Newfoundland's southern coast. A French warship, attacked by mistake in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, badly mauled the pirate vessel and killed 36 men.  Bellamy raided fishing vessels for some years from a new camp at Placentia Bay.

Samuel Bellamy
1717. English. Ships: Whydah.   Bellamy sailing under Benjamin Hornigold in 1716 was elected captain after Hornigold left in August, Hornigold refusing to loot British ships. Bellamy cruising with Olivier La Bouche seized several ships near the Virgin Islands. Bellamy kept one of the large ships and transferred command of his sloop to Paul Williams. Bellamy and La Bouche would become separated in a storm. Bellamy and Williams hunted together between Haiti and Cuba. In March they captured the "Whydah" a slave ship loaded with gold, sugar, ivory, and indigo. They then sailed toward Virginia during which time they would take at least four more ships. They were caught in a storm which threw them off course. Missing their mark they instead headed toward Rhode Island where they would take several more ships. The ship the "Whydah" and another of their ships was wrecked during a heavy fog on the night of May 17, 1717 at Orleans, Massachusetts. Bellamy was killed in the wreck.
The "Whydah" reportedly carried £20,000 worth of cargo. In the mid-1980's, divers recovered part of Bellamy's booty. Barry Clifford, a Cape Cod treasure hunter whom had employed the divers claimed that his find was worth millions of dollars.

Captain Blanc
1697. French. Took part in the sack of Cartagena

Abraham Blauvelt (Blewfield)
1631-63. Dutch.   A daring and resourceful sailor, after whom at least two places in the West Indies are named.  In the early 1630's, Blauvelt explored the coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua for the pirates on Providence Island.  He returned to England in 1637 and recommend a settlement near the town and river of Bluefields, Nicaragua.
After a Spanish expedition reoccupied Providence Island in 1641, Blauvelt briefly was a naval officer for the Swedish West India company.  In 1644, he commanded his own ship, which raided Spanish shipping from Dutch New Amsterdam (New York) and a harbor in southwest Jamaica still called Blewfields Bay.
New Amsterdam no longer welcomed Blauvelt after the Dutch made peace with Spain in 1648.  He disposed of his prizes at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1649, where his crew bickered over the booty.  The governor declared one prize illegal, but he lacked the power to enforce his decision.  Roger Williams, founder of the colony, was convinced that Blauvelt's crimes had permanently ruined Rhode Island's reputation.  In 1650, he owned and commanded the French ship La Garse.
In 1663, Blauvelt lived among the Indians at Cape Gracias `a Dios, on the Honduras-Nicaragua border, cutting Logwood  from a three-gun Bark.  He joined Sir Christopher Myngs' 1663 raid on Campeche Bay in Mexico.

Captain Blout
1697. French. Captain Blout took part in the Siege of Cartagena

Stede Bonnet
March 1717 to November 1718. English. Ships: Revenge, Royal James. In Daniel Defoe's "General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates", Bonnet is described as being a plantation owner in Barbados who turned to piracy to escape his nagging wife. Barbados records don't corroborate this. What is known is that Bonnet bought a 10 gun sloop naming her the "Revenge". In spring of 1717, Bonnet looted several ships off Virginia, South Carolina, and New York. Bonnet then sailed for the Bay of Honduras. It was during this voyage that Bonnet met Edward Teach ( Blackbeard ). Teach attacked Bonnet's ship, capturing it and taking Bonnet as an involuntary guest. In June 1718, Teach disbanded his crew, cheated Bonnet out of any shares in the booty and gave the ship "Revenge" back to Bonnet. Bonnet appointed David Herriot sailing master of the ship. Bonnet was granted a pardon by the governor of North Carolina and went to Saint Thomas to gain privateer status.
Bonnet the privateer pursued Blackbeard, but was'nt able to catch him. After unfruitfully chasing Blackbeard, Bonnet returned to piracy. He plundered several ships off Virginia and in the Delaware Bay. Bonnet called himself Captain Thomas and renamed his ship the "Royal James" because he had recently been granted the pardon and did'nt want to reincriminate himself. Bonnet then sailed up the Cape Fear River in North Carolina where he repaired his ship. He stayed there for two months. The citizens of Charleston, South Carolina got wind of Bonnet's stay and sent William Rhett equipped with two sloops to arrest Bonnet. Rhett instead decided to pursue Charles Vane before finally arriving at Bonnet's camp on October 8th, 1718. Both Bonnet's ship and Rhett's ships ran aground. Grounded they exchanged fire for five hours before Bonnet surrendered. Bonnet was tried and imprisoned at Charleston. Bonnet's prison being a private home. Bonnet had as cellmates, David Herriot and Ignatius Pell. After bribing their guards Bonnet and Herriot escaped. They were pursued by Rhett who caught up to them at an island off the coast. Herriot was killed and Bonnet was rearrested. Bonnet was hanged in November.

Steed Bonnet from Contemporary pictures (left)
The flag flown by Steed Bonnet (right)

Anne Bonney
July 1718 to November 1720. English. Ships: William. Bonney is one of the few women pirates in European history. With Mary Reade she was captured in 1720, as John Rackham raided along Jamaica's northern coast. Early in November, a government ship siezed Rackham's sloop which carried the two women and 9 men. Rackham and the other men were hanged. Because everyone knew they were women. Bonney and Read were tried seperately. Their victims testified that they wore female clothing except during battles. Both joined in assaults carrying guns. The witnesses added that "they were both very profligate, cursing and swearing much, and very ready and willing to do anything."
After they were convicted, the judge asked if there was any reason they should not be hanged as sentenced. "My Lord, we Plead our Bellies," Bonney and Read replied - the customary plea of pregnant women. Since hanging would also kill the unborn child (who had committed no crime), women were reprieved until they gave birth. Bonney and Reade were jailed, and nothing is known about their later fate.
The presence of two women on Rackham's sloop was highly unusual. Some articles specifically banned women and young boys, since the men fought to obtain their sexual favours. In this case it seems the pirates tolerated the women because they may have made themselves available to anyone in Rackham's small crew. Daniel Defoe made Bonney famous through a melodramatic story inserted in his General History. According to Defoe, Anne successfully disguised herself as a man while fighting beside her lover, John Rackham. Defoe tells how Anne was born in Ireland, the illegetimate child of a lawyer and his servant. Her father was forced to emigrate to South Carolina, along with Anne and her mother. The only heiress to a large fortune, Anne gave it all up to run away with James Bonney.
The two lovers went to the Bahamas, where Bonney was pardoned by Woodes Rogers in 1718. Anne, who liked both money and men, soon began to sleep around. She eventually met John Rackham, who won her favour by lavishly spending booty. When Governor Rogers threatened to whip Anne and Rackham, they stole a sloop and turned pirate together.
Putting on seaman's clothes, Anne fought beside the other pirates, who were convinced she was a man. She took shore leave in Cuba to have a baby, but rejoined the ship soon after. By this time, Mary Reade, also wearing male attire, had joined the crew. Mary learned Anne's secret when Anne seduced her, thinking her a pretty fellow. When the Jamaicans caught the pirate ship, only the women resisted, and Anne viciously condemned Rackham as a coward. Victims testified that she retained her feminine character, and donned men's clothing only when in action, but otherwise dressed as women.


Contemporay picture of Anne Bonney

Captain Bournano
1678-80. French. One of the first pirates to attempt the land route across Panama, Bournano led a force against Chepo in 1678. In February 1680, he sacked Portabello with Bartholomew Sharp. He refused to go on to the Pacific with Sharp's party because he felt the jungle trail was too dangerous.

Joseph Bradley
1665-71. English. Bradley was among the captains attacking Costa Rica and Providence Island in 1665 with Edward Mansfield. In 1670, he siezed a prize from a Spanish Privateer in the harbour at Havana. While serving as one of Sir Henry Morgan's commanders during the 1671 Panama raid, he was killed leading the attack on Chagres.

Captain Bran (Brand)
English. 1668-69. Commanding an 80-man ship, Bran sacked Portobello in 1668 with Sir Henry Morgan and raidedCampeche, Mexico in 1669 with Roche Brasiliano.

Roche Brasiliano
1654-1669. Dutch.

Adam Brewster
1668-1669. English. Captain of a ship during Sir Henry Morgan's raids on Portobello (1668) and Maracaibo, Venezuela (1669).

James Browne
1677. Scottish.   Operating under a French commission from the govern or Saint Domingue, Browne seized a Dutch slave ship off Venezuela. His English, French, and Dutch pirates killed the captain and several crewmen and landed the slaves in a remote bay in Jamaica. The Jamaican governor sent a frigate that seized Browne and eight of his men. Browne was handed, but his crew were pardoned when they promised to give up piracy.

Dixey Bull
1632. English.  The first to plunder New England, Bull immigrated in 1631 and traded for beaver pelts along the Maine coast. In June 1632, French brigands stole his small ship and supplies. With some other wanderers, he unsuccessfully chased the Frenchmen. He then turned against his own people, plundered two or three small vessels, and took goods worth over 500 pounds from a trading station at Pemaquid, Massachusetts. Some say he joined the French, others that he returned to England.

