Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Mechanical Engineering

 

2.55: Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer

Course Information

Fall Term 2003

 

 

I.  Credit and Content

 

2.55 is a 12-unit H-level subject serving as the Mechanical Engineering department's core graduate course in heat and mass transfer.  This course is open to students from all areas of engineering, although an undergraduate background in heat transfer will be assumed.  This class is an appropriate preparation for the doctoral qualifying exam.

 

Topics to be covered include: diffusion kinetics, conservation laws, some heat conduction, laminar and turbulent convection, mass transfer including phase change or heterogeneous reactions, and basic thermal radiation.  Problems and examples will include theory and applications drawn from a spectrum of engineering design and manufacturing problems.

 

 

II. CLASSES

 

Lectures:       Monday and Wednesday from 11.00 AM to 12:30 PM in Room 1-246

     

Tutorial:         Wednesday from 3:00 PM to 4:00 PM in Room 1-371

 

Lecturer:        Professor B. Mikic       mikic@mit.edu          3-166   253-2242

 

T.A.:             Fiona McClure             fmcclu@mit.edu       31-159  253-5329

                     Office Hours:                Monday from 2:00 PM to 4:00 PM in Room 31-156

 

Email:            Please add yourself to the class e-mail list for various important announcements (NO JUNK MAIL).  The list is called "2.55" and you can add yourself using mailmaint or by visiting the website https://ca.mit.edu/moira/index.jhtml and following the instructions there.

                                                                                        

Textbook:      Heat Transfer (2nd Edition) by A. F. Mills (Prentice Hall, 1998).  Available at The Coop.


 

III. EXAMS AND GRADING

 

The course grade will be based on two midterm exams (25% each) and a final exam (50%).  The tests will be open book unless otherwise announced.

 

The exam dates are as follows:

 

            Quiz 1:  Wednesday, October 8

 

            Quiz 2:  Wednesday, November 17

 

            Final Exam:  December 15-19 final exam period, time and place TBA.

 

Homework Problems:

 

A set of ten homework problems will be assigned during the course.  In addition, three sets of review questions will be handed out before the exams. You should work all these problems carefully as they are an essential aid to learning the material.  Some of these problems will be worked in the tutorials and attempting the problems before the tutorial is strongly recommended.

 

 

IV.  PREREQUISITES

 

Students entering this course should have had undergraduate classes in heat transfer, thermodynamics, and fluid mechanics corresponding to 2.51, 2.40, and 2.20.  A graduate level background in mathematics will be assumed.  Some specific areas you should have seen previously include:

 

Mathematics:  Vector calculus, first and second-order ODEs, linear PDEs solved via separation of variables and Fourier series.

Heat Transfer:  One-dimensional steady and unsteady heat conduction, fins, elementary laminar and turbulent convection, natural convection and condensation, heat exchangers, simple blackbody and gray body radiation.

Fluid Mechanics:  Elementary viscous flow including Couette flow, boundary layers and tube flows; transition Reynolds number and concepts of turbulence; skin friction and pressure drop calculations.

Thermodynamics: Concept of an equation of state; first law; phase transitions.

 

If you have gaps in a few of these areas, it shouldn't prevent you from doing well in this class; if a large fraction of this is new to you, consider taking 2.51.

 


V.  Lecture Schedule

 

Lect.#         Date                      Topics                                      Readings                                 

 

    1       Wed.    Sep. 3              Introduction and                       Mills: 5.7

                                                Conservation Equations            Lienhard:  2.1, 7.3

                                                                                                White:  1.3-1.4, Ch. 2 

 

    2       Mon.    Sep. 8              Conservation Equations           

                                                                                               

 

    3       Wed.    Sep. 10            Conservation Equations           

                                                and Gas Kinetics                      Vincenti & Kruger:  Ch. 1, 2

 

    4       Mon.    Sep. 15            Gas Kinetics

 

    5       Wed.    Sep. 17            Conduction                               Mills:  2.4.4, 3.1-3.5

                                                                                                Lienhard:  Chapter 5

 

            Mon.   Sep. 22            Student Holiday – no classes

 

    6       Wed.    Sep. 24            Conduction (cont.)

 

    7       Mon.    Sep. 29            Laminar Boundary Layers         Mills:  4.2, 4.3.2, 5.4, 5.8.1

                                                                                                Lienhard:  7.1-7.5

                                                                                                White:  3.5, 3.8, 4.1-4.3,

                                                                                                            4.10-4.10.1, 4.12,

                                                                                                            7.1-7.3

                                                                                                K & C:  Ch. 8, 10

 

    8       Wed.    Oct. 1              Laminar Boundary Layers (cont.)

 

    9       Mon.    Oct. 6              Laminar Boundary Layers (cont.)

 

             Wed.   Oct. 8              Quiz 1

 

             Mon.   Oct. 13            Columbus Day – Holiday

 

   10      Wed.    Oct. 15            Laminar Internal Flows             Mills:  4.3.1, 5.3

                                                                                                Lienhard:  8.1-8.2

                                                                                                White:  3.1-3.4, 4.9

                                                                                                K & C: Ch. 7, 9

 

   11      Mon.    Oct. 20            Natural Convection                   Mills:  4.4, 5.4.5, 5.8.1

                                                                                                Lienhard:  9.1-9.4

                                                                                                Bejan:  Ch. 4

 

