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Cheese French
FRANCE
Is the second largest producer of cheeses with about half as much production as the U.S. And well over 400 types being made, many of worl wide reputation

Abondance
Firm smooth pressed farmhouse cheese made in Savoie from partly skimmed milk of the Abondance breed of cattle. It has a dry, gray rind and a mild, fruity flavor and is ripened for up to three months. Also called Tomme d'Abondance

Aisy Cendre
Strong-smelling, tangy, washed-rind cheese from Montbard in Burgundy. Ripened for two months and stored in the ashes of grape vine stems. Named after a village in Epoisses.


Amou
Pressed uncooked farmhouse cheese made in Gascony . It has a thin, oiled, golden rind and a smooth firm body with a mild, tart flavor. Ripened for a minimum of two months, and up to six months. The older, harder cheeses are grated and used in regional dishes.


Ardi-Gasna
Made on mountain farms in the Basque country. A firm, smooth, pressed cheese with full mellow flavor. Best eaten after three months.

Asco
Small round Corsican cheese made from sheep's milk or a mixture of sheep's and goats' milk. Eaten from early spring to late autumn.


Autun
Burgundian soft cheese made entirely from goats' milk or from a mixture of goats' and cows'. The fat content varies with the type of milk used, but should be at least 35 per cent.

Baguette
A modern cheese with a rich creamy yellow body, a soft brown washed rind. Factory-made and ripened in humid conditions for three or four months. Best from summer to the end of the year. Usually sold boxed. A smaller milder version is known as Demi-Baguette. Also called Baguette Laonnaise, Baguette de Thierache.

Banon
Rrom Provence. The original version is made either from goats' or sheep's milk, depending on the time of year. The factory type is usually a cows' milk cheese with a mild, slightly sour flavor. Recognizable by its chestnut leaf wrapping and raffia ties. The leaves are previously soaked in eau-de-vie and the bundless are left to ferment in earthenware jars for two weeks to two months. RANCE

Barberey
Old fashioned cheese with a rather mellow flavor ripened in wood ash, made from partly skimmed milk in small dairies around Troyes. Also called Fromage de Troyes,

Beaufort
A hard-pressed cooked cheese, molded into huge yellow wheels and ripened for about six months in cool caves. It has been made in the high mountains of Beaufort in Savoie for centuries and probably dates back to Roman times. Ffruity aroma, rich flavor and a smooth, creamy, buttery body with very few, if any, holes or cracks. Protected by an appellation d' on'gine. See Gruyere


Beaumont
Mild, creamy, factory-made cheese with a smooth, pliant, pinkish-brown rind, similar in many ways to Reblochon. Invented in 188I in Beaumont, Haute-Savoie.

Belle Bressane
Modern, soft, blue-veined cheese shaped like a ring and made from pasteurized milk. Fairly mild, rich and creamy.

Belval
Mild, white, pressed cheese with a shiny golden rind made at the Abbey of Belval in Picardy. Also known as Abbaye de Belval, Trappiste de Belval.

Bergues
Made in Flanders, near Dunkirk, from skimmed or partly skimmed milk. A tangy, strong-smelling cheese that is washed with beer and brine during its three-week ripening period. Once common, it is now increasingly rare. Sometimes aged up to two months, and used for grating.

Bethmale
Firm, spicy cheese made in the foothills of the Pyrenees in summer and in lowland villages around Foix in winter. Aged for about three months, Sometimes sheep's milk may be used, alone or mixed with cows'.

Bethune
Known affectionately as 'old stinker' (vieux puant), Flavored with pepper and herbs and sealed in jars for several months to ferment.



Bibbelskase
Mild, fresh cows' milk cheese from Alsace, flavored with horseradish and herbs.

Billy
Small goats' milk cheese made near Selles-sur-Cher. Wrapped in leaves to ripen and packed in stoneware crocks.

Bleu
Generic term for blue-veined cows' milk cheese. TheJuras and the Massif Central are the best areas for blue cheeses. Bleu can also describe a cheese with a blue-tinged natural rind such as Olivet Bleu

Bleu d'Auvergne
From the Massif Central, It is a lightly pungent creamy cheese with a very pale
body and dark blue veining throughout the
body of the cheese. The mold, Penicillium glaucum, is added
either at the rennetlng stage or sprinkled onto the molded curds. The cheese is ripened in cool cellars for period of two months, when it is turned and pierced with steel needles to distribute the mold. Then it is
wrapped in foil to mature slowly for another month or so. Iit is a legally protected cheese.

Bleu de Bresse
Mildly spicy blue-veined cheese . It is a variation on Saingorlon an imitation of Gorgonzola which was restricted from import during WWII. Bleu de Bresse, invented in 1950 is a smaller, more easily marketable version of the same cheese. . A factory-made product using pasteurized milk.


Bleu des Causses
Similar to Bleu d'Auvergne . From Rouergue in the midst of limestone country known as Les Causses which provides the natural caves used for ripening the cheeses. The name is legally protected.

Bleu de Corse
Most of the sheep's' milk cheese made in Corsica is sent 'white' to the Roquefort caves to be blued. Bleu de Corse is the name for cheese that is ripened in Corsica itself. Since most people prefer Roquefort this cheese is fast dying out.


Bleu deGex
A naturally blued cheese from Franche Comte, . The rind is dry and with yellowish or reddish tinges. The body is smooth white, marbled with deep blue. Lightly pressed, it has a full flavor with a mildly sharp bite. The best is made in Saint Germain-de-Joux in summer and autumn.