Phineas Bunce
1718. English. Bunce took a pardon when Governor Rogers landed at New Providence Islans in 1718. In October, Rogers sent three sloops for provisions. Bunce helped lead a mutiny, and he cruelly abused and marooned officers and men refusing to join his gang. While commanding one of the sloops, Bunce was captured by Spanish coast guards. He was wounded in the battle and died before he could be hanged.

Samuel Burgess
1690-1716? English. Ships: Jacob, Neptune, Margaret.   A former Buccaneer, Burgess helped steal William Kidd's Blessed William in February 1690. William May became captain, and cruised from New York before taking the Jacob to Madagascar in December. Edward Coates later replaced May as captain, and Burgess returned to New York in April 1693 with 800 pounds.
Burgess bought a house and went to work for Frederick Philipse, New York's wealthiest merchant. During the next few years, he made several profitable voyages to Madagascar, where he sold the pirates supplies and guns for gold and slaves. Commanding the Margaret, Burgess ran into a British squadron at Saint Mary's Island about September 1699. About 20 pirates accepted a pardon and bought passage home.
The Margaret reached Cape Town, South Africa, in late December. A Captain Lowth of the East India Company seized the ship and took it to Bombay. (Lowth was coldly received by the governor, who had told the Indians there were no English pirates on Madagascar.) In addition to 11,000 pounds in pirate loot, Lowth seized another 6,000 pounds and 80 slaves belonging to the Margaret.
The ship's owners sued the company, and Burgess was brought to London about 1701. Thanks to Robert Culliford's testimony, Burgess was convicted of piracy while aboard the Jacob. He eventually was pardoned and sailed to the Pacific in 1693 as an officer on a Privateering vessel.
Burgess went back to Madagascar to trade liquor for slaves as first mate of the Neptune. A sudden storm destroyed the pirates' ships, and Burgess helped John Halsey seize the Neptune. He became quartermaster but was ousted when Halsey died soon after. Burgess stayed at Madagascar, dealing in slaves with David Williams and other captains. A black chief poisoned him, the story goes, during an argument over prices.

Nathaniel Butler
1619-39. English.   From Bedford, Butler went to sea as a youth and voyaged to North America and Guyana. He became a protg of Richard Rich, earl of Warwick and Protestant leader, who made him governor of Bermuda from 1619 to 1622.  Between 1625 and 1628, Butler commanded vessels during naval assaults in Spain and northern France. He was appointed a captain in the royal navy in 1637.
Butler became governor of Warwick's pirate colony on Providence Island in 1638. In about April 1639, he assembled a mixed fleet of Dutch and English vessels. After looting several smaller towns, the raiders descended on Trujillo, the chief port of Honduras. Trujillo had repelled Sir Anthony Sherley in 1597, but Butler'' raiders took it by surprise and collected a ransom of 16,000 pounds. Butler apparently kept more than his fair share of the booty. Returning to Providence in September 1639, he sailed for England in great haste and secrecy.
Butler published the Dialogicall Discourse Concerninge Marine Affairs in 1634. An edition by W. G. Perrin Appeared in 1929.
 

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Sussex Camock
1628-35. English.   Camock commanded ships for the earl of Warwick, a prominent Puritan politician. (his brother had married the earl's aunt.) In consort with Daniel Elfrith, he took part in a profitless West Indian raid in 1628.  Camock and some 30 men were marooned on San Andreas Island and rescued by a Dutch ship.
Camock returned to the pirate colony at Providence Island in 1633 and set up a trading post at Cape Gracias `a Dio, on the Nicaragua-Honduras border. Camock found the work unrewarding returned to England in June 1635. And became captain of a royal fort at Harwich. He left Samuel Axe and Abraham Blauvelt in charge of the Honduran venture.

Thomas Clarke
1689. English. Clarke was among the captains raiding Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela, with Sir Henry Morgan.

Thomas Cocklyn
1717-1719. English. Cocklyn sailed from New Providence Island in the Bahamas in about 1717. In early 1719, he briefly cruised off West Africa with Howell Davies and Oliver La Bouche.

Edward Collier
1668-72. English.  Ships: Satisfaction.   Although nothing is known about his earlier career, Collier was an experienced captain when he took part in Sir Henry Morgan's expeditions.  Many witnesses, both English and Spanish, claimed he tortured prisoners even more cruelly then Morgan and the other buccaneer captains.
Collier commanded a pirate vessel during Morgan's 1668 raid on Portobelo. At the end of 1668, the 34-gun Oxford was sent to defend Jamaica and to put down piracy. The island's governor gave Collier command, when her previous captain killed the hip's master during a quarrel. Collier captured Captain La Veven, a French pirate, whose ship was seized and renamed the Satisfaction.
Soon after, Collier joined Morgan, who was gathering the buccaneers for his raid on Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela. The drunken pirates blew up the Oxford in January 1669, but Morgan and Collier were among the lucky survivors. Following this disaster, Collier went off on his own, taking the Satisfaction on an 18-month independent cruise to Mexico and possibly to Cuba.
In September 1670, Collier enlisted in Morgan's Panama expedition and was named "vice-admiral." While the pirates were gathering off southwestern Haiti, Collier took six ships to Venezuela to gather food and information. At Rio De La Hacha, he captured the fort and garrison and ferociously tortured his prisoners. He enjoyed his victims' agonies too much for efficient interrogation, for he missed 2000,000 pesos hidden by the fort's commander. After extorting a ransom in salt, corn, and meat, he rejoined Morgan's main fleet early in December. When Morgan routed Panama's defenders in January 1671, Collier commanded the buccaneers' left wing. He and his men chased after and slaughtered the fleeing enemy. After the Spaniards surrendered, Collier killed one of their chaplains, a Franciscan friar.
Collier took ample plunder during his voyages. In 1668, Jamaica's governor gave him a 1,000-acre plantation next to one of Morgan's estates. Plantations of this size were granted only to men with substantial funds to purchase slaves and tools. Collier did not share Morgan's disgrace after the assault on Panama. Although a new governor arrested Morgan, Collier remained in Jamaica and led preparations to defend the island against a possible foreign invasion.

Edmund Condent (Congdon, Conden)
1718 to 1720. English. Ships: Flying Dragon.   From Plymouth, Condent was second-in-command of a pirate sloop that fled New Providence when Woodes Rogers became governor in 1718. When an Indian, beaten up by the other crewmen, threatened to blow up the ship, Condent leaped into the hold and shot him. "When he was dead," Daniel Defoe writes, "the Crew Hack'd him to Pieces, and the Gunner ripping up his Belly, tore out his Heart, broiled and eat it."
Soon after, the pirates captured a merchant ship. They quarreled, and the captain and half the crew left in the prize, while the rest chose Condent captain. At the Cape Verde Islands, he took a Portuguese wine ship, an entire squadron of small boats, and a Dutch warship, which he kept and renamed the Flying Dragon.
Condent marauded along the Brazilian coast, seizing many merchantmen.  Hearing that the Portuguese had imprisoned a pirate crew, Defore states, he cruelly tortured Portuguese prisoners, "cutting of their Ears and Noses." After taking more prizes along the West African coast, he reached Madagascar in June or July 1719. At the Saint Mary's Island, he picked up some of John Halsey's old crew.
Condent cruises in the Red Sea and along the Indian coast for more than a year. Near Bombay in October 1720, he captured a large Arab ship carrying treasure and precious cargo valued at 150,000 pounds. To avoid the East India Company's wrath, he ordered his men not to abuse the passengers and crew. The rich haul was shared out at Saint Mary's, each man receiving about 2,000 pounds. Condent and about 40 others went to Reunion Island and negotiated with the governor for a French pardon.  About 20 settled on the island. According to Defore, Condent married the governor's sister-on-law, migrated to France, and became a wealthy merchant in Brittany.


The flag flown by Edmund Condent.

Edmund Cook (Cooke)
1679-81? English.  Ship: Trinity.     Cook was among the few buccaneers with a semi-legitimate excuse for his piracies. In December 1673, as he headed toward England with valuable goods (possibly smuggled out of Cuba), a Spanish vessel captured his ship near Havana and turned her crew adrift. Claiming that Madrid refused to reimburse his losses, Cook acquired a letter of reprisal.  Early in 1679, he landed in Cuba, ambushed a Spanish ship, and sold her cargo in Jamaica.
William Dampier was hired as a surgeon by Cook and a Captain Lynch, who planned to sail together. However, Cook's small ship was alone when he reached the Panamanian coast in February 1680. There he ran into Bartholomew Sharp's company, which had just sacked Portobelo. Excited by their success, Cook and his men enlisted in a new adventure. Under John Coxon's command, the pirates marched across the Isthmus and won a fierce battle near Panama City on May 3.
Soon after the battle, Cook received command of the 100-ton Mayflower, captured at Pueblo Nuevo. But her crew refused to accept Cook as captain and he moved to Sharp's flagship, the Trinity. Cook joined in raids along the Peruvian coast and was still on board when they reached the Juan Fernandez Islands in January 1681.
After another mutiny, John Watling took Sharp's place as captain and immediately imprisoned Cook in irons for homosexual acts. Since homosexuality was commonplace among the buccaneers, Watling's act is difficult to understand. Cook is not mentioned again, and he probably died soon after.