   12      Wed.    Oct. 22            Natural Convection (cont.)       

 

   13      Mon.    Oct. 27            Turbulence                               Mills:  5.5

                                                                                                White:  6.1-6.7, 6.10

                                                                                                K & C:  Ch. 5, 11-14

 

   14      Wed.    Oct. 29            Turbulence (cont.)

 

   15      Mon.    Nov. 3             Turbulence (cont.)

 

   16      Wed.    Nov. 5             Condensation                           Mills:  7.2

                                                                                                Lienhard:  9.5

             Mon.   Nov. 10           Veterans Day – Vacation

 

   17      Wed.             Nov. 12                 Boiling                                                           Mills:  7.4

                                                                                                Lienhard:  10.1-10.4

 

             Mon.   Nov. 17           Quiz 2

    

   18      Wed.    Nov. 19           Boiling (cont.)

 

   19      Mon.    Nov. 24           Radiation                                  Mills:  Ch. 6

                                                                                                Lienhard:  Ch. 11

                                                                                                Edwards:  Ch. 1-3

 

   20      Wed.    Nov. 26           Radiation (cont.)

 

   21      Mon.    Dec.  1             Radiation (cont.)

 

   22      Wed.    Dec.  3             Mass Transfer

 

   23      Mon.    Dec.  8             Mass Transfer (cont.)

 

   24      Wed.    Dec. 10            Mass Transfer (cont.)

 

            Dec. 15 – Dec. 19         Final Exam (time and place to be announced)

 

 


IV.  REFERENCE MATERIALS

 

Heat Transfer, A. F. Mills, 1998 (Prentice Hall).  TJ260.M52 1998

 

Heat and Mass Transfer, A.F.Mills, 1995 (Irwin). TJ260M518 1995

 

A Heat Transfer Textbook, J. H. Lienhard, 2nd edition, 1987 (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs).  TJ260.L445

 

Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics, Vincenti & Kruger, (Kiley & Sons).  QC168.V775

 

Viscous Fluid Flow, F. M. White, 2nd edition, 1991 (McGraw Hill, NYC).  QA929.W48

 

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, W. M. Kays and M. E. Crawford, 3rd edition, 1993 (McGraw Hill, NYC).  QC327.K37

 

Convective Heat Transfer, A. Bejan, 1984 (John Wiley & Sons).  QC327.B48

 

Radiation Heat Transfer Notes, D. K. Edwards, 1981 (Hemisphere: Washington).  TJ260.E318

 

Conduction Heat Transfer, V. S. Arpaci, Abridged Edition, 1991 (Ginn Press, Nedham Heights, MA).  (TJ260.A772).

 

 

V.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND UNITS

 

 

Table 1:  Physical Constants for 2.55

 

            Stefan-Bolzmann constant, s                5.6697 ´ 10-8 W/m2K4

            Ideal gas constant, R0                            8314.3 J/kgmol·K

            Bolzmann's constant, kB                        1.3805 ´ 10-23 J/K

            Avogadro's number, NA                        6.022045 ´ 1026 molecules/kgmole

 

 


Table 2:  Selected Conversion Factors

 

Dimension                                 SI                     =          multiplier           ´          Other Unit

 

Density                                     kg/m3                =            16.018            ´          lbm/ft3

                                                kg/m3                =                 103            ´          g/cm3

 

Diffusivity                                 m2/s                  =         0.092903            ´          ft2/s

                                                m2/s                  =                 10-6            ´          centistokes

 

Energy                                      J                       =           1055.04            ´          Btu

                                                J                       =            4.1868            ´          cal

 

Flow Rate                                 m3/s                  =   1.6667 ´ 10-5            ´          lpm

                                                m3/s                  =   6.3090 ´ 10-5            ´          gal/min (gpm)

                                                m3/s                  = 4.7195 ´ 10-4              ´          ft3/min (cfm)

 

Heat Flux                                  W/m2                =              3.154            ´          Btu/hr·ft2

 

Heat transfer coefficient            W/m2K             =            5.6786            ´          Btu/hr·ft2°F

 

Length                                      m                     =            0.0254            ´          inches

                                                m                     =            0.3048            ´          feet

 

Power                                      W                     =         0.022597            ´          ft·lbf/min

                                                W                     =           0.29307            ´          Btu/hr

                                                W                     =           745.700            ´          hp

 

Pressure                                   Pa                    =              248.8            ´          in. H2O (@60°F)

                                                Pa                    =            6894.8            ´          psi

                                                Pa                    =            101325            ´          atm

 

Specific Heat Capacity              J/kg·K              =            4186.9            ´          Btu/lbm·°F

                                                J/kg·K              =            4186.8            ´          cal/g·°C

 

Temperature                             K                     =                  5/9            ´          °R

                                                K                     =                         °C + 273.15

                                                K                     =                      (°F + 459.67)/1.8

 

Thermal Conductivity                 W/m·K             =            1.7397            ´          Btu/hr·ft°F

                                                W/m·K             =            418.68            ´          cal/s·cm°C

 

Viscosity (absolute)                   Pa·s                  =                 10-3            ´          centipoise

                                                Pa·s                  =            1.4881            ´          lbm/fts

                                                Pa·s                  =           47.8803            ´          lbf·s/ft2