Bleu du Haut-Jura
The legal term for the much sought-after Bleu de Gex and Bleu de Septmoncel. Protected by an appellation d'origine.

Bleu de Laqueuille
A lightly sharp blue from the Auvergne, Factory-made and milder than Bleu d'Auvergne, it is ripened for about three months at relatively high temperatures.

Bleu du Quercy
From Aquitaine, a blue cheese similar to Bleu d'Auvergne.

Bleu de Sassenage
Lightly pressed blue cheese similar to Bleu de Gex made in the area of Villard-de-Lans and Vallonnais in the province of Dauphinfi. Uses partly skimmed milk and is ripened for about three months.


Bleu de Septmoncel
Has a slightly smoother rind but otherwise virtually identical to Bleu de Gex.


Bleu de Thiezac
A variation of Bleu d'Auvergne produced exclusively on mountain farms and much prized, especially from Thiezac itself,

Bonbel
Brand name for a factory-made Saint-Paulin. Baby Bel is a small Edam from the same company, Bel.


Bondaroy au Foin
Small soft tangy cheese with a smooth, grayish rind covered with pieces of straw. Ripened in hay for about five weeks, hence the name (loin, hay). Also called Pithiviers au Foin.


Bondon
Is a fresh or barely ripened soft cheese, with a thin white rind and comes from the Pays de Bray in Normandy.


Bossons Maceres
An overwhelming cheese from Provence made by steeping small goats' milk cheeses in a mixture of olive oil, herbs and white wine or eau-de-vie in a jar for several months.

Bougon
Factory-made Poitevin cheese with a pale, creamy body and white rind . Pleasantly mild flavor.

Bouille, La
Double-cream cheese from Normandy. Ripened for two to three months. Covered with a thin delicate white mold tinged with pink. Fairly strong fruity smell.

Boulette d'Avesnes
There are two versions of this cheese. The original farmhouse type is made by heating buttermilk and draining and seasoning the resultant solids with herbs and spices. This mixture is then kneaded to a smooth paste, molded into small cones and ripened for at least three months in a humid environment, while being regularly washed, with beer. The commercial type is ripened in the same way but uses unripened Maroilles curds rather than buttermilk solids as a base. Both cheeses are very tangy and strong-smelling with bright red rinds;an artificial tint from the factory but a natural flora from the farm. From Flanders.

Boulette de Cambrai
Fresh hand-molded cheese, entirely farmhouse-made, using skimmed or whole milk curds flavored with salt, pepper, parsley, tarragon and sometimes chives. From Flanders.

Boursault
Small factory-made, triple-cream cheese, using pasteurized milk. Very rich and creamy with a soft rind tinged with pink. Mildly aromatic and a mellow nutty flavor. Avoid it if at all red or runny.

Boursin
Small, factory-made, triple-cream cheese using pasteurized milk. Available plain or flavored with garlic and herbs, or crushed peppercorns. Should be eaten fresh.

Bouton-de- Culotte
Literally 'trouser button'. A goats' milk cheese from Burgundy, dried and stored for winter use. Extra sharp with a dark grayish-brown rind, often grated or used in Fromage Fort. Also called Chevreton de Macon.


Bricquebec
Saint-Paulin type made in Normandy at the abbey of the same
name and sold under the brand name Providence.


Brie
The term Brie covers a small family of cheeses, all of which at one time carried the name of the particular place where they were made. All are soft, unpressed, cows' milk cheeses with white rind flora, molded into large flat disks and ripened for three to four weeks. Brie is made all over France and in many other countries as well. There are numerous modern variations on the traditional cheese, such as herb- and pepper-flavored Bries and versions with blue and/or white internal molds.
All Bries should be full-flavored, fruity and mildly tangy. Ideally, the body is rich,shiny and straw-colored. It should be plump and not runny. Avoid cheeses with a hard, chalky center and any that are liquefying. The rind should be firm but tender, not hard or sticky. The smell should be clean and moldy. Cheeses that smell of ammonia are dangerously overripe and should not be eaten. Always buy Brie cut from a whole cheese.



Brie Laitier
The commercial version of Brie made from pasteurized milk, both throughout France and in other Often sold pre-packed in wedge-shaped boxes. See Brie

Brie de Meaux
Brieferruler made in the Ile de France from unpasteurized milk.
The rind is darker with more red-brown coloration than is
acceptable in Brie Laitier. Very fruity. Ripened for five to six
weeks. Protected by an appellation d'origine. See Brie


Brie de Melun Affine
The original Brie made in the Ile de France from unpasteurized milk.
Very dark rind with traces of white. Fairly firm, golden body
strong smelling and tangy, ripened for about seven weeks. The
mold, Penicillium candidurn, develops naturally on the surface.
The strongest of the Bries, it is the original from which all the
others have descended. Protected by an appellation d'origine.


Brie de Melun Frais
Brie de Melun eaten unripened, sometimes available bleu, which means that it is coated with powdered charcoal.

Brie de Montereau
Made in the Ile de France from unpasteurized milk.
A variety of Brie de Melun Aflin6 but smaller in size and ripened
for six weeks. Also called Ville-Saint-Jacques.

Brillat-Savarin
Soft, triple-cream cheese made in Forges-les-Eaux, Normandy. Mild with a rich buttery paste and a light bloomy rind.