John Cook
1680-94. English.

Captain Cottuy
1697. French. Captain Cottuy took part in the Sack of Cartagena

John Coxon
1676-84. English.

Thomas Cromwell
1643-45. English.

Robert Culliford
1690-98. English.

William Cunningham
1716-18. English.

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William Dampier
1676-1715. English.

Captain Daniel
1700-05. French.

Edward Davis
1680-88. English.

Howell Davis
July 1718 to June 1719. English. Ships: Buck, Saint James, Rover. Davis was a Welsh pirate who preyed on shipping off the West African coast and in the Caribbian from July 1718 until June 1719. An expert in deception, Davis was killed in a skirmish with Portuguese troops on the West African Coast. Davis was virtually raised on a ship coming to stature as chief mate of a slaver. Around 1718 he was captured by Edward England off the coast of Africa. Davis was a likeable man and easily gained favor with England. England gave the captured ship to Davis who in turn proposed to sell it in Brazil. The crew wanted to keep the ship and sailed to Barbados. Once they reached their destination they were arrested. Davis spent 3 months in jail. Upon his release, Davis had made up his mind to turn pirate. Davis went to the Bahamas in hopes of mustering a crew only to find that Woodes Rogers had preceded him. Davis was put on a ship loaded with cargo and Roger's men. At Martinique, Davis raised a mutiny and was chosen captain. Davis and his crew of 35 men took two larger French ships north of Hispaniola. Davis captured the second ship by making the first captured look like a pirate ship by forcing the prisoners to brandish swords upon the deck. Believing themselves outnumbered the second ship gave up without a fight. Davis next sailed to the Cape Verde Islands where the Portugese governor at Saint Nicholas believing Davis' ship the "Buck" was an English privateer, welcomed Davis' crew with open arms. Leaving Saint Nicholas he sailed to Maio Island where he plundered many ships and swelled the ranks of his crew. One prize, the "Saint James" a 26 gun ship they decided to keep. Davis then went to the Royal Africa Company's fort in the Gambia River. Dressed like dandies, Davis and two of his men decieved the governor who invited them to dinner. The governor was made prisoner and relieved of £2,000 in gold.
Davis next had a short stint as admiral over the pirate captains Olivier La Bouche and Thomas Cocklyn. Their venture did'nt last long as they could'nt agree on a course of action. Parting company, Davis seized 4 large English and Dutch ships loaded with ivory, gold dust, and slaves. Davis exchanged the "Buck" for a 32 gun ship renamed the "Rover". Next he captured 3 British slave ships. An officer aboard one of the slavers, Bartholomew Roberts decided to join Davis. Davis' next port of call was Principe Island. He took a Dutch prize and £ 15,000 along the way. He had to abandon the "Saint James" as she was too badly damaged. At Principe Island, Davis told the Portugese governor that he was a pirate hunter, even going as far as seizing a French ship that came into the harbor claiming that the French ship had been trading with pirates.
Just when Davis' career had been flying high tragedy struck. The circumstances are not known but a day before Davis was to leave port he was ambushed at the governor's palace. Davis took 5 bullets before he dropped and was finished off by having his throat cut. Davis' death was avenged by his crew. They burnt the fort and shelled the town.


Contemporary picture of Howell Davis

John Davis
1665. English.

John Dean
1675-76. English.

Robert Delander
1670-71. English.

Captain De L'Isle
1659-61. French.

Edward Dempster
1668-1669. English. Captain of a ship during Sir Henry Morgan's raids on Portobello (1668) and Maracaibo, Venezuela (1669).

Captain Desmarris
1685. French. With Captain Le Picard and Jean Rose, he brought 260 bucanneers overland across Panama to join a large raiding party gathering on the Pacific Coast.

Richard Dobson
1668-1671. English. Dobson was captain of a ship during Sir Henry Morgan's assaults on Portabello (1668), Maracaibo (1669) and Panama (1671). During the Panama raid he commanded the 15-ton Fortune, carrying six guns and 35 crewmen.

Jean Doglar
1668. French. Doglar was amongst the captains looting Portabello with Sir Henry Morgan.

Captain Duchesne
1683. French. Said to be from Saint Dominique (Haiti), he sacked Tampico, Mexico.

Sir Robert Dudley
1595-1603. English.

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Daniel Elfrith
1614-37. English.

Edward England
1717 to 1719. English. Ships: Fancy, Pearl, Victory. England operated first in the Caribbean, then the Indian Ocean between 1717 and 1719. The Mercy he customarily showed to captives led to his crew removing him as captain and putting him ashore on Mauritius. He reputedly ended his days as a beggar in Madagascar. England (real name: Seeger) was an officer on a Jamaican sloop and was captured by Christopher Winter. England joined Winter's band. The English privateer, Woodes Rogers attacked the pirate base in the Bahamas at which England was present. England escaped and took several prizes along the coast of Africa and the Azores and Cape Verde islands. England exchanged his sloop for a larger ship and renamed her the "Pearl". He returned to Africa in the spring of 1719. He was successful there, capturing two dozen prizes. Of these prizes the pirates kept one renaming her the "Victory" which was captained by John Taylor.
In 1720 the "Pearl" and "Victory" were active around the Malabar coast of India. It was during this time that the "Pearl" was exchanged for a 34 gun ship renamed the "Fancy". England then sailed for Johanna Island near Madagascar. They encountered 3 large English and Dutch ships that were trading with the East Indies. Two of the ships escaped but the "Cassandra" captained by James Macrae stayed to engage England's force. The battle lasted for several hours. Both the "Cassandra" and the "Fancy" were grounded and pounded each other relentlessly. Macrae escaped going ashore leaving behind cargo worth £75,000. The "Cassandra" had 37 casualties while England's force had lost more than 90. After 10 days of hiding, Macrae went aboard the "Victory" hoping for mercy. Taylor wanted to kill him but England wanted to spare his life. England was able to persuade Taylor over several drinks of rum. Macrae was given the badly damaged "Fancy". He and 43 others embarked upon a 7 week voyage to Bombay in which they were plagued by hunger and thirst. Upon reaching Bombay, Macrae was given a hero's welcome and eventually became the governor of Madras. He was governor from 1725 to 1730 during which time he collected £ 800,000 in bribe money.
England's crew was much grieved by the decision to let Macrae go and turned against England. England was removed as captain and put ashore on Mauritius with 3 others. England eventually made his way to Saint Augustine's Bay where he would die a pauper having lived off the charity of other pirates.

Contemporary pictures of Edward England (left)
The flag flown by Edward England (right)

Cornelius Essex
1679-80. English

John Evans
1722. English.

Jacob Everson
1681-? Dutch

Henry Every ('Long Ben')
June 1694 to September 1695. English. Ships: Fancy.  AKA: John Avery, Benjamin Bridgeman.    Sometimes called Benjamin Bridgeman (and nicknamed "Long Ben"), Every captured an Indian treasure ship and managed to escape with the loot.  Although other pirates took more booty, his robbery engaged the British East India Company and aroused great public interest. Every was the hero of works by several authors, including Daniel Defore (who erroneously called him John Avery).
Every's admirers invented improbable stories about his early life. He is first mentioned in the early 1690's as an unlicensed slave dealer and pirate sailing from the Bahamas with the governor's protection. In June 1694, Every was second-in-command of a 46-gun private warship, licensed by the Spanish government to attack French smugglers. At Cadiz, the crew took the ship while the captain was dead drunk one night. Renaming her the Fancy, they elected Every captain.
Heading south along the African coast, the pirates plundered three British vessels at the Capte Verde Islands and destroyed two Danish ships near Sao Thome. Early in 1695, they reached Johanna Island (Anjouan) in the Comoros, where Every seized a French pirate ship loaded with booty. Most of its crew joined his gang, bringing to it more than 170 men.
Reaching the Red Sea in May or June, Every ran into smaller pirate ships commanded by William Want, Joseph Farrell, William May, Thomas Wake, and Thomas Tew. Cruising with Every as their admiral, the pirates waited for the treasure ships returning to India. Each year, Indian ships took rich luxury goods (and Muslim pilgrims) to Mecca and Jiddah and returned with gold and silver.
Most of the Indian fleet got past the pirates during the night, but Every took the last two vessels. Every easily captured the smaller Fateh Mohammed and then pursued the Gang-I-sawai (Gunsway), the largest ship in the Indian's fleet. The heavily armed Gunsway carried 400 to 500 soldiers. During a two-hour battle, both sides suffered heavy casualties.
Every's crew looted their prizes at the island of Socotra. In addition to gold coins, the pirates seized many jewels and a saddle and bridle encrusted with diamonds. They tortured prisoners and raped many women, including the aged wife of an important Indian official. Some jumped into the sea to escape, while others died after being brutally handled.
The booty was split at Reunion Island, where most of the French pirates stayed. The East India Company estimated the plunder at 325,000 pounds.  After giving small sums to the other pirate ships, each man received about 1,000 in cash plus some of the jewels. Every took two shares as captain, and he may also have grabbed some loose gems.
Before sailing to America, Every took on provisions at Sao Thome. One English captain reported that he paid the Portuguese governor with a check "drawn on The Bank of Aldgate Pump, attested by John-a-Noakes and signed by Timothy Tugmutton and Simon Wifflepin." In the Caribbean, the pirates sold some of their plunder at Saint Thomas and sailed to the Bahamas in April.
In return for some 2,000 pounds in bribes, Governor Thomas Trott welcomed the pirates and entertained the officers in his own home. The pirates even gave Trott the Fancy, but she was wrecked during a storm.  The British government fired Trott the following October but allowed him to take his loot to South Carolina.
Meanwhile, the Indian emperor took out his anger on the British East India Company. Indian officials seized the company's trading posts and imprisoned its officials, treating some so severely that they died in jail. The British government offered 500 pounds for every man in Every's crew, and the East India Company doubled the reward.
Since the Bahamas were a privately owned colony, Trott could not grant a royal pardon, and the governor of Jamaica refused a bribe of 20,000 pounds. The Fancy's crew fled in all directions, while Every and several others bought a sloop and escaped to Ireland. Over the years, 14 were arrested, and six were hanged. But Henry Every vanished with his plunder.
 


Contemporary pictures of Henry Every (left)
The flags flown by Henry Every (right)


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John Fenn
1721-23. English

William Fly
1726. English.

Pierre François
1660. French.

Captain Freeman
1663-65. English.

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John Gow (John Smith)
1724 to 1725. English. Ships: Revenge.   Smith often used the alias John Gow. While sailing from Morocco to France in November 1724, Smith and several others mutinied and seized a merchant ship. The rebels murdered the captain and three other officers and elected Smith captain.
After looting British ships off Portugal, Smith visited Madeira, seized the governor, and forced him to provide supplies. In February 1725, he made for the Orkney Islands near Scotland-solely to visit his girl friend according to some reports. Some of his prisoners escaped and raised an alarm.
The pirates raided several villages, but wrecked their ship on one of the islands. A local landowner turned down a bribe, and Smith and his crew were captured. Following a trial that aroused intense public interest, Smith and eight others were hanged in London.

Laurens De Graff
1682-95. Dutch.

Michel De Grammont
1678-86. French.

Diego Grillo ("El Mulato")
1671-73. African-Spanish.

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Jean Hamlin
1682-84. French.

Israel Hands
1718. English. Ship: Adventure.  Hands being second-in-command to Edward Teach ( Blackbeard ) was given command of David Herriot's ship "Adventure" after Herriot was captured by Teach in March, 1718. Hands participated in the attack on Charleston, South Carolina with Teach. After the siege of Charleston, Hands settled in with Teach at Ocracoke, North Carolina. When Teach was killed by Robert Maynard, Hands was captured and taken to Virginia for trial. Hands testified against corrupt North Carolina officials which Teach had consorted with in exchange for pardon. What happened to Hands after this is not known, however in Daniel Defoes "General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates", Hands is said to have died a beggar in London. Defoe also wrote that Hands was shot in the knee by Edward Teach after Teach fired at another of his crew, missing him but striking Hands. Hands supposedly inquired of Teach his meaning in this act, whereupon Teach remarked, "That if he did not now and then kill one of them, they would forget who he was"
.

Charles Harris
1722-23. English.

Peter Harris
1671-81. English.

Captain Hatsell
1665. English. Captain Hatsell commanded the garrison left at Providence Island after Edward Mansfield's conquest. He was captured when the Spaniards retook the island and presumably died in prison.

Sir Richard Hawkins
1582-1622. English.

David Herriot
1718. English. Herriot joined Edward Teach ( Blackbeard ) after Teach had captured his sloop "Adventure" in 1718. With Teach, Herriot raided Charleston, South Carolina. Herriot's ship was purposely wrecked by Teach as a scheme to avoid dividing the plunder.
Herriot was next found with Stede Bonnet whom he joined as sailing master. Herriot was captured with Bonnet in October, 1718. Herriot agreed to testify against his shipmates in exchange for leniency, but the trial was not to be as Herriot along with Bonnet escaped. Herriot was killed by his pursuers in the escape.

Jan Janszoon van Hoorn
1629-33. Dutch.

Benjamin Hornigold
1716-17. English.  Hornigold left New Providence Island in the Bahamas with Edward Teach (Blackbeard) among his crew. After capturing a sloop, Teach was given command of the prize. The two plundered six ships off the American coast and raided in the Caribbean during 1717. Toward the end of the year, they seized a French ship loaded with gold, jewels and other items of value. The two parted company, Teach going to America, Hornigold to New Providence. When Woodes Rogers was appointed governor of the Bahamas, Hornigold asked for a pardon and received it. Rogers thought highly of Hornigold and commissioned him to hunt pirates.   Hornigold pursued John Auger,as well as others. About 1719, Hornigold was sent to Mexico on a trading voyage. Hornigold's ship struck a reef far from land and perished.

Thomas Howard
1698-1703. English.

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Captain Jackman
1663-65. English.

William Jackson
1637-45. English.

Henry Jennings
1715-17. English. Jennings hunted Spanish and French merchantmen during the War of the Spanish Succession (1702- 1714). The governor of Havana sent a salvage crew to southeastern Florida to recover the cargo of silver that was carried by a Spanish treasure fleet that perished in a hurricane in July 1715. Jennings together with 3 small ships and about 300 men left Jamaica and fell upon the salvagers. They drove off about 60 soldiers and captured about 350,000 pesos. Returning to Jamaica, the pirates seized a Spanish ship loaded with rich cargo and 60,000 pesos. The governor of Jamaica worried about reprisals from the government warned Jennings about his activities. Jennings left Jamaica and found a new base of operations at New Providence Island in the Bahamas. In 1717, the English government offered a pardon which Jennings accepted, surrendering at Bermuda.

Cornelis Corneliszoon Jol
1626-41. Dutch.

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James Kelly
1680-96. English.

Walter Kennedy
1718-1721. English. Kennedy was a pickpocket and burglar before sailing from New Providence Island in the Bahamas in 1718 with Howell Davis. After Davis' murder in June 1719, Kennedy attacked the fort at Principe Island to avenge Davis' death. Kennedy was given second-in-command by the crew of the "Rover" in appreciation of his bravery. Bartholomew Roberts was in supreme command. They sailed to Brazil where they captured a Portuguese ship carrying rich booty. While Roberts was on a captured sloop, Kennedy took both the "Rover" and the prize. The crew wanting to go home and split up their spoils prompted Kennedy to give the Portuguese ship to a captive English captain. Kennedy decided to go to Ireland, but he was'nt much of a navigator and wrecked the "Rover" on the coast of Scotland. The majority of his crew were captured and hanged, but Kennedy escaped going to Dublin. He eventually returned to England where he set up a house of prostitution supplementing his income derived from burglary. One of his prostitutes turned him in to the authorities for robbery. Recognized in prison, he was hanged for piracy.

William Kidd
May 1697 to April 1700. Scotish. Ships: Adventure, Adventure Galley

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Olivier La Bouche
1716-21. French.  Ship: Victory.  La Bouche is said to have come from Calais. He sailed in partnership with Benjamin Hornigold in 1716. Later he sailed with Samuel Bellamy. Together, Bellamy and La Bouche captured several British and French ships near the Virgin Islands until they were separated by a storm early in 1717. When Woodes Rogers became governor of the Bahamas in July 1718, La Bouch fled to the West African coast. In 1719 La Bouche joined Howell Davis and Thomas Cocklyn. Their journey together was brief. La Bouche then went toward the Red Sea where he wrecked on Mayotte in the Comoro Islands in 1720. Around the first of 1721, La Bouche was living at Saint Mary's Island near Madagascar. It was here that John Taylor gave him command of the "Victory". La Bouche and Taylor went to Réunion Island. Arriving there in April, they captured a Portuguese ship which was rich in booty. They divvied up their loot at Saint Mary's Island. They parted December 1721, Taylor going to the West Indies, La Bouche sailing to Madagascar. It is possible that La Bouche settled on Réunion Island and was hanged years later.

Captain Lagarde
1677. French.

Captain La Veven (La Vivion)
1668. French.

Michel La Basque
1667. French.

Pierre Le Grand
1620. French.

Peter Le Pain
1682. French.

Captain Le Picard
1685-88. Franch.

Pierre Le Picard
1668. French.

Captain La Sage
1684-87. French.

Captain Lescuyer
1685. French.

Captain Lessone
1675-80. French.

Jean Le Vasseur
1642-52. French.

Captain Lewis
1697-170? English

William Lewis
1718. English.

François L'Olonnais (Jean David Nau)
1650-68. French.

Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncq
1628-30. Dutch.

Edward Low
December 1721 to Early 1724. English. Low was active in the Caribbean from December 1721 until he was marooned by his own crew in early 1724. A sadistic captain, he frequently tortured and mutilated captives before killing them. He was even accused of cutting off captive's ears, lips and hearts and making other prisoners eat them.