Brin d'Amour
Firm, aromatic, dry cheese from Corsica. Ripened for three
monthsnestled in herbs. The rind is gray and covered with
sprigs of rosemary and savory.


Brisegofit
Whey cheese made in Savoie as a by-product of the making of
Beaufort. It is eaten either fresh or ripened when it becomes
hard and extremely sharp. Also called Brisco, Brisego.

Broccio, Brocciu
Fresh Corsican cheese once made from the whey by-product of Sartenals but which now increasingly uses a proportion of whole or skimmed milk. Made from ewes' milk (or occasionally goats') it looks and tastes very much like Italian Ricotta. It can also be dried and ripened for several months, when it becomes sharp and tangy. Also called Bruccio, Brucciu.

Brousse du Rove
Fresh cheese made mostly on farms in Provence. Snowy white, very mild and creamy. Drained and usually sold in wicker baskets.


Cabecou
Several tiny, flat, goats' milk cheeses made in Aquitaine. (Small chevres)They are ripened for about a month and range from semi-soft to firm. The flavor is generally fairly pronounced. Occasionally made withsheeps milk, or a mixture of cows' and goats' milk.

Cachat
Fresh, white cheese from Provence made from the milk of sheep Goats' milk may occasionally be used instead of sheep's. Very sweet and delicate when fresh but sometimes used when ripe and sharp.


Camargue
Ewes' milk cheese made in the Camargue in springtime.
Flavored with thyme and bay and eaten fresh.


Camembert
Penicillium candidurn, is the snowy white mold which is sprinkled or sprayed on the surfaces of the cheeses. Like Brie Camembert is now made in enormous quantities in virtually every country in Europe and in the United States.. The rind should be smooth and supple, the creamy white mold flecked with red, not cracked, crumpled or sticky. The paste should be plump and pale straw in color with no chalky or grayish patches. It should not be runny or sunken in the middle. The smell should be clean and lightly fruity with no trace of ammonia. Discard any that smell of ammonia as they are dangerously over-ripe.


Cantal
Has been made since the time of Christ in the Auvergne from the milk of cows and protected by an appellation d'origine Good Cantal is rarely found outside France. Often thought of as the French Cheddar, is has a smooth, close-textured, yellow body with a pleasant rather nutty flavor. The rind is dry, gray and powdery. It is a pressed uncooked cheese, ripened between, three and six months. . Cantal is used a great deal in regional dishes. Also called Salers, Fourme de Cantal, Fourme de Salers.


Caprice des Dieux
Factory-made, oval, double-cream cheese with white rind flora and a mild flavor. Sold boxed.


Carre de Bray
From the Pays de Bray, Normandy, a small, Neufchhtel-type
cheese made in small dairies in spring and summer.

Carre de l'Est
Camembert type from Champagne and Lorraine: Mostly factory-made from pasteurized milk. Mild but slightly salty.


Cendre
Generic term for small soft cheeses ripened in wood ash for about two months. They are often strong and pungent. Beech, poplar, vine stems and various hardwoodsr provide the ashes. Shaped into small disks, cones or pyramids with grayish rinds.


Chabichou
An ancient Poitevin cheese shaped like a small flattened cone or cylinder and said to be " goaty" in flavor and aroma. Chabichou Laitier, made in small dairies, has a white rind, ripened for between two and three weeks.

Chambarand
Made in the Abbaye de Chambarand in Dauphine, a mild cheese with a creamy yellow body and smooth yellow rind. Also called Trappiste de Chambarand.


Chaource
White smooth textured cheese with a dry consistency. It has a thin covering of white rind covered with a paper wrapping. Named after a small village near Troyes, it has a pleasantly fruity milk flavor. Made from whole unpasteurized milk. Protected by an appellation d' origine.

Charolais, Charolles
Soft cheese made from goats' milk or a mixture of cows' and goats' milk near Charolles, Burgundy. Eaten fresh or ripened for a couple of weeks, when the rind becomes tough and gray-blue in color and the flavor more pronounced

Chaumes
With a rich pale yellow creamy body and a tough yellow brown rind. Made from pasteurized milk, it has an elastic consistency and a , nutty flavor. Avoid hardening beneath the rind and avoid any cheese which looks muddy.

Chaumon
Small farm-made washed-rind cheese from Champagne. Russet-colored and shaped like a cone, it has a pungent flavor but might be slightly bitter. Ripened for two months.

Chevre
The generic term for goats' milk cheeses, with multiple local types and variations.


Ghevret
Soft goats' milk cheese from Bugey in Franche Comte.

Chevreton
The generic term for chevre or mi-chevre cheeses composed of at least 25% goats milk from Burgundy
and the Auvergne.

Ghevreton de Mb~con see Bouton-de-Culotte

Chevrette
Fresh double-cream cheese flavored with garlic and herbs.

Chevrette des Beauges
Pressed, uncooked cheese from Savoie. Smooth, medium-flavored with a pale, thin, shiny rind.

Chevrotln des Aravis
A mild-flavored pressed cheese with a firm gray-brown rind made in Haute-Savoie.

Chevrotin du Bourbonnais
Small flattened cone with a thin, dryish, natural crust. Eaten fresh or ripened for a couple of weeks. Mild to fairly strong depending on age.

Chevru
Surface-ripened cheese similar to Coulommiers and made in the lie-de-France.

Citeaux
Pressed, washed-rind cheese made in the monastery Citeaux in Burgundy. Made from unpasteurized milk, it has a clean, tart flavor. speckled with holes. Avoid any that are too aromatic.

Claquebitou
Burgundian fresh goat cheese flavored with herbs and garlic.

Coeur d'Arras
Heart-shaped, soft, washed-rind, cows' milk cheese with a fairly
strong flavor


Coeur de Bray
A kind of heart-shaped Neufchatel. Fruity with a little tang. From the Pays de Bray in Normandy.

Goeurmandie
Factory-made heart-shaped soft cheese with white rind .


Comte
A French Gruyere type, a hard-pressed cooked cheese with a smooth golden body lightly speckled with medium-sized round holes. Comte can be judged by the size, shape and condition of these 'eyes'. They should not be too numerous . They should be perfectly round, no bigger than the size of a small marble and just moist .. Comte has a dark, tough, brushed rind and is stronger than Emmental with a rich fruitier flavor. Usually sold in France as Gruyere de Comte Protected by an appellation d'origine.

Couhe Verac
Farm-made around Couhd-Vdrac in Poitou. Sharp and "aromatic", it is ripened for three to four weeks. Wrapped in chestnut or plane-tree leaves. Occasionally a flat disk shape.

Coulommiers
Sometimes called Petit Brie or Brie de Coulommiers and made, mostly in factories. Small in size and eaten young after ripening for a month, as the surface mold is beginning to appear .The flavor is quite mild, allowed to ripen furtherresembles Camembert.

Cremet
Unsalted fresh cows' milk cheese eaten with sugar or salted with
chopped herbs.

Crottins de Chavignol
Tiny, farmhouse hard, dry cheeses with black or gray-brown moldy rinds . Overwhelmingly sharp and salty when fully aged and possibly even revolting to most. The name imeans 'horse-droppings'. There is a milder, factory-made version which is rather more approachable. Protected by an appellation d' origine.


Dauphin
Small washed-rind cheeses flavored variously with pepper, cloves, tarragon and parsley. It has a firm brownish rind and strong spicy flavor. Ripened between three and four months. Made in Flanders.

Delice de Saint-Cyr
Rich, mild, triple-cream cheese with white rind. Ripened for three weeks. Factory-made in the Ile de France.

Demi-Sel
A smooth, white, factory-made, fresh rennet-curd cheese from pasteurized milk.



Dreux
Rich, fruity cheese with white rind spotted with red and wrapped in chestnut leaves. Made from partly skimmed milk in small dairies

Echourgnac
Mild, pale yellow, monastery-made cheese from Aquitaine with tiny holes. Pressed and uncooked with a straw colored washed rind. Also called Trappiste d'Echourgnac.

Emmental Francais
More Emmental is made in France than Switzerland, made mostly in factories, in Franche Comte and Savoie from raw and pasteurized milk. Aged between two and six months. The best is the matured cheese from mountain areas. See Switzerland (Eramental)

Entrammes
Pressed, uncooked, monastery-made cheese from the Abbaye d'Entrammes, Maine, whose cheeses were once sold as 'Port-Salut' until the monks sold the name to a commercial enterprise. See Port-du-Salut

Epoisses
Smooth, pungent, washed-rind cheese made in Burgundy. Spicy, tangy and occasionally also flavored with black pepper, cloves or fennel. It has a rich orange-red rind which is washed either in white wine or eau-de-vie-de-marc (a job which was at one time allocated to orphans or other children dependent on public welfare). Sold after one to three months' ripening. Also used in the local Fromage Fort.

Esbareich
Pressed, uncooked Bearnaise ewes' milk cheese, ripened for three months.

Excelsior
A double-cream Normandy cheese with white rind , very smooth, mild and delicate.

Explorateur
Rich triple-cream cheese made in small dairies in the departement
of Seine-et-Marne. Almost odorless with a light rind of snowy white mold. Mild flavor. Ripened for three weeks.

Feuille de Dreux see Dreux

Fin-de-Siecle
Double-cream cheese like Excelsior from the Pays de Bray.

Fondu au Raisin
Processed cheese made mostly from Emmental and impressed on the surface with toasted grape pips. Also called Fondu au Marc, Tomme au Raisin.

Fontainebleau
Very light, factory-made, unsalted fresh cheese. White and airy it uses whole pasteurized milk mixed with whipped cream. Served for dessert with sugar, fruit

Fontal
Cheese very similar to Italian Fontina . Made mostIy in eastern France, especially along the Italian border.

Fougeru
A type of Coulommiers ripened in fronds of bracken.

Fourme d'Ambert
A rough brown-gray crust on a lightly pressed creamy white cheese marbled with dark blue-.green veins.. The is should be smooth and fairly moist, tasting rich and bitey not bitter. Protected by an appellation d'origine.


Fourme de Rochefort
Similar to Cantal. Made on mountain farms in the Auvergne.



Fromage Blanc
Fresh rennet-curd cheese made from skimmed or whole cows' milk and with varying fat content. Used a great deal in cooking. It can also be eaten as it is with sugar or seasoned with spices and herbs.

Fromage a la Creme
Frontage Blanc coated with cream.


Fromage Fondu
The generic term for processed cheese with a minimum fat content of 40 per cent and a maximum moisture content of 50 per cent. Processed cheese with a similar fat content but a maximum moisture content of 56 per cent must be described as fromage d tartiner or fromage pour tartine.