 

Contemporary picture of Edward Low (left)
The flag flown by Edward Low (right)

George Lowther
1721 to 1723. English. Ships: Happy Delivery. Lowther was an English pirate active in the Caribbean and Atlantic seaboard between 1721-3. While his ship, the Happy Delivery was beached on the Venezuelan coast for careening (removing barnacles from the hull) and the crew were living in tents on the shore, he and his crew were attacked and captured. Lowther escaped, but was killed soon after.


Contemporary picture of George Lowther

John Lucas
1663. Dutch.

Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer
1627. Dutch.

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Captain Macary
1697. French.

Dennis McCarthy
1690-1718. Irish.

Thomas Mackett (Maggot)
1680. English.

Edward Mansfield (Mansvelt)
1663-66. Dutch.

David Marteen
1663-65. Dutch.

John Martel
1702-16. English.

William May (Mues, Mace, Maze, Mason)
1689-99. English.

David Middleton
1601-15. English.

Captain Misson
1690-1700. English.

Edward Morgan
1664-65. English.

Sir Henry Morgan
1663-88. English

John Morris (1)
1663-72. English. Sailing from Port Royal in late 1663 or early 1664, he assaulted Mexico and Nicaragua with Sir Henry Morgan, David Marteen, and Captains Jackman and Freeman. Although raids on Spanish possessions had been forbidden, the five captains pretended to act under privateering commissions issued by Jamaica's previous governor.

The rovers anchored at the mouth of the Grijalva River. Aided by native guides, they marched 50 miles inland, using a round-about route to avoid swamps along the river. Taking the garrison by surprise, they sacked Villahermosa, capital of the Tabasco Province.

When they returned to the coast they discovered the Spaniards had taken over their ships. They managed to capture two barques and four canoes, and paddled and sailed south against a strong current. Stopping to loot a small town on the way, they plunderd Trujillo, Honduras, and captured a ship in the harbour.

Continuing south, they hid their vessels near the San Juan River and located native guides. Hiding by day and rowing at night, they went 100 miles up river to reach Granada on Lake Niceragua. Jamaican Governor Thomas Modyford reported that they:

"marched undescried into the center of the city, fired a volley, overturned 18 great guns in the Parada Place, took the sergeant-major's house, wherein were all their arms and ammunition, secured in the great church 300 of the best men prisoners, abundance of which were churchmen, plundered for 16 hours, discharged their prisoners, sunk all the boats, and so came away."
Returning in several captured ships, the pirates reached Port Royal by November 1665. During an epic voyage of several thousand miles, they had penetrated far inland and pillaged three important towns. However, Governor Modyford does not report the precise value of their substantial spoils.

Morris was at least an equal partner with Sir Henry Morgan in this adventure. He took part in Morgan's raids on Portobello (1668), Maracaibo (1669) and Panama (1671). Whilst the pirates were gathering for the Panama raid, Morris attacked and killed the Portuguese corsair Manoel Rivero Pardal. With Lawrence Prince, he led the assault on Panama in January 1671.

Morgan had sacked Panama after a peace treaty had been signed. Thomas Lynch became Governor, arrested Modyford and Morgan and sent them to England. However, Lynch gave Morris a frigate and ordered him to arrest captains refusing to give up piracy.

John Morris (2)
1668-70. English. Son of John Morris (1), Morris commanded his own ship during Sir Henry Morgan's Portobello (1668) and Maracaibo (1669) expeditions. He was killed when Morgan's Flagship blew up during a drunken orgy.

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Jonathan de Neckere
1631. Dutch.

Christopher Newport
1588-1617. English.

Richard Norman
1670-71. English.

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Thomas Pain
1680-83. English.

William Parker
1587-1617. English.

Captain Pays
1697. French.

Ignatius Pell
1718. English.   Ship: Royal James.   Pell was the boatswain aboard Stede Bonnet's ship "Royal James" when they were attacked October 8, 1717, by William Rhett of Charleston, South Carolina. They were defeated and captured. Pell was pardoned after agreeing to testify against his shipmates.

Jeffery Pennant
1668-69. English.

John Phillips
1723 to 1724. English. Ships: Revenge

William Phillips
1722 to 1724. English. Ships: Revenge

Captain Pierre
1697. French.

Bartholomew Portugues
1655. Portuguese.

Lawrence Prince
1670. Dutch.

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John Quelch
1703. American.


The flag flown by John Quelch

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John Rackham ('Calico Jack')
July 1718 to November 1720. English. Ships: William. Nicknamed 'Calico Jack' because he wore clothing made of calico (a white cloth imported from Calcutta, India), John Rackham was typical of many pirates whose sloops preyed on coastal shipping. Little is known of his origins, but by 1718 he had somehow made his way to New Providence Island. He served with Charles Vane, fleeing the Island when Vane escaped from Governor Rogers. By the spring of 1719 he was elected as quartermaster, and became Vane's deputy. Soon after a quarrel broke out among the crew, and Rackham replaced Vane as the Captain. Vane was put ashore and Rackham continued Vane's cruise in two sloops.

According to some accounts the vessels were both lost when a Jamaican based patrol sloop captured them while most of the crew were ashore. Rackham returned to New Providence, and in May 1719 he was granted a pardon by Governor Rogers as a part of Rogers' general pirate amnesty. It was there he met Anne Bonney, wife of James Bonney, and they became lovers. Law-abiding life ashore proved unpalatable, and in August 1719, with other former pirates, Rackham and Bonney stole a sloop named William, and returned to piracy. His crew included the female pirates Anne Bonney and Mary Reade. Based in Bahamian waters, he cruised between Bermuda and Hispaniola, capturing several ships and a number of profitable cargoes. He then sailed around Cuba attacking local craft before reaching the north coast of Jamaica. There his luck ran out. While at anchor off the western tip of the island, he was surprised by a sloop belonging to the Governor. Most of Rackham's nine male crew were drunk, but according to testimonies the women roused the men into action. The William cut her anchor cable and fled, but was overhauled by the Jamaican sloop during the night. The ships exchanged fire, and then Captain Barnet led a boarding party onto the deck of the pirate vessel. Bonney and Reade were the only members of the crew who offered any kind of resistance. Rackham himself was apparently too drunk to defend himself. The women were overcome, and the pirates were taken to Port Royal to stand trial. He was tried on November 27th and hanged the next day.

Contemporay picture of John Rackham (left)
The flag he usually flew (right)

Mary Reade
July 1718 to November 1720. English. Ships: William.  Reade is one of the few women pirates in European history. With Anne Bonney she was captured in 1720, as John Rackham raided along Jamaica's northern coast. Early in November, a government ship seized Rackham's sloop which carried the two women and 9 men. Rackham and the other men were hanged. Because everyone knew they were women Bonney and Read were tried separately. Their victims testified that they wore female clothing except during battles. Both joined in assaults carrying guns. The witnesses added that "they were both very profligate, cursing and swearing much, and very ready and willing to do anything."

After they were convicted, the judge asked if there was any reason they should not be hanged as sentenced. "My Lord, we Plead our Bellies," Bonney and Read replied - the customary plea of pregnant women. Since hanging would also kill the unborn child (who had committed no crime), women were reprieved until they gave birth. Bonney and Reade were jailed, and Reade subsequently died in a Jamaican prison in 1721, but Bonney's fate is unknown.

In his General History, Daniel Defoe gives us biographies for both Reade and Bonney. Bonney wore male clothing for about a year, whilst Mary Reade had been a cross dresser since birth.

Mary's mother, who had a legitimate son, became pregnant after her husband died. She fled to the country, where the son died, and Mary was born. When the mother returned, she brought Mary up as the dead son to get money from her husband's parents.

Still pretending to be male, Mary joined first the navy, then the cavalry. (Defoe says she served in the Nine Years War - it is most likely that in this instance, he is confusing her with Kit Cavanagh, a woman who successfully joined the Scot's Greys during that war. It is quite possible, however that she could have served in the war of the Spanish succession.) She loved and married a fellow soldier (or sailor) and lived a few years as his wife. When he died, she put on male clothes again and went to the Caribbean. Her ship was captured by pirates in 1717, and she joined them.

Before long, Mary fell in love with a man forced to join the pirates. She let him know her secret "by carelessly shewing her breasts, which were very white." The man "being made of Flesh and Blood," wanted to go further but Mary resisted. Soon after he quarrelled with another pirate and was challenged to a duel. Mary deliberately picked a fight with the same man and ran him through with her cutlass.

Having thus proved her love, Mary and the forced man "plighted their troth to each other, which Mary Reade said she look'd upon to be as good as a marriage, in conscience, as if it had been done by a minister in Church."

Through these pirates she met Anne Bonney. Mary learned Anne's secret when Anne seduced her, thinking her a pretty fellow. In any event, the women became friends and she ended up as a pirate with John Rackham and Anne Bonney. It is not clear if her 'husband' had died, or Rackham persuaded her to leave him. Reports then say she became Rackham's lover.

On the north coast of Jamaica, their luck ran out. While at anchor off the western tip of the island, they were surprised by a sloop belonging to the Governor. Most of Rackham's nine male crew were drunk, but according to testimonies the women roused the men into action. The William cut her anchor cable and fled, but was overhauled by the Jamaican sloop during the night. The ships exchanged fire, and then Captain Barnet led a boarding party onto the deck of the pirate vessel. Bonney and Reade were the only members of the crew who offered any kind of resistance and Mary and Anne viciously condemned Rackham as a coward. Rackham himself was apparently too drunk to defend himself. The women were overcome, and the pirates were taken to Port Royal to stand trial.

Basil Ringrose
1679-86. English.

Manoel Rivero Pardal
1669-70. Portuguese.

Bartholomew Roberts ('Black Bart')
June 1719 to February 1722. English. Ships: Royal Fortune, Great Fortune, Fortune, Rover, Great Ranger, Ranger Born (as John Roberts) to a poor family in Pembroke County, Roberts rose to mate of a Barbados sloop by 1718. Turning pirate, he cruised from Brazil to Canada to Africa. Altogether, he captured some 400 vessels, including several substantial prizes. Almost alone amongst pirate captains, he rarely drank alcoholic beverages.

In June 1719, Roberts was the third mate of a ship captured of Ghana by Howell Davis as its crew brought slaves for the Royal Africa Company. Roberts joined Davis' crew and took the name "Bartholomew." Tall, dark and handsome, he was called "Black Barty" by his shipmates.

The Pirates proceeded south and careened their ship at Principle Island. Toward the end of July, they were ambushed by the Portuguese governor, and Davis was slain. Roberts was elected captain of the Rover and revenged Davis by bombarding the town and burning the fort.

Roberts plundered a Dutch vessel and burned an English slave ship before making for Brazil. In September he fell in with a convoy of 42 Portuguese traders escorted by two 70-gun warships. In a bold attack, he captured a larger and better-armed vessel with £30,000 in gold coins and other rich cargo. However, both the Rover and his prize were snatched by Walter Kennedy, left in command while Roberts was off in a captured sloop.

Roberts renamed the 10-gun sloop Fortune, looted four small vessels, and outsailed a British ship sent in pursuit. After selling his booty in New England, Roberts reached the New Foundland fishing banks in June 1720. Roberts' raiders spread terror along the coast, captured 26 sloops and 150 fishing boats, and wantonly destroyed sheds and machinery along the shore.

With the Fortune, Roberts seized an 18-gun galley and traded her for a 28-gun French ship, renaming each in turn the Royal Fortune. As he returned south with his two ships, Roberts pillaged at least a dozen English merchantmen. The raiders fell upon the London ship Samuel like a "parcel of furies," destroying her cargo and taking away £8,000 in booty. Many seamen from his prizes voluntarily enlisted, and the pirates recruited others by force. Roberts preferred English seamen, and some reports say he tortured and killed French captives.

After taking on food at Deseada and Saint Bartholomew in the Caribbean, Roberts made for Africa. Through bad navigation, the pirates sailed to the south of the Cape Verde Islands and could not go back against the trade winds. Forced to return to the Caribbean, they ran out of water and survived on one mouthful a day.

Reaching the West Indies in September 1720, Roberts attacked the harbour at Saint Kitts, seized and looted one ship, and set fire to two others. The Fortune returned the next day, but was driven off by cannon fire. With his usual bravado, Roberts sent an insulting letter to the English Governor.

 

Had you come off as you ought to a done, and drank a glass of wine with me and my company, I should not have harmed the least vessell in your harbour. Further, it is not your gunns you fired that affrighted me or hindered our coming on shore, but the wind…
After repairing his ships at Saint Bartholomew, Roberts returned to the attack in late October and plundered 15 French and English vessels. In January, he captured a 32-gun Dutch slaver and played a clever trick on the inhabitants of Martinique. The Dutch ship sailed past the harbours and signaled the Frenchmen to visit Saint Lucia, where Dutch smugglers sold slaves. The pirates seized and burned 14 French ships and tortured their crews. They severely whipped some victims and cut off their ears. Others they hung from the yard-arm and used for target practice.
Roberts looted another French vessel and then careened his ships at an Island of eastern Hispaniola. The Fortune was replaced by an 18-gun brigantine, renamed the Good Fortune. Soon after, his two ships captured a French man-of-war carrying the Governor of Martinique. Roberts hanged the governor and took over his 52-gun ship, the third to be named the Royal Fortune.

In April 1721, Roberts sailed to Africa to trade his plundered goods for gold. The Royal Fortune at this time had a crew of 228, including 48 blacks. The Good Fortune carried 100 white and 40 black seamen. To keep control of these large and often drunken crews. Roberts became increasingly autocratic. On the way to Africa, Thomas Anstis deserted with the Good Fortune, but Roberts had kept the best loot on board his own ship.

Roberts arrived at Africa in June, captured four prizes, and kept one, renamed the Ranger (later called the Little Ranger). After resting at the Sierra Leone River, the rovers headed for Liberia. There they captured the Royal Africa Company's Onslow (with £9,000 in cargo), which became the last Royal Fortune.

Roberts cruised southeast to Nigeria and Gabon and then went back to the Ivory Coast, taking at least six prizes along the way. On January 11, 1722, he reached Whydah (Ouidah, now in Benin) and captured 11 slave ships, each of which paid eight pounds of gold dust in ransom. When one Portuguese captain refused to pay, the pirates burned both his ship and it's cargo of 80 slaves. A 32-gun French warship was retained as the Great Ranger.

Rogers decided to return to Brazil to disband his crew. Meanwhile, two British men-of-war had been pursuing the pirates along the coast. On February 5, the Swallow, under Captain Challoner Ogle, caught up with Roberts' squadron near Cape Lopez in Gabon. Mistaking the warship for a Portuguese trader, the Great Ranger chased the Swallow and surrendered after a gun battle.

The Swallow returned to Cape Lopez on February 10 and found the Royal Fortune at anchor. The pirates had taken a prize the previous night, and most either helplessly drunk or hung over. Roberts dressed for battle in a crimson damask waistcoat and trousers, a hat with a red plume, and a gold chain and diamond cross.

Giving orders with his usual boldness, Roberts sent the Royal Fortune toward the Swallow to escape with the wind. Grapeshot from the Swallow's broadside brought instant death. Loyal to his last wish, the pirates threw Roberts' body overboard, rather than let it be hanged in chains from a gallows.

The Royal Fortune surrendered about three hours later. Captain Ogle's men found about 300 pounds of gold dust (worth about £14,000) in Roberts' three ships. The captain of Roberts' last prize had escaped after stealing other booty from the Little Ranger. Captain Ogle took his prisoners to Cape Coast in Ghana, where a Vice-Admiralty court was set up. Seventy black pirates were returned to slavery. Fifty-four crewmen were hanged, 37 received lesser sentences, and 74 were acquitted.

Roberts' boldness was his trademark. He led his crew into action wearing a number of pistols tucked into a silk bandolier and carrying a sharp cutlass. He attacked ships of all nations, but particularly singled out France and its colonies. A tall, handsome man who loved fine clothes he was also a gifted leader of men, and held his crews together by the use of prize money, codes of conduct and above all, constant success.
Contemporary pictures of Bartholomew Roberts (left)
The flags flown by Bartholomew Roberts (right)


Woodes Rogers
1705-1732. English. Ships: Duke, Duchess, Marquis, Batchelor. Woodes Rogers started his career as a privateer for the English Crown. After a highly profitable raid on South America's Pacific coast, Rogers suppressed the Pirate haven in the Bahama Islands. His father, a prosperous sea captain, moved from Poole to Bristol in about 1697. In 1705, Rogers married the daughter of a Naval Commander in the West Indies. He took over his father's business interest and sent out privateers to raid French shipping during the War of the Spanish Succession.

To encourage private looting of enemy commerce, the English government in 1708 gave up its 20% share in their booty. Rogers proposed an expedition to plunder South America and to capture the Manila Galleon. Basil Ringrose and William Dampier had recounted Buccaneer attacks along the same coast. Rogers avoided the failures they described by careful planning and tight discipline.

Wealthy merchants in Bristol generously provisioned two three hundred ton frigates, and the three hundred and thirty-three English and Dutch crewmen received wages as well as shares in the booty. Rogers commanded the Duke, with Thomas Dover as second captain. Steven Courtney and Edward Cook took charges of the slightly smaller Duchess. William Dampier was pilot and navigator and a council of Officers decided major issues.

Despite his relative inexperience Rogers proved and superb commander. Both brave and physically tough, he won the support of his Officers through honesty and diplomacy. The crew got decent food, medical care, and daily prayers. They also received a generous alcohol ration since Rogers knew that "Good liquor to sailors is preferable to clothing." But discipline was strict and maintained with a cat-o-nine tails. A mutiny early in the voyage - Rogers refused to raid a neutral vessel - was firmly suppressed and gambling was forbidden.

The two ships left Ireland in September 1708, took a Spanish prize in the Canaries, and entered the Pacific around Cape Horn. In February 1709, they rendezvoused at the Juan Fernandez Islands and rescued Alexander Selkirk, the real life Robinson Crusoe. To maintain secrecy, Rogers avoided ports in Chile and Peru. He captured several Spanish and French prizes, keeping the largest as the Marquis. Guayaquil, Equador, was taken by surprise in May. Atrocities were avoided as Rogers' men pillaged the town and collected about 27,000 pesos in ransom.

Rogers learned that Panama was prepared for invasion. With stops at the Galapagos and Gorgona Islands he made for Lower California to await the Manila Galleon. His three ships and a captured bark rendezvoused in October and spent 7 weeks cruising off St. Lucas. Rather than run out of food he reluctantly decided to leave for Asia. The next day, the lookout sighted Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación Disengaño, the smaller of two ships sent from manila that year.

On the 1st of January 1710 the Duke captured the Disengaño in a running gun fight. During the battle, a Musket ball pierced Rogers left cheek and smashed out much of his upper jaw and many teeth. The Disengaño carried valuable Chinese goods and news that the even richer Nuestra Señora de Begoña was not far behind.

The Duchess and the Marquis sighted the Begoña on January 4th and the battle continued for three days. Despite his wound Rogers and the Duke joined the fight on January 6th. But the 900 ton Begoña carried guns throwing twelve pound shot, twice the size of the largest English shells. Rogers estimates that at least 500 shots struck her strong hull without piercing it.

The Begoña's passengers and 450 crewmen resisted fiercely. Rogers writes that "150 of the men on board this great ship were Europeans, several of whom had been formerly Pirates, and having now got all their wealth on board, were resolved to defend it to the last"

The Begoña's defenders dropped firebombs onto the lower English vessels. One exploded some ammunition on the Duke. A splinter entered Rogers' left foot "part of my heel bone being cut out and all under my ankle cut above half thro'."

Rogers broke off the attack on the Begoña before his ships were destroyed. The Disengaño, renamed The Bachelor, was added to his squadron. Sailing in January 1710, Rogers returned to England in October 1711 via Guam, Java, and the Cape of Good Hope. The ships and booty, were sold in 1713 for nearly £150,000. Of the owners two thirds half went on expenses (bribes), but the net profit was nearly 100%. Ordinary seamen got their wages, whatever plunder they had picked up, and about £200 each in booty. As captain Rogers received more than £1,600 but went bankrupt before the money was distributed.

Rogers published A Cruising Voyage Round the World in 1712. Although based on his journal the book was edited by a professional author and perhaps by Daniel Defoe. It was widely successful and served as a guidebook for later expeditions.

From late 1713 to mid 1715 Rogers commanded a ship carrying slaves from Africa to Sumatra on his return he unsuccessfully recommended the creation of a law abiding colony at Madagascar. He had more success with a similar plan for a pirate base in the Bahamas.

Late in 1717 the Lords-Proprietors of the Bahamas leased their property rights to Rogers for 21 years. Rogers was named the first Royal Governor and empowered to pardon Pirates surrendering before September 1718. However he did not receive a salary, and he and other private investors paid for the troops and settlers sent to the Islands. Rogers arrived at New Providence Island in July 1718 accompanied by a Royal frigate and two sloops. Under the warship's guns only Charles Vane put up any resistance. Some pirates left for other ports. Several hundred accepted the Royal pardon and were given jobs building a fort and clearing roads. However, as Daniel Defoe put it "It did not much suit the inclination of pirates to be set to work." Many sneaked away and resumed their former trade. When John Augur was sent for provisions he instead pillaged two vessels and marooned their crews.

Since the three Royal warships had left two other ex-pirates, Benjamin Hornigold and a Captain Cockram, were sent in pursuit. Although he had no authority to do so, Rogers convicted Augur and eight others on December 16th and hanged them the next day. Early in 1719 Rogers flogged three islanders who were plotting to murder him.

After this rigorous and speedy justice pirates avoided New Providence, but Rogers faced other threats. England went to war with Spain in December 1718, and a strong Spanish force attacked in 1720. The presence of English ships prevented a frontal attack, and the Musket volleys of the former pirates repelled a landing east of Nassau.

English officials ignored the Bahamas and Rogers returned in 1721 and asked for aid. In October 1728 he was granted a salary. He died at Nassau in 1732.

 

Jean Rose
1680-85. French.

George Rounsivil
1708-18. English.

William Rous
1631-43. English.

Dierick Ruyters
1618-30. Dutch.

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Captain Sales
1697. French.

Thomas Salter
1669. English.

Richard Sawkins
1679-80. English.

Pieter Schouten
1624-25. Dutch.

Bartholomew Sharp
1680-88. English.

James Skyrme
1720-22. English.

Bernard Claesen Speirdyke
1663-70. Dutch. Nicknamed both Captain Bart and Captain Barnard by his English Comrades, Speirdyke sailed from Port Royal in 1663. He cruised along Venezeula, plundered the town of San Tomas, and returned the following March. Early in 1670, he visited Manzanillo, Cuba, to release some Spanish prisoners and present a letter of peace from the governor of Jamaica. While there he smuggled European luxury goods into the town. As his ship was leaving his ship was attacked by the Spanish corsair Manoel Rivero Pardal. Even though he had only 18 men to Rivero's 70, Speirdyke put up a sharp fight and was killed during the battle.

Francis Spriggs
1721-25. English.

Captain Stedman
1666. English.

Charles Swan
1671-87. English.

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John Taylor
1719-1721. English.  Ship: Victory
Taylor was with Edward England when England captured a 30 gun sloop off Africa in 1719. Taylor was given command of the ship which he named "Victory". Together they captured the ship "Cassandra, an East Indiaman ship. England showed mercy toward the captain of the captured ship and was deposed as captain and put ashore. Taylor was now in charge of England's crew. Taylor hunted in the Indian Ocean where he took several small European and Indian ships. He also chased away a British naval squadron ( Taylor thought the fleet was Conajee Angria's pirate fleet). Taylor next went to Cochin, a Dutch port, where he sought to reprovision his ships. Taylor was forced to pay heavy bribes at the port.

Taylor careened his ships at Mauritius and Saint Mary's Island. It was during this time that he was joined by Olivier La Bouche who assumed command of the "Victory". They went to Réunion Island in April, 1721 where they captured the Portuguese carrack "Nostra Senhora de Cabo". On board the prize was the ex-viceroy of Goa whom had in his possession diamonds valued at £500,000 as well as £375,000 worth of Oriental rareties.

The men then went to Madagascar where they divvied up their loot. Here the "Victory" was burned and replaced with the "Nostra Senhora de Cabo" which was renamed the "Victory". Taylor and La Bouche parted company in December, 1722. Taylor took the "Cassandra" and sailed to Panama, arriving in May of 1723. At Panama, the governor of Portobello pardoned Taylor and his crew in exchange for the "Cassandra". Taylor may have gone on to become a captain in the Panamanian coast guard.

Edward Teach ('Blackbeard')
September 1717 to November 1718. English. Ships: Queen Anne's Revenge, Revenge.  AKA.: Blackbeard, Thatch, Edmund Drummond. Blackbeard, as Teach is most widely known as, is the classic example of what most envision as a pirate. Defoe wrote about Teach, exaggerating his character into an irrational creature who performed the most heinous acts against mankind. These acts had him shooting crewmen every now and then to remind the crew who was boss, locking himself and his first mate in a hold with fiery brimstone while Teach ranted like the possessed, having more than 14 wives, twisting saltpeter wicks into his beard and lighting them before battle giving himself an aura of demonic possession, and in general painting a picture of him as being superhuman and totally corrupt. Latter authors have embellished upon Defoe's creation to the point where "Blackbeard" is synonymous with the devil incarnate. Nothing could be further from the truth.

Edward Teach was born in Bristol, England. He served the crown on Jamaican ships raiding the French and Spanish ships during the War of Spanish Succession (1702- 1713 ). He enlisted with Benjamin Hornigold in 1716 at New Providence Island. On one excursion, Teach was given command of a captured sloop. Hornigold and Teach plundered several ships off the American coast and in the Caribbean in 1717. Toward the end of the year, they seized a large well built ship that had been trading between Africa and Martinique. After dividing their plunder, Hornigold and Teach went their own ways. Teach keeping the prize and renaming her "Queen Anne's Revenge". Teach armed her with 40 cannon. Teach captured and burned a large British merchantman near Saint Vincent. According to Defoe, he also fought off the warship "Scarborough". The log of the aforementioned ship has no mention of any encounter with pirates. Teach took several sloops off Crab Island and Saint Kitts with a crew of 300.

Teach was very charismatic, a natural born leader. His crew was highly disciplined and Teach was shown the utmost respect as were his officers. He was a skilled navigator, literate, and physically impressive.

January 1718, Teach arrived at Bath, North Carolina. Teach was given a pardon by Governor Charles Eden after he swore an oath to give up piracy. At Bath Teach found a new window of opportunity. He sold pirate loot, finding that the locals would pay a higher price for the goods than the fences he was accustomed to using. Teach sailed for the Bay of Honduras in March, 1718. He met Stede Bonnet along the way. Teach took Bonnet's ship the "Revenge" and made Bonnet his guest against Bonnet's will. A member of Teach's crew by the name of Richards was given command of Bonnet's ship. Not long after Bonnet's impressment, Teach captured the sloop "Adventure" putting Israel Hands in charge of the "Adventure". Captain David Herriot had been in charge of the "Adventure" and decided to join Teach's crew after losing his ship. Teach would soon add another sloop, the name not known. This brought Teach's fleet to 4 sloops. With his fleet he looted several ships in the Bay of Honduras. Teach then struck north where he would take several more prizes.