Fromage Fort
This is a preparation usually based on dessert cheese that is too old to eat normally. These cheeses are mashed up with various spices, alcohol often white wine or eau-de-vie grape must, oil and herbs, sealed in jars and steeped, , for varying amounts of time. The longer the fermentation period the stronger the flavor but even the mildest of them are impossibly sharp, especially for novices. For locals it is a case of the stronger the better. Eaten after meals or as a snack with a tot of some equally explosive beverage. Different cheeses are used in different parts of the country: goat cheeses in Lyonnais, Cachat in Provence,


Fromage Frais
Fresh unripened white acid- or rennet-curd cheese with varying fat content. . There are also double- and triple-cream fresh cheeses which must have a minimum fat content of 60 and 75 per cent respectively. They should all be eaten as soon as possible after buying.


Fromage a la Pie
Fresh cheese made from skimmed or partly skimmed cows' milk. In the Ile de France a term for an unripened Brie or Coulommiers.


Gaperon (Gapron)
Shaped like an upturned basin, a lightly pressed cheese made from skimmed milk or buttermilk. Flavored with garlic or sometimes peppercorns. Ripened for about two months.

Gerome
Washed-rind cheese similar to Munster. Made in the Vosges mostly from pasteurized milk. Sometimes flavored with cumin seeds and sold as Gerome Anise.

Gien
Farmhouse cheese using goats' milk or a mixture of cows' and goats' milk. It has a dry, blue-gray rind and is sometimes wrapped in plane-tree or chestnut leaves. It may also be ripened in wood ash.

Gournay
A type of small Camembert from the Pays de Bray, ripened for no more than a week. The rind has a light down and the flavor is fairly mild. Strictly speaking this is G ourn ay Affin6; Boursin is an industrialized fresh version.

Gracay
Flattened cone-shaped cheese with a natural charcoal-covered rind. It has a mild goaty smell, with a medium flavor and a white body. Ripened for about six weeks. From the Arnon valley.


Grand Rustique
Soft cheese with white rind made from unpasteurized milk. The body is buttery yellow , light and airy with a delicate flavor. Looks like a small Brie and
sometimes sold as a Camembert non pasteurisd.

Grataron
Pressed, uncooked, tangy cheese from Savoie. Dull brown washed rind, smooth paste.

Gris de Lille
A type of Maroilles, extremely strong and pungent, ripened twice as long. Made in Flanders. Also called Vieux Lille, Maroilles Gris, Puant de Lille, Puant Macere.

Gruyere
Gruyere in France is not one cheese but three--Emmental, Beaufort and Comt6 of which Beaufort is perhaps closest in appearance and flavor to the authentic Swiss Gruyere. See Beaufort, Comtd, Emmental; Switzerland (Gruyere)

Heilitz-le-Maurupt
Smooth, spicy cheese ripened in wood ash for about two months. Made from partly skimmed milk.

Igny
A Saint-Paulin type made from unpasteurized milk. Also called Abbaye d'Igny, Trappiste d'Igny.

Laguiole
Thebody is smooth, light straw yellow in color, with a full fruity flavor. The rind is dry, hard and grayish-white to dark gray. Normally aged for about three months, although particularly good specimens are sometimes ripened for a further three months to produce a strong robust flavor. Protected by an appellation d'origine.

Langres
Small yellowy brown, washed-rind cheese shaped like a sunken drum, made in Champagne. Strong and spicy.

Larron d'Ors
A type of MaroiUes made from partly skimmed milk. Quick ripening, about six to seven weeks. Strong-smelling and tangy.

Laruns
Pressed, firm Pyrenean cheese ripened for two months for table use and longer, up to six months, for cooking. Odorless but with a full sheepy flavor.

Laumes
Rare Burgundy washed-rind cheese. During the three-month ripening the rind is washed with water and occasionally with white wine or coffee, giving it a smoky flavor.

Levroux
Mild cheese similar to Valensay, like a flattened pyramid.

Lezay
From Poitou, cheese with a smooth medium-flavored white paste and a semi-hard creamy skin.

Liverot
One of the great Normandy cheeses . A washed-rind cheese with an assertive flavor and aroma, made from a mixture of skimmed and whole milk. Ripened in a warm, humid, unventilated environment for about three months. The rind should be a smooth, shiny brown and just moist, neither too dry nor too sticky. The body should be golden and fairly springy. Avoid cheeses that are runny or sunken in the middle. . Protected by an appellation d'origine.

Lormes
Small blue-gray flattened cone with a delicate, pleasant flavor. Similar to Valenqay.

Lorraine
A type of Chevre but sold after only a month's ripening.

Lucullus
A term used for several triple-cream cheeses with white rind flora. See Boursault

Lusignan
Small, mild Chevre, barely ripened (about one to two weeks). Creamy and smooth, pure white in color.

Magnum
Triple-cream cheese from the Pays de Bray. Aged about three weeks. Similar to Brillat-Savarin, Excelsior.

Mamirolle
Made in Franche Cormte from pasteurized milk, a lightly pressed, washed-rind cheese. Reminiscent of German Limburger but milder

Maroilles
The base point of Flemish washed-rind cheeses.. The rind is reddish with a light damp sheen and should not be too sticky or too dry. Thebody is a smooth pale yellow and. while certainly tangy, is rather more subtle in flavor than other similar cheeses. It should not be bitter or chalky in texture. The aroma l is strong but should not smell of ammonia. Eaten as a dessert cheese and used to make Fromage Fort. Protected by an appellation d' origine.

Meilleraye, La
Semi-hard pressed cows' milk cheese from Brittany.

Monsieur Fromage
Rich, delicate double-cream cheese from Normandy. It has a thick white rind and a creamy velvety yellow body with a fruity flavor. Eaten fresh after six weeks' ripening or aged a little more so that the rind becomes slightly spotted with reddish patches

Mont-des-Cats
Monastery-made in Flanders. Similar to Saint-Paulin.

Montoire
Farmhouse cheese from the Loire valley. Small, blue-gray flattened cone with a mild goaty aroma and mellow flavor.

Montrachet
Sm all cylindrical Chevre goat cheese ripened for about a week in vine or chestnut leaves and sold still wrapped in leaves. From the departement of Saene-et-Loire in Burgundy.

Montreal
A kind of Epoisses made on a small scale in the Serein valley.

Montresor
A goat cheese similar to Sainte-Maure.

Montsegur
Factory-made,bland pressed cheese from Ariege in the foothills of the Pyrenees. It has a thin washed rind, artificially blackened. Sometimes pepper flavored.

Morbier
The pale yellow smooth body is divided horizontally by a band of blue-black soot or powdered charcoal. Traditionally the cheese was made partly from morning milk and partly from evening milk coagulated separately. The layer of soot protected the morning curds until the evening curds were placed on top. A mellow cheese, virtually odorless, with a light gray dry rind. Ripened for two to three months. Best in spring.

Mothe-Saint-H6ray, La
One of several fine goat cheeses made in avariety of shapesin the Poitevin town of the same name. It is ripened for a couple of weeks between layers of vine- or plane-tree leaves and has a fairly pronounced flavor and a smooth white rind. Also called Fromage de la Mothe, Mothals, Chevre h la Feuille.

Munster
First made by Irish monks who settled in Alsace and the Vosges in the 7th century. The cheese is red-skinned and very spicy and tangy with an emphatic aroma like all washed-rind cheeses. The body is yellow rich and creamy The ripening period is one to three months depending on the size of the cheese. Protected by an appellation d'origine.


Mur de Barez
Rare cheese made from goats' milk whey.

Murol
A mild, pressed, wheel cheese with a small hole in the middle. The washed rind is pinkish-brown and fairly tough. Made with pasteurized milk in the Auvergne. A variation of Saint-Nectaire, also called Grand Murols

Nantais
A pressed, uncooked cheese with a full flavor and pronounced smell. Golden, light brown, rubbery rind. Usually made from pasteurized milk.

Neufchatel
Famous rich creamy cheese eaten fresh or ripened from the Pays de Bray, Normandy. The curds are finely milled, making the consistency particularly smooth and homogeneous. Fresh Neufch&tel is white with a faint sourish lactic flavor and a white rind.. Protected by an appellation d'origine.

Niolo
Farm-made in the mountains of Corsica, a strong, fairly coarse, tangy, ewes' milk cheese (occasionally made with goats' milk). It has a dull, whitish, brine-washed rind and a yellowy body ripening after three months' . Also eaten fresh and mild.

Noyers-le-Val
Low-fat, fairly strong, firm cheese ripened in ashes for two to three months. From Argonne, between Lorraine and Cham-pagne. Produced seasonally in summer and autumn on farms to coincide with harvest and the vendange (grape-gathering). Extremely rare. Also called Cendr6 d'Argonne.


Oelenberg
Gentle cheese with an elastic golden yellow paste and a smooth, supple rind. Ripened for two months. Made all year round, initially in the monastery of Oelenberg in Alsace and now in small dairies in the area. Also called Trappiste d'Oelenberg.


Olivet Bleu
A light, flavored cheese reminiscent of Coulommiers. The white rind has a blue mold tinge that grows naturally during the one-month ripening period. Sold wrapped in leaves. There is also an Olivet Cendre, cured for three months in the ashes of vine stems and has a much stronger flavor. Olivet au Foin is ripened in hay.

Oloron
Pressed, semi-hard sheeps' milk cheese made in the Basque country. Ready to eat when it is young and mild or aged, when it develops a bit of a bite.

Orrys, Les
Pressed, uncooked, full-flavored cheese once made with sheep's' milk. Has a smooth yellow body and is reminiscent of Italian Fontina.



Ossau-Iraty-Brebis Pyrenees
This is the old original Pyrenean sheeps milk cheese made in Bearn and the Basque provinces . Lightly pressed, uncooked with a yellow elastic body sprinkled with smalluneven eyes. The rind is smooth orange to brown, the flavor mild to full according to how long it was ripened. Ripened for at least three months. Protected by an appellation d'origine.



Ourde
Ewes' milk cheese similar to Esbareich. Made in Languedoc.



Parthenay
Soft, fresh goats' milk cheese from Poitou.

Passe l'An
A copy of Italian Orana cheese. Made from pasteurized skimmed milk

Patay
Similar to Olivet. Blued naturally or ripened in wood ash.

Paye d'Auge
Washed-rind cheese which looks like a much larger Pont l'Eveque. Firm yellow body with lots of small oval holes. Tends to be a bit bitter. It has a thick tough dark orange rind spotted with white mold.Ripened for two to four months. Made in the Pays d'Auge.

Pave Blesois
Fairly large goats' milk cheese. Usually coated in wood ash.


Paye de Valenqay
A chevre similar to an ordinary Valencay


Perail, Peral
Fresh sheep's milk cheese ripened on straw. From Rouergue.



Petit-Suisse
Fresh double-cream cheese made with pasteurized milk. Unsalted, very bland, with a moist, almost watery consistency. Made all over France. There is also a triple-cream version.