Teach blockaded Charleston, South Carolina and plundered around 9 ships in May, 1718. One of the prizes carried several high-ranking citizens of Charleston as well as £ 1,500 in coinage. Teach informed the governor that ransom was demanded for the prisoners. He demanded a medicine chest and certain drugs (Venereal disease was a common affliction among pirates) worth less than £ 400. Teach's demands were met and all prisoners released unharmed.

Teach next made his way to North Carolina going by way of the Topsail Inlet ( Beaufort Inlet ). Teach ran his ships "Adventure" and "Queen Anne's Revenge" aground striking a sandbar. It is speculated that Teach ran his ships aground to avoid splitting their booty. Some of the crew were upset at Teach's tactics and voiced their opinion. The riotous men were marooned on the sandbar. Teach gave the ship "Revenge" back to Bonnet. Teach took about 40 men and the loot and made off in the fourth unnamed sloop.

Teach arrived at Bath where he was welcomed as an important member of the community. Teach received a second pardon from Governor Eden. The sloop which he had stolen from British merchants was certified to Teach by the Vice-Admiralty court. At Bath, Teach purchased a house across from the governor's house and anchored his ship at Ocracoke Island. Teach married the 16 year old daughter of a wealthy plantation owner. At the celebration Teach was wined and dined by the local gentry. Teach would show his appreciation by lavishly entertaining them in return. Teach would stay at Bath for several months.

Teach went to Philadelphia where a warrant was issued for his arrest. He left Philadelphia, sailing for Bermuda where he seized 2 French ships. One of the ships was loaded with coca and sugar, the other ship empty. Teach released the French crew giving them the empty ship. Teach took his prize to Bath, arriving there in September. At Bath, Governor Eden and Tobias Knight, the colony's chief justice declared the French ship a derelict. Teach was allowed to keep the cargo after burning the ship. For their fee, Governor Eden received 60 barrels of sugar, Tobias Knight received 20. In October 1718, Teach was visited at Ocracoke by Charles Vane. The two enjoyed a drunken feast.

The governor of Virginia, Alexander Spotswood had become wary of the pirates settled to his south. During the trial of William Howard (Teach's former quartermaster), Howard testified to Teach's crimes. Governor Spotswood coveting Teach's supposed riches seized the opportunity to dispatch 2 sloops to attack Ocracoke. He further sent forces overland to attack in tandem with the two sloops commanded by Robert Maynard.

December 2, 1718, Maynard arrived at Ocracoke with about 60 men. They attacked Teach's force of about 20 the following morning. Maynard's force tried to board Teach's vessel as they had no cannon. According to Defoe, Teach raised a glass and toasted Maynard with the oath:

 "Damnation seize my soul if I give you quarters, or take any from you."

 Maynard trying to close ran both his ships aground on a sandbar. Teach fired a broadside, disabling one of Maynard's sloops and killing about 20 of Maynard's men. Maynard tried to close after hiding his men below deck. Teach's men threw grenades when Maynard's ship closed, but they were ineffective as only Maynard's pilot and helmsman were on deck. Teach grappled and boarded with about 12 others. Maynard's force swarmed on deck and commenced to fight hand to hand. Teach and Maynard met in personal combat. Teach was shot by Maynard but the ball had no visible effect. Maynard's cutlass stopping a powerful blow from Teach snapped at the hilt. When Teach moved in to finish Maynard a British seaman attacked him from behind wounding Teach in the throat and neck. Teach continued to swing his cutlass as blood was spurting from his neck. Teach was encircled by Maynard's men. Teach received five pistol shots and 20 severe sword wounds before finally succumbing. Maynard decapited Teach displaying his head on the prow of his ship. Spotswood's dreams of riches was unfulfilled as only about £ 2,238 of booty was collected from Teach's haven.

Many have sought in vain for supposed buried treasure only to find nothing. It is doubtful that Blackbeard ever had any treasure to bury as he never took a prize of much value and that which he took was more than likely spent on his lavish lifestyle.

 

Contemporary pictures of Blackbeard (left)
The flag flown by Blackbeard (right)

Thomas Tew
1692 to 1695. English. Ships: Liberty, Amity


The flag flown by Thomas Tew

Captain Tristian
1681-82. French.

Charles Vane
July 1718 to November 1720. English. Ships: Ranger Charles Vane was raiding Spanish wrecks with Henry Jennings in 1716. Vane was next mentioned at New Providence Island in 1718. Woodes Rogers had arrived at New Providence Island in August, offering a pardon to all, but Vane having just taken a French merchantman the night before did'nt accept the pardon as he was'nt wanting to lose his plunder. Vane set his prize on fire and sent it toward Rogers' fleet. When Rogers' ships pulled back to escape the inferno, Vane escaped, sailing away in a brigantine with most of his booty.
Vane next seized a sloop and gave its command to Captain Yeats. The two plundered 4 ships near South Carolina. Yeats and Vane argued and Yeats deserted Vane. Vane pursued Yeats and encountered two more ships which he captured. In September two sloops which had been sent after Stede Bonnet turned their eyes toward capturing Vane as well. Vane escaped to Green Turtle Cay near Abaco, arriving in late September. According to some, Vane stopped to visit Edward Teach (Blackbeard) at Ocracoke, North Carolina during his journey to Green Turtle Cay. Vane next plundered 2 ships near Long Island, New York around November. In early 1719, Vane seized the British ship the "Kingston" between Haiti and Cuba. Vane turned control of the ship over to John Rackham. Vane and Rackham argued over the spoils and parted company. Vane took several more ships before sailing to the Bay of Honduras. Vane was caught in a storm and wrecked his ship on a small island. Vane was recognized by a captain stopping at the island to reprovision his ship. Vane was taken to Jamaica, turned over to the authorities, and hanged in November.


Contemporary picture of Charles Vane

Nicholas van Horn
1681-83. Dutch.

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Lionel Wafer
1680-1705. English.

John Walden
1720-23.  English.  Ships: Royal Fortune.   Walden was among the crew of a fishing vessel plundered by Bartholomew Roberts during the summer of 1720. An expert seaman, a reckless fighter and a good looking man, he became Robert's confidant and bedfellow. Behind his back the crew called him "Miss Nanny", which was 18th century slang for a passive homosexual.
After they were arrested, many pirates blamed Walden for burning alive 80 black slaves. In January 1722, Roberts captured 11 ships loading slaves at Whydah (Oidah) in Western Africa. A Portuguese captain refused to ransom his vessel, and Roberts sent boats to carry the slaves to his own ships. Deciding that unshackling was taking too long, Walden and others burned the Poortuguese ship whilst many were still in chains.
Walden's leg was struck off as the pirates battled the British Warship Swallow in February 1723. He was tried and hanged at Cape Coast, Ghana.

John Watling
1680-81. English.

Sir Thomas Whetstone
1661-67. English.

Moise van Wijn (Klijn)
1668. Dutch.

Maurice Williams
1664-66. English.

Paul Williams
1716-17. English. Williams was made captain of a captured sloop by Samuel Bellamy. Williams and Bellamy captured the "Whydah" in March, 1717. In a storm, Bellamy wrecked the "Whydah" and Williams lost contact with Bellamy. Williams returned to the wreckage of the ship several days later, as well as a month later, possibly salvaging some of the wreckage. During his second return trip to the site, Williams plundered two ships. June 6th, 1717, Williams went to Cape Cod where he disappeared from record.

Christopher Winter
1716-17. English. When Woodes Rogers suppressed the pirates at New Providence Island, Winter surrendered. Winter was a minor footnote in pirate annals as he seems to have disappeared after his surrender in 1717. He next resurfaced in 1722 where he was a captain of the Cuban coast guard. He was accused of robbing English ships and stealing slaves.

Captain Worley
1718.   English.   Worley left New York in about October 1718 in a small boat with a crew of eight.   The daring band plundered shipping on the Delaware River, took over a sloop, and captured several more vessels.
Worley was off Charleston, South Carolina, in November.   Because of recent raids by Edward Teach and Stede Bonnet, his presence alarmed the city.   The governor personally commanded four ships that captured Worley's sloop and one of his prizes.   Worley and most of his crew died in the battle, and 25 others were hanged in Charleston.


The flag flown by Worley

Captain Wright
1675-82. English.

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Captain Yanky
1681-87. Dutch.

Captain Yeats
1718. English. In 1718, Yeats together with Charles Vane sailed from the Bahamas. They plundered 4 ships near Charleston, South Carolina. Yeats and Vane argued and Yeats deserted Vane. According to Daniel Defoe in his "General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates", Yeats surrendered at Charleston. South Carolina records don't show this.

Copyright © David Stapleton, The Pirates Hold
With permission and many thanks indeed!