Picadou
A form of Cabecou made from sheeps' or goats' milk and wrapped
in leaves· Very strong·flavor· See Rocamadour

Picodon de Dieulefit ~ ½ 45% O 750 (2½oz) From Dauphin& Ripened for two months and then steeped for a subsequent month in a vat of white wine.
Picodon de Saint-Agr~ve ~ .~) 45% O 1000 (3½oz)
Quick-ripened sharpish small goat cheese from Vivarais.

Pierre-qui-Vire
Washed-rind tangy cheese from the Benedictine monastery of La Pierre-qui-Vire, Burgundy. Smelly with a pinkish-red smooth rind. Can be eaten fresh. Similar to Epoisses.

Pierre-sur-Haute
Blue-veined cheese similar to Fourme d'Ambert and also made in the Auvergne.

Pipo Crem'
Semi-soft log-shaped blue-veined cheese similar to Bleu de Bresse.


Poivre d'Auvergne
Recently invented cheese with a smooth, dense, pale yellow paste and a hard, black, shiny, artificial rind. Creamy, mild and flavored with crushed black peppercorns.

Pont l'Eveque
Made mostly on farms from unpasteurized milk, although with some factory production . It is a soft, rich, golden-yellow cheese with a rind that is yellowy gold or light tan depending on the finishing. During the two-month ripening period the rind may be brine-washed or simply brushed.. The aroma is strong but not offensive and the flavor rich and tangy without being sharp or bitter. Larger versions (Pave de Moyaux, Pave d'Auge) are ripened for four to six months and are considerably stronger. Avoid cheeses where the rind is hard or cracked. Protected by an appellation d'origine.

Port-du-Salut, Port-Salut
The paradigm for a monastery cheese, lightly pressed with a golden washed rind and smooth, springy, semi-soft body. The flavor is full and mellow with a slight bite. Por t-du-Salut originated in the early 19th century at the abbey of Entrammes near Lavalin the departement of Mayenne. In 1815 a group of Trappists, returning from exile in Switzerland, used of the abbey, which they renamed L'Abbaye de Notre Dame de Port-du-Salut. They made cheeses, influenced by the Swiss , became well-known under the description of Port-du-Salut. This trade-mark was sold after World War II to a commercial enterprise but the monks continued making their own cheeses, sold under the name of the abbey, Entrammes.

Pouligny-Saint-Pierre
Pyramid-shaped with a natural blue-gray rind and a tangy bite. Ripened four weeks, sometimes wrapped in leaves. Protected by an appellation d'origine.

Pourly
Delicate-flavored goat cheese made in small dairies in Burgundy. It has a blue-gray natural rind,
and a smooth white body. Ripened for afour weeks.

Poustagnae
Fresh cheese made from cows', ewes', or goats' milk and flavored with peppercorns or pimiento. From Les Landes.


Pyrenees
Two types of cheese are sold under this designation. One is a factory-made cows' milk cheese, with a shiny black thin rind and a firm springy yellow body speckled with lots of small eyes. The flavor is mild . The other is asheep's milk cheese with a firm golden orange rind, a very smooth dense body with few eyes and a tart bite.


Rebloehon
Cheese from the mountains of Haute-Savoie,
Reblochon uses the pasteurized or unpasteurized milk of local cows and is made by farms, and large
dairies. It is a lightly pressed, scalded cheese with a supple creamy body and firm pinkish-brown washed rind. The flavor is mild, but it gets bitter as it ages. Usually ripened for about five weeks. Sold between two paper-thin wooden disks. . Protected by an appellation d'origine.



Riceys, Les
Made in Champagne from skimmed milk and ripened in the ashes of vine stems for one to two months. Fairly strong.

Rigotte
Cheese made in Lyonnais and the Auvergne
from cows' milk or a mixture of cows' and goats' milk. ripened for no more than a couple of weeks. Fairly mild to tangy in flavor depending on the milk and the finishing. Some are ripened naturally, some steeped in white wine or oil. Some are artificially colored.

Rocamadour
Cheeses made in Aquitaine from sheeps' or goats' milk and
ripened for one week. The same cheeses wrapped in leaves and
aged for a further period in earthenware pots become very strong and pungent that are known as Picadou.

Rochefort see Fourme de Rochefort


Roeroi
Square or disk-shaped farmhouse cheese made from skimmed milk in Champagne. Ripened in wood ash for one to two months. Strong to very strong depending on age.

Rogeret des CEvennes
Tangy cheese with a strong goaty smell, made in Languedoc in summer and autumn. Ripened for about a month. The reddish skin is artificially colored

Roilot
Round or heart-shaped washed-rind cheese from Picardy. Soft and supple with a smooth· moist, orange-red surface, it is strong-smelling and has a pronounced tang. Ripened for two months.



Roquefort
Roquefort is made from the milk of the Larzac breed of sheep and ripened in the caves of Combalou. Some cheeses made from Corsican milk are brought to the same caves to be ripened, extending the availability of the cheeses over virtually a whole year. The caves, with currents of air known as fleurines, provide ideal conditions for the development of the mold, now known as Penicillium roquefortii. This mold, originally grew naturally,but is now induced by being sprinkled on the curds as they are ladled into the molds. The cheeses are pierced with steel needles during the three-month ripening period. The cheeses are closely wrapped in foil so that the cheese has no rind. The veins are evenly distributed throughout the cheese and the body is creamy white and almost buttery.
Exported Roqueforts tend to be oversalted to improve their keeping qualities.

Rouy
Like a small Munster. factory-made in Burgundy.

Ruffec
Poitevin goat cheese which develops a natural dry bluish rind after one month's ripening. It has a smooth, glossy and fairly mild body. Sometimes eaten fresh.

Sableau
Fresh white triangular cheese from Poitou. Moist and mildly "goaty"


Saint-Benoit
Farmhouse-made from partly skimmed milk in Orleans. Pale yellow with a tang. Ripened two to four weeks.

Saint-Claude see Chevret

Saint-Florentin
Washed-rind cheese from Burgundy similar to Epoisses. It has a rich.reddish color, a strong smell and a spicybite.

Saint Gelais
Farmhouse chevre similar to Chabichou, from Poitou.


Saint-Lizier
A type of Bethmale made in AriEge. Also called Saint-Girons.

Saint-Maixent
Poitevin cheese with a natural blue-gray rind, strong flavor and a penetrating goaty smell. Ripened six weeks.

Saint-Marcellin
Used to be made with goats' milk but now a cows' milk cheese from Dauphine. Mild and unpressed. The rind is thin and covered with a light blue mold. Sometimes wrapped in chestnut leaves.

Sainte-Marie
Fresh white rennet-curd cheese from Burgundy. Very bland.

Sainte-Maure
A soft and creamy cheese with a full goaty flavor. Crusted with a downy white rind tinged with pink. Farmhouse cheeses place a length of straw through the center of the cheese (not always present in the factory-made variety). There is also a Sainte-Maure Cendre

Saint-Nectaire
From the Dore mountain in the Auvergne, . Pressed for 24 hours and ripened on rye straw for two months. The rind shows patches of red, yellow and white molds. It has a firm, golden body with a mild flavor. . . Protected by an appellation d'origine.

Saint-Paulin
A factory-made offshoot of Port-du-Salut made from pasteurized milk throughout the year all over France. It has a smooth, bright orange rind and a buttery yellow interior. A pressed uncooked cheese, it is ripened for about two months and has a mild, bland flavor. Also made in other countries.

Saint-Remy
Lightly pressed washed-rind cheese . It has a brown rind, springy pale yellow body, and a tangy flavor.


Sancerre
Small goats' milk cheese made in Berry.




Savaron
Made from pasteurized milk in the Auvergne. A pressed, uncooked cheese

Selles sur Cher
Sweet, nutty cheese from Berry, ripened for three weeks and covered with powdered charcoal and salt. The surface is grayish-black and the body is white and smooth.. Pro-tected by an appellation d'origine.

Sernussac
Small, rich, creamy fresh cows' milk cheese from Aquitaine.


Sospel
A cows' milk cheese from Nice, like a huge Tomme de Savoie.

Soumaintrain
Washed-rind farmhouse cheese from Burgundy. Ripened for six to eight weeks. Wwhite and creamy.

Tamie
A Savoyard monastery cheese made near Annecy. Pressed and uncooked with a reddish brown washed rind, an elastic yellow body gentle flavor and aroma. Also called Trappiste de Tamiff.

Tartare
Herb-flavored factory-produced soft cheese made in Perigord
from pasteurized cows' milk.

Thiviers
Small goats' cheese similar to Cabecou.



Tomme des Allues
Made from goats' milk in the Tarentaise mountains of Savoie. A pressed, uncooked, mild cheese


Tomme de Belleville
Pressed, uncooked cheese inade in Savoie, from skimmed milk.



Tommc de Champsaur
Soft goats' milk cheese from Dauphine

Tomme de Combovin
Mild cheese from Dauphin ripened for a month. It has a blue-gray rind and a smooth white body.


Tomme Fralche
Unripened Cantal or Laguiole. . Also called Tomme d'Aligot.

Tomme au Marc
The authentic Tomme au Marc is an unpasteurized, pressed cheese made from partly skimmed milk. I t is ripened for a total of six months partly in vats of fermented grape marc. Has an overpowering flavor with a smell to match.
Tomme au Raisin, is the processed version of this cheese.



Tomme de Saycie
Generic term for the countless semi-hard, pressed cows' milk cheeses made in Savoie from whole or partly skimmed milk. They are firm, smooth cheeses with a yellowy body and a dry moldy rind varying in color from grayish-white to pinky brown. Mild and nutty

Toupin
Pressed cooked cheese from Savoie, ripened for four to eight months. Gray rind full-flavored yellow body.


Trouville
A type of rare, expensive farmhouse Pont l'EvOque.


Vacherin des Beauges
Soft washed-rind cheese made in Sayoie . . Ripened for three months, it has a pale pinkish-brown rind t and a gentle spicy flavor. Bound with a strip of spruce bark and boxed. Also called Vacherin d'AiJlons.

Vacherln Mont-d'Or
Made in Franche Comte, similar to Vacherin des Beauges. The larger cheeses are generally superior to the smaller ones. Cheese experts recommend removing the whole rind and scooping out the body of a ripe Vacherin with a spoon. Also made in Switzerland.

Valencay
A flattened pyramid shape with a deep blue-gray surface covered with wood ash. Ripencd for about five weeks, the body is smooth and white with a gentle barnyard flavor.
Valenvay Laitier, the commercial version.is made all year . Ripened for a shorter time and coarser and stronger than the farmhouse type.



Vermenton
Rare, small, cone-shaped goat cheese from Burgundy.